Legal PSY Midterm

Results of a study completed by Kassin & Neumann (1997), indicated that confessions resulted in a conviction rate of __________ as opposed to a rate of __________ with eyewitness testimony?
73% & 59%

As a result of a long, drawn out interrogation process, Kathryn confessed to a crime knowing that she did not commit it. This type of confession is called?
An instrumental-coerced confession

During interrogation of a suspect, openly physical brutality was _____________ prior to 1930.
Frequently used

As a result of interrogation, approximately _______________ result in damaging statements, according to research noted in the text.

Utilization of a team approach to interrogation is often referred to as?
Good cop/bad cop approach =/?

Miranda rights contain how many sections?

Police prefer a confession because?
Confessions save time

_____________% of suspects in police custody waive their rights?

The reasons why individuals waive their Miranda rights differ depending on whether they are guilty. According to the text, innocent suspects may do so because they feel there is:
Nothing to hide

After the publication of the Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement, changes in legislation resulted in the move from ________ physical abuse to ________ forms of abuse.
Overt & covert

The neutral positioning of a camera to record both suspect and interrogator is called:
Equal-focus camera perspective

The Reid technique is a form of interrogation that relies on a psychological process to glean information from a suspect. One of its steps is:
Establishing a sense of social isolation

The purpose of exculpatory scenarios is to:
To clear the path for an admission of guild, interrogators offer face-saving justifications or excuses for the crime

Approximately ____________ of suspects choose to exercise their Miranda rights.

Research outlined in the text has shown that frequency of full confessions that are produced through interrogation is within the range of:
39% & 48%

Shane was involved in a highly charged court case. His job was to provide an overview of research to assist the injury in making a well-informed decision regarding the suspect, in particular, in regards to the suspect’s confession. Shane was called in to serve in what capacity?
Expert witness

When a confession exists, juries ________ come back with a conviction.

According to the text, evidence and leads that are uncovered in a case through _________ and _________ often prove to be the tools most effective for gaining a conviction.

According to the text, approximately ____________ of wrongful convictions involve false confessions.

The ultimate goal of questioning suspects is to:
Elicit confession

Matthew became convinced that he robbed the store after an intense interrogation process. This form of false confession is called:
An authentic-coerced confession

According to Kassin et. al. (2007), suspects self-incriminate during interrogations approximately _________ of the time?

False confessions may occur as a result of:
All of these may lead to false confessions

Jilian had often suffered from a delusional behavior disorder. When brought in for questioning, she quickly confessed to a crime that she had taken no part in. The term used for this type of false confession is:
Authentic-voluntary false confession

Research in the field of social psychology has discovered that people tend to _____________ the impact of situational forces.

Beginning in the 1960’s, the use of ________ forms of coercion have been used to derive confessions.

The most commonly identified type of false confession is the:
Instrumental-coerced false confesions

Establishing in suspects a sense of social isolation during the interrogation process is used to make them feel:
Deprive the suspect of emotional support and to minimize contradictory information.

Of all the traits that can be defined as vulnerability, the most dangerous vulnerability is:

The tendency to attribute others’ behavior to dispositional causes such as personality is referred to as:
Fundamental attribution error

The theory behind the polygraph test is that:
Lying causes physiological arousal

According to research completed by Bond and DePaulo (2006), people’s ability to distinguish lies was noted as having a _____ overall rate of accuracy.

When police detectives were assessed as to their ability to detect lies, according to our text, they were ___________ likely to assess the truthfulness of video-graphed statements than were college students.

One problem with using polygraph tests as part of a criminal investigation is that:
Many polygraphs tests are not done under controlled conditions.

The control question test (CQT) posits that guilty individuals react to _____________ questions, whereas innocent individuals react to ____________ questions.
relevant & control

According to the text, the “____________ hypothesis” posits that human intelligence was accelerated by the need for humans to develop social skills related to manipulation and deception.
Machiavellian intelligence

The technique that uses systematic analysis of written statements to assess the credibility of statements related to a particular event is:
Criteria-based content analysis (CBCA)

According to the text, polygraphers are able to identify approximately _________ of guilty suspects?

