Life Science BSC1005 Chapter 8, 9, 10

question

The standard classification system used by biologists today groups and classifies organisms on the basis of similar physical traits. This system was first developed by Carl Linnaeus. At the time of his work, there were other methods for grouping organisms that were based on similar habitats, similar diets, or similar behaviors. Why is Linnaeus’s system the most useful one to biologists today?
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Classifying on the basis of shared traits points out the underlying evolutionary relationships among organisms.
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What aspect of the geology of the Galápagos was important in producing the diversity of organisms seen by Darwin?
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B) the islands are in a chain
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In laboratories that study the origin of life, what is the furthest step that has been achieved?
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the production of self-replicating RNA
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What have scientists learned from experiments designed to test the hypothesis that life arose from nonliving material?
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Life could have formed spontaneously on Earth from nonliving material.
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What does the fossil record tell us about hominids?
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Hominins were a diverse group of primate species of which modern humans are the only surviving group.
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What starting material would be required to produce simple organic molecules from nonliving materials?
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carbon dioxide(CO2), ammonia(NH4), methane(CH4), and phosphates.
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How do fossils support the theory of common descent?
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They are a record of at least some intermediate types of organisms and thus document the process of evolution.
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What was Lamarck’s idea about how organisms changed?
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He proposed that body parts increased or decreased as a result of extra use or disuse.
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Which of the following is an example of microevolution?
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HIV evolved resistance to antiviral medications.
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Which of the following is what scientists mean when they use the term theory?
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a set of findings that are supported by repeated testing
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Which of the following types of RNA carries amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain?
answer

tRNA
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A sequence of mRNA, called a codon, reads ACU. How will the set of nucleotides on the anticodon of the tRNA read?
answer

UGA
question

Which of the following regulation techniques will result in increased gene expression?
answer

lengthening the adenosine nucleotide \”tail\”
question

Which of the following statements is accurate?
answer

The plasmid is cut with the same restriction enzyme as the removed gene.
question

Which of the following statements concerning rBGH-treated milk is correct?
answer

The injected cows produce 20% more milk. There is no evidence of the hormone being transferred to the milk. Humans would be able to safely digest the hormone, just like any other protein in food. All of the statements are correct.
question

Which of the following was used to treat SCID patients?
answer

somatic gene therapy
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Which of the following statements is incorrect?
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Specialized stem cells divide to make undifferentiated stem cells.
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When scientists try to replace defective human genes with functional genes they are performing
answer

gene therapy
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What is happening in step 1 in this figure?
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The nucleus is removed from the egg cell.
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When undergoing recombination, _______.
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the recombinant plasmid is inserted in bacterium, making large quantities of rBGH proteins
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In what way is artificial selection different from natural selection?
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In artificial selection, human preference is the selecting force; in natural selection, environmental conditions are the selecting force
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The evolution of a long neck in giraffes is an example of
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directional selection
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When a population undergoes strong selection, what happens to it?
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Any of the above can happen is response to strong selection
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How is tuberculosis transmitted?
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by droplets from the respiratory system
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What causes the disease tuberculosis?
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a particular kind of bacteria
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Evolution is:
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a process that occurs as a result of differences in reproductive fitness
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The phrase \”survival of the fittest\” is somewhat misleading because A) . B) . C) . D) it implies that humans are the proper end result of evolution. E)
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it implies that the best possible organism will evolve
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Which of the following is the most direct (or first) result of natural selection on a population?
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The frequency of some alleles changes
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You notice that some squirrels in your neighborhood have a much darker coat color than most of the other squirrels. Is this darker color an adaptation?
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The trait is only an adaptation if it gives the squirrels an advantage in their habitat
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Which of the following describes natural selection?
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A population of mammals varies in the length of their legs, water levels rise and the habitat becomes swampy, the individuals with shorter legs are better able to swim to food, the population evolves to become shorter-legged
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What causes tuberculosis?
answer

bacteria
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From 2000 to 2004, what percentage of TB cases did not respond to standard treatment?
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20%
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Which of the following is an example of artificial selection?
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horse breeding
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Which of the following statements does not cause natural selection?
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survival and reproduction are random
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What type of selection results when the average variant in the population has the highest fitness?
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stabilizing selection
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True or False: Natural selection can cause new traits to arise.
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False
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What is often the result when people stop taking their antibiotics when they feel better?
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A drug-resistant strain is born.
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Which of the following statements is not an efficient way to combat drug-resistant pathogens?
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People can evolve resistance to the pathogens.
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What type of selection is shown in this figure?
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diversifying selection
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What will the fly population look like after several generations?
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The frequency of the mutant allele will increase
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The process of copying a sequence of DNA nucleotides into a complementary sequence of RNA nucleotides is called
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transcription.
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Which type of disease condition would most likely be successfully treated by gene therapy?
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disease caused by a nonfunctional enzyme in the body
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A sequence of DNA codes for a:
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protein
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The RNA molecule that carries the sequence of nucleotides needed to determine the order of amino acids in a protein is:
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messenger RNA.
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Data from the Human Genome Project might help scientists:
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all choices are correct
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All the following are part of a DNA molecule EXCEPT:
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uracil
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The undifferentiated cells that can be used in therapeutic cloning are:
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stem cells
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A DNA molecule consists of:
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nucleotides
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Genetically modified foods have resulted in:
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rice with more Vitamin A
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The possibly harmful environmental effects of GM foods include:
answer

all choices are correct
question

Which of the following types of RNA carries amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain?
answer

tRNA
question

A sequence of mRNA, called a codon, reads ACU. How will the set of nucleotides on the anticodon of the tRNA read?
answer

UGA
question

Which of the following regulation techniques will result in increased gene expression?
answer

lengthening the adenosine nucleotide \”tail\”
question

Which of the following statements is accurate?
answer

The plasmid is cut with the same restriction enzyme as the removed gene.
question

Which of the following statements concerning rBGH-treated milk is correct? -The injected cows produce 20% more milk. – There is no evidence of the hormone being transferred to the milk. -Humans would be able to safely digest the hormone, just like any other protein in food. -All of the statements are correct.
answer

All of the statements are correct.
question

Which of the following was used to treat SCID patients? therapeutic cloning nuclear transfer somatic gene therapy germ line gene therapy
answer

somatic gene therapy
question

Which of the following statements is incorrect? Stem cells are undifferentiated. Stem cells are totipotent. Specialized stem cells divide to make undifferentiated stem cells. Stem cells can be used for therapeutic cloning.
answer

Specialized stem cells divide to make undifferentiated stem cells.
question

When scientists try to replace defective human genes with functional genes they are performing ________. gene therapy in vitro fertilization therapeutic cloning nuclear transfer
answer

gene therapy
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What is happening in step 1 in this figure? The embryo is being grown in culture. The egg cell and mammary cell are fused together. The nucleus is removed from the egg cell. The embryo is being implanted into the uterus of a third sheep.
answer

The nucleus is removed from the egg cell.
question

When undergoing recombination, _______. the plasmid and the cow gene are cut with different restriction enzymes the recombinant plasmid is reinserted into the cow’s cell to increase milk production the rBGH genes are injected into cows to increase their milk production the recombinant plasmid is inserted in bacterium, making large quantities of rBGH proteins
answer

the recombinant plasmid is inserted in bacterium, making large quantities of rBGH proteins

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