Lying can best be described as:

_________ measures minute changes in the heat of the human face.
High-definition infrared thermal imaging

Criticism of the use of polygraphs is both _______ and ___________.
Ethical and scientific? =/

According to the text, an EEG reads neural impulses in _________, whereas the fMRI reads brain activity every ____________.
Continuously milliseconds & 2 seconds

According to one study, ___________ of individuals reported that squirming, glancing askance, and fidgeting were indicators of untruthfulness.

The tendency to seek out information that supports our beliefs is otherwise known as:
Confirmation bias

As with a traditional polygraph test, the guilty knowledge test (GKT) can be influenced by:
Alcohol or Drugs

Lying is considered to be an adaptive behavior from a(n)___________ point of view.

The polygraph may be used as a method to evoke:
A confession

According to one study and the text, police detectives demonstrated ______________ toward evaluating false confessions as true.

The federal Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 prohibited ___________ from administering polygraphs for the purpose of hiring a job.
Most private employers

According to the text, polygraphers fail to snare about __________ of guilty suspects and falsely accuse approximately __________ of innocent individuals.
21% & 16%

Credibility assessment is also referred to as:
Lie detection

Techniques such as the use of drugs, alcohol, and physical distractions are all examples of:
Countermeasures to polygraph testing

The ability of humans to maintain a relatively harmonious group relationship is facilitated by our capacity to ________ the truth.

The guilty knowledge test (GKT) focuses on:
Whether the suspect knows facts that one would expect that only the criminal would know.

According to research completed by Lykken (1998), when the guilty knowledge test (GKT) is used, __________ of innocent suspects were identified as guilty, while ___________ of guilty suspects were correctly classified.
96.7% & 88.2%

Polygraph testing has been excluded as evidence in court in ________ states, except under exceptional circumstances.

The guilty knowledge test (GKT) uses a multiple-choice question format. When questions are posed, __________ multiple-choice options are provided.

According to a study of college students interactions noted in the text, on average, study participants told _________ lies in about 10 minutes.

Using the polygraph for the purpose of employment are ________ than those used in criminal cases.
Less reliable

According to a study conducted by Honts, Raskin, & Kircher (1994), the use of countermeasures reduced the detection of guilty suspects by:

Physical evidence may include:
Tireprints, Soleprints, Clothingfabric, Toolsmarks, Fingerprints, Bite marks (victim or food)

Class characteristics can best be described as:
featuresthatare common to a general class or category of objects.
– A pattern of tread shared by all of a Nike woman’s shoe
– Owns shoe consistent with pattern

The text noted that jurors are more persuaded by __________ than by __________ or _________.
Finger evidence than by forensic identifications or the science behind them

“Match plus statistics”
Statement includes statistics to determine how rare or common

Individuation of trace refers to:
Sometimes used to express the conclusion that a trace found at the crime scene came from this source to the exclusion of all other sources in the world (e.g., that a fingerprint came from the left index finger of the defendant).

Biological evidence may include
Blood, saliva, semen and skin cells

Markings on a bullet are referred to as:

Alleles are:
Genetic characteristics

Biometrics is the:
Identification of an individual based on anatomical traits that can be measured

Features of fingerprints are referred to as:
Loops, whorls, and arches

Research noted in the text reveals that juries:
Jurors are too conservative in their adjustments & they have great difficulty making sense of statistical statements

Bertillon developed which of the following?

Interobserver agreements is also known as:
Interrater reliability

Temporal consistency is sometimes referred to as:
Test-retest reliability

Sir Francis Galton was an early pioneer of:

According to the text, most practitioners working with forensic science hold only:
A bachelor’s degree

Nicholas was brought in for questioning as a result of detailed police work, including fingerprints. He was “excluded” as a suspect. This means:
The fingerprints were found to be from someone else

The tendency to seek out information that supports our beliefs is known as:
Confirmation Bias

In order to reduce error and bias, a test should be “blind”, which means that:
The examination does not know if the results are correct before or during testing.

Friction ridges are:
Said to have developed through evolution

Forensic identification can best be defined as:
The process of linking physical evidence to a particular individual

A “simple match”:
Does not use statistical statements

Bullet matching results:
Comparing striations; No clear criteria for nature and quality of a match

Refers to the consistency of a measure or observation

Inclusion is another word for:

A qualitative statement is:
A subjective statement

Test-retest reliability is when:
A measure has the same results over time

Measurement valadity refers to:
Whether a technique measures what it is supposed to measure

Fingerprint examiners are required to limit their testimony to __________ of _________ conclusions.
3 of ? =/

According to the text, approximately ___________ of practitioners working with forensics have a bachelor’s degree.

Ronald Holmes devised a manner of categorizing serial killers. According to the text, he posited that there are ______ types of serial killers.

According to the text, serial killers known as ________ types are often psychotic.

The reliance on maps and mathematics to develop a view of where serial crimes are often committed is referred to as:
Geographic Profiling

The characteristics of serial killers seem to have:
Some recurring patterns

Mission-oriented types of serial killers often:
Are motivated by the desire to kill individuals they consider evil or deserving of death.

Serial killers that tend to torture their victims and kill for sadistic sexual pleasure are referred to as _________ types.

The NASH system is utilized to classify
Causes of death

Childhood maladjustments are sometimes displayed by:
Cruelty to animals

According to the text, it is hypothesized that the disorganized murderer possesses __________, whereas the organized murderer possesses____________.
Below average intelligence & at least average intelligence

Most serial killers are ________ of __________ intelligence.
White males & Average

According to the text, the attempt to examine the psychological state of an individual prior to his or her death is known as:
Psychological Autopsy

According to the text, ____________ is considered to be the first individual to develop a criminal profile when working on the Jack the Ripper case.
Dr. Thomas Bond

Many serial killers seem to prefer to use __________ methods of killing, such as __________.
Intimate; strangulation, stabbing or even torture

As a technique, profiling is still regarded as a(n) ___________ technique.
Popular or statistical

When two or more crimes are committed by the same person, it is referred to as:
Case linkage

The distinctive, personal aspect of a crime that reveals the personality of a killer is referred to as:
The signature.

Many serial killings appear to have some level of:
Violent sexual fantasies

Killers that can be described as carefully selecting their victims are referred to as:
Organized killers

When assessing for common traits among stranger rapists, Mokros and Alison (2004) found that there was _________ among criminals who committed similar crimes.
No discernable demograpic resemblance; 100 strangers; 28 characteristics

Profiles are created primarily to:
Emphasize the “signature”; Profiles result in tunnel vision; Profiles sometimes based on stereotypes

Rational thinking, in serial killers, is often:
Impaired by brain injury

Criminal profiling is aslo known as “retroclassification”, or:
Criminal investigative analysis

According to the text, there are approximately ___________ FBI specialists in the area of profiling.

The behavior of ____________ tends to be more elaborate and ritualistic than that of other killers.
Organized killers

_________ provides information that is helpful when deciding whether a person committed a crime.
Probative evidence

According to the text, it is hypothesized that the disorganized killer is more likely to __________, whereas the organized killer may be inclined to ___________.
Display minimal interest in media attention & follow media accounts of the crime

The process of drawing inferences about a suspect’s personality, behavior, motivation, and demographic characteristics based on evidence is referred to as:

According to the text, the courts have been reluctant to allow expert testimony based on psychological autopsies. However, that is NOT the case in:
Jackson v. State of Florida (1989)

The type of serial killer that receives satisfaction through controlling the victim is referred to as a:
Power-oriented killer

Killers that tend to be more impulsive and select victims more randomly are referred to as:
Disorganized killers

Automatic exemptions, for such things as being the primary caretaker for a child or having a serious health condition, might be granted, because serving on a jury would cause the potential juror:
Undue hardship or inconvinince

According to the Jury Selection and Service Act of 1968:
Federal and state courts must assemble juries that constitute a “fair cross-section of the community”

According to the text, approximately __________ of those summoned for jury duty do not show up.

Mock juries benefit the trial lawyers when the actual trial and jury selection takes place because:
Profiles developed through the mock jury guide the choices for the real case

According to the text, what is usually referred to as a jury selection is actually a process of:

Among the traits noted as being associated with jury verdicts is how they tend to explain what happens to them. This trait is referred to as:
The locus of control

April displays conventional values, with relatively inflexible viewpoints, generally identifying with authority figures and finding weakness to be intolerable. One might consider her personality to be that of:

In a high profile case, trial consultants are often hired. Trial consultants utilize a(n)________ approach to jury selection.
Data-driven approach

Voir dire is the:
Final stage in the jury selection process

A jury of 12 or fewer is likely to:
Represent some aspects of the community-at-large

An additional source for jurors in many states is:
All of these are correct

The Sixth Amendment:
A guarantees the right to a trial by an impartial jury in criminal cases

Lawyers have two types of challenges they can pose to remove a potential juror: challenges for cause and:
Peremptory challenges

Pro bono is legal service:
Free of charge

Mock Juries are often used by trial consultants to primarily evaluate their ____________ prior to selection of a true jury.

In terms of the burden of proof, in criminal cases, the standard of proof for a person to be found guilty is ________, whereas in a civil trial, the standard of proof is usually ____________.
Beyond a reasonable doubt; preponderance of the evidence

Nicole is an attorney handling a high-profile case. Much rests with the decision of the jury in terms of damages that may be required of the defendant to pay. To help in the process, she decides to pull together a group that matches the demographics of the actual jury. The group is known as:
A shadow jury

According to the text, when an attorney takes the opportunity to remove a potential jury, it is referred to as:
A challenge

If a potential juror is removed because he or she is unlikely to be able to deliver an impartial verdict based purely on evidence, this type of removal is referred to as:
A challenge for cause

Cognizable refers to:
Potential jurors being recognized as sharing a particular characteristics or attitude that sets them apart from other jurors

Not onlydo mock juries provide important information to attorneys regarding possible traits that would be advantageous in a true jury, but they also offer an opportunity to assess:
The strengths and weakness of a case

A challenge for cause is ____________, whereas a peremptory challenge ____________.
Because of prejudice or bias, it is unlikely that the juror swill be able to render an impartial verdict ;dismissal without a reason and without judge’s approval

The biggest, most important benefit of having a shadow jury in place, according to the text, is that because they will actually hear the same testimony as the actual jury, they can provide:

A judge _____________ accept(s) the challenges put forth by attorneys regarding jury selection.

The group of prospective jurors is referred to as:

It would appear as though there are a few personality traits or tendencies that have any bearing on jury verdicts. According to the text, there are __________ traits that have been shown to be important predictors.

Jeremy has worked in a prison for 15 years and has been called to jury duty. He is to serve on a criminal case involving the shooting of a guard during prison riot. Based on the definition of challenge of cause, Jeremy would be:
An unlikely juror

The __________ is when the characteristics of jurors and the defendant are similar to the extent that it might influence verdicts.
Similarity-leniency hypothesis

The Seventh Amendment:
Guarantees the right to a trial by an impartial jury in most civil cases

According to the Jury Selection and Service Act of 1968, the voter registration list in the “________ source” of eligible jurors.

According to a study completed by Morgan et al (2004), stress appears to have an effect on eye witness identification……low-stress conditions.

the benefit of a cognitive interview is that…
it mentally reinstates the context surrounding the crime.

the _____ consists of five factors to be taken into account when evaluating eyewitness identification accuracy…
manson criteria

the tendency of ppl to be better able to recognize faces of those within their racial group than those outside their own racial group is referred to as;
the cross-race effect

bias-reducing instructions are used to assist eyewitnesses to be accurate in their identification of a suspect. an example of such instructions, as noted in the text, is telling the eyewitness that=;
the true criminal might not be in the lineup or photo spread

wrongful convictions have been shown to take place as a result of eyewitness testimony__ any other type of evidence.
more than

memory is not a perfect procedure. erros can take place at any given poinnt in thee process and it may not last forever. ____ is the term used to describe the biochemcial representation of our experiences within the brain.
memory trace

techniques for refreshing witness memories include

the reassignment of a face that is familiar from another contect to the scene of a crime is referred to as?
unconscious transference

according to the text, estimates of time during the course of a stressful even t are ____ times the actual length of the event.
3 to 4.

accordin to the text, coss-race effect is present in babies as young as=;
9 months

when the eyewitness is a child, ist is likely that the accuracy of information they can provide is
less accurate

in addition to issues with memory in general, other thing can influence witness accuray. interfference can take place because, during the process of identiicantoin of a suspectn, witnesses are often inclidned to overstimate their pereption of an event or perpetratior as a result of ___ and ____

alternative suspects in the lineup or photo spread are called

metaanalysis relies on the findings from a
large group of related research studies

according to the text, what we generally s and remember is impacted by what we expect to see. this tendency to maintain widely held beliefs about a sequence of expected behaviors is referred too as

eyewitness depends on __ to idenfify or describe a suspect

in the construction of memory, it is not uncommon to find that distortion may take place as we try to retrieve that memory. the following is true when we encode an event
with encoding, we may select only some aspects of the even in the information of the memory

eyewitness testimony is

research is an important part of undestanding how eyewitness accounts are derived. as such, a range of factors are often condisered. those factors that are within the control of the justice systems are
system variables

retriaval inhibition occurs when
an individual selectively retrieves some aspects of a situation while inhibiting recall of other aspects

when describing memory, _____ is the first component required in the process necessary for retention

when doing research, social scientists often look at many factors. factors that are outside the control of the legal system are referred to as=
estimator variables

according to psychologists, the memory consists of a ___ par component process

cross-ratial identifications are generally _____ accurate thanais same-race ientification

the process of having an eyewitness looking at one person or photograph at a time it is referred to as ____ lineups.

cross-race effect has been shown to be consistent in strength
accross the age span

indiviuals often _____ tine during an event. this is particularly true if the event is ______/
overestimate; stressful

the tendency for biased feedback to distort the memory of eyewitness accounts is also known as
postidentification feedback effect

the maintenance of information over time within the brain is referred to as

the american psychologial association recommends that defendants should not be executed if they demonstrate
a severe mental disorder or disability that limits capacity

according to research complete by grisso et al. (2003) the differencs btw adolescents (ages 11-17) and young adults (18-24) were

the second edition of the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI-2) is a measure of

competency to stand trial (CST) has two components to its definitiion. the first component refers to the accused individuals _______ the second component refers to the accused individuals
ability to interact rationally with an attorney; understanding about how the court process works.

psychological tests related specifically to the evaluation of competence to stand trial are referred to as
forensic assesment instruments

when performing competency evalutions within an institution , collateralk sources of information can be gathered regarding the defendants behaior….
prison guard, nurse, and ental health professional.

competence to stand trial demands that
the accused meets minimum standards to cooperate with their attorney.

what is the primamry advantage of providing an evaluation of competency of a defendant within an institution?
it provides multiple opportunities to observe the defendants behavior over time

according to he text ____ states allow juveniles of a certain age to be tried in adult venues when charged with serious crimes

Courts can recommend forcible medications of defendants
when they are a range to self or others

a persons accused of a crime has the right to plead guilty and deny having an attorney. however according to the supreme court (johnson v. zerbst), a guilty plea must be
Knowing, intelligent, and voluntary

for accused individuals to be deemed to be gravely disabled, it must be proved that they are
unable to provide for their basic needs

bona fide doubt may also be referred to as
reasonable doubt

the legal definition of whether an individual has the capacity to perform necessary personal or legal functions is known as

competency to stand trial (CST) refers to the psychological state of the accused
at the time of the trial

in terms of plan bargains, Grisso et al (2003) found that the number of youths aged 11 to 13 years old were ____ likely to accept a plea than young adults

Following Jackson v. Indiana (1972), it is generally accepted than an individual is limited to confinement btw ______ and then reevaluated.
4-18 months

If the accused is deemed non restorable, then criminal charges are

if restoration to competence cannot be accomplished, proceedings may be held to issue an
involuntary civil commitment

adjudicative competence is
a legal concept that describes defendants ability to understand legal proceedings and participate in those proceedings in their own defense

phillip is understanding trial for robbery. His overall ability to adequately take care of himself and his ability to understand what going on trial means has come into question. before he goes to trial, it is important to assess whether he is
competent to stand trial

according to the text, even if the accused is is deemed incompetent to stand trial he or she may receive treatment to become competent, in the legal sense. this happens for _______ of incompetent defendants.
the vast majority.

the notion that the punishment for criminal activity should be proportionate to the harm was committed is known as

according to the text, those found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) generally spend _____ amount of time in a secured mental hospital than they would if they serve out in prison the sentence they would have received if found guilty.
equal to greater

the durham standard took into consideration
mental disease or mental defect in a person when assessing if an individual as not being criminally responsible.

clinical psychologists generally
study and treat various psychological dysfunctions.

a highly publicized trial in california, which was later seen as a factor in the subsequent death of Harvey Milk, brought up the influence of heavy ingestions of junk food on mental state. the defense of the accused, Dan white (1978), was referred to as the:
Twinkie defense.

As many as ______ of new mothers demonstrate signs of postpartum blues.

When determining insanity, the courts rely on:
clinical psychologists.

regarding the insanity defense, one reason that jurors often respond the way they are elected to respond to the statements of judges and legislators i stat jurors use ______, whereas the various definitions are often ________.
Preexisting commonsense notions of insanity; narrowly bound.

Volitional capacity refers to the defendants
being unable to control his or her behavior.

Postpartum depression differs from postpartum blues in that new mothers with postpartum depression ______, while those with postpartum blues _______/
display suicidal thoughts; display anxiety.

the concept that individuals with issues relating to impaired cognitive understanding should not be held culpable was used as early as the Roma empire. Roman law classed those individuals to be non compos mantis, or:
without mastery of mind

the insanity defense reform act (IDRA) of 1984 eliminated the _____ from the definition of insanity
volitional capacity

when applying diminished capacity, the ______ must prove mens rea.

according to the text, postpartum psychosis usually occurs within the
first 90 days following childbirth

insanity is considered a
legal term

according to the text, insanity;
refers to the criminals state of mind at the time the crime was commited

legal definitions of insanity are crafted by
legislators and judges

malingering refers to the ______ of psychological symptoms that might lead to the accused being termed incompetent to stand trial
faking or exaggeration

the insanity defense attitudes-revised scale (IDA-R) has been able to ______ predict jurors attitudes toward insanity

the insanity defense reform act (IDRA) of 1084 required defendants to prove _____ that they were insane at the time o the crime
by clear and convincing evidence

Development of the insanity defense can be traced back to
several centuries ago

The M’Naghten rule lists three components to be used as a defense in criminal cases. one of the components is
at the moment of the crime, the accused must have been laboring “under a defect of reason” or “from disease of the mind”

Mens rea refers to ______, whereas actus reus refers to
a guilty mind, commitment of a crime

according to the text, men in intimate relationships are _____ the victims of physical assault

symptoms of someone suffering from battered woman syndrome (BWS) may include all of the following EXCEPT:

according to the text, in response to the use of PTSD alone as a defense when RTS is present and as an alternative to RTS testimony, scholars proposed a series or levels of expert testimony. Their model, as discussed in the text, has ____ levels.

Self-defense can be used in a court of law, when one is facing charges as result of killing one’s own batterer. However, specific circumstances need to be introduced. Which of the following does NOT meet the standard?
The abuse went beyond the ken, even for abusers.

The term rape trauma syndrome (RTS) can best be described as
a cluster of symptoms demonstrated by rape victims

Betty endured abuse throughout most of her 30 years of marriage. during that time, she became less resistive to the attics and more submissive. a term often used of the state is:
learned helplessness

Victims of rape trauma syndrome (RTS) and battered some syndrome (BWS) may also meet the criteria for _____, which is a common mental disorder
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

When men kill their intimate partners, there were_____ in sentencing outcomes btw those who had a bench and those who had a jury trial, according to the text
no differences

what factors might be considered in understanding the battered women syndrome?
economic dependence on her abuser

psychologists also use the term symptom to describe a particular _______ to a specific event
psychological and emotional reaction

Dutton (2007) has studied and developed a range of types of abusers. In addition, Dutton posits that many batterers may be classified as meeting the criteria for
boderline personality disorder

Rape shield laws were put in place to prevent lawyers from delving into the sexual histories of the _____ during the trial
alleged victim

Dr. Walker described a typical violent relationship as a three-phase cycle. Which of the following is NOT part of the cycle described in the text?

A small research study by Stout & Brown (1995) noted that women who used violence against their abusers and then opted for a jury trial received sentences that were ______ those who had a bench trial
more harsh than

according to the text, jurors appear to be ______ inclined toward women who kill their partners no matter what the circumstances.
especially negatively

one problem with the relying on PTSD as a replacement for the introduction of BWS in a trial is that
some symptoms of BWS are not typical for PTSD

according to the text, it might be more important to understand _____ rather than simply label an individual as suffering from BWS
the dynamics of violence

according to Burgess and Holmstorm, there are two phases in the recovery from rape. the first phase is the acute crisis phase, which normally lasts ____, with ____ problems.
a few weeks; severe physical

a common term used to describe a group of associated symptoms that lead to a significant dysfunction i the performance of normal activities

Because BWS and RTS are often difficult for the prosecution to integrate into a trial, many have advocated for testimony about post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). one reason why the use of this diagnosis proves to be more helpful in cases in which the victim kills the batterer is that
PTSD is better established as mental disorder

Battered women syndrome (BWS) is employed by defendants who have used violence agains their abusers as a defense in situations when abuse victims have previously:
injured or killed their abuser

according to the text, it is estimated that approximately ______ women will experience serious physical abuse that is described as significant
one in five

statistics noted in the text indicate that the rate of the abuse against men is
1 in 14

the text indicates that batterers are _______ to categorize because they represent a ______ group.
difficult; diverse

Hypervigilance can best be described as
heightened attentiveness to the abusers subtle behaviors

men are ______ to seriously injure/kill their female partners
more likely

the DSM-IV-TR contains _____ among its classifications of mental disorders
it contains none of these

The tension phase of the cycle of violence is often repented by _______, whereas the contrition phase is often represented by _____.
arguing; a calm phase

PTSD was originally formulated to describe psychological symptoms experienced _______ returning from _______
combat veterans; war in Vietnam

Judicial nullification instructions can best be described as an instruction that lets jurors know that they can ______a strict interpretation of the law if that legal interpretation would result in an unjust verdict.

Much research has demonstrated that victims of traumatic events _______ the episode.
have vivid memories of

the repression hypothesis posits that traumatic memories can be maintained in the _____ for years

according to research noted in the text, jurors that heard both adult hearsay witnesses and child testimony deemed to hearsay testimony:
more credible

in some cases so-called memories of past abuse have surf by _____ of the alleged victim while under hypnosis or guided imagery.
the suggestibility.

suggestive questions can best be described as
including questions not volunteered by the child

only _____ states do not allow an exception to the hearsay rule when a child is the alleged victim

according to the text, the use of an automatically detailed doll with children less than 5 yrs of age _____ the number of false allegations

the NICHD protocol provides guidelines for four different types of prompts. the types of promote include
facilitator, invitation, cued invitation, and directive.

in a subsequent experiment, Hyman created other usual false events. The results of this study resulted in ______ of the participants.

according to the text, children who recant previous allegations of sexual abuse have been abused by a :
parental figure

testifying about what someone lee said outside of court is called
hearsay testimony

elizabeth loftus is well-known for her research on false memories. in one experiment, she created a memory in participants of being lost within a mall. of the participants in the experiments, ______remembered most or all the implanted event.

memories of abuse that are recalled by adults many years or decided after the alleged abuse or referred to as
recovered memories

according to the text, children who suffer from child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) are likely to show _____ behavioral symptoms.

one reason why adult hearsay witness testimony may be perceived differently from that of a child is that
adults are more confident in their testimony

hearsay testimony is sometimes admissible in trials where a child is an alleged victim because
the idea that children, the victims, can deal with the individual who may have abused them face-to-face is unrealistic.

children suffering from CSAAS often delay disclosure of the abuse. the text notes three reasons why this may occur. which of the following is NOT discussed in the text as part of this behavior pattern?

the concept of repression was developed by

research has demonstrated that other techniques used in interviewing children in abuse case have proven to be helpful. these techniques include all except:
asking the same questions more than once.

“tell me everything that happened” is an example of an open-ended request, which is considered a __________type of prompt.

it is important to avoid bias when interviewing a possible victim or witness. this is particularly true with children. one technique suggested in the text that may be used to avoid bias when interviewing is the NICHD investigative Interview Protocol. The NICDH Protocol aims to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT:
utilize closed-ended questions.

A non-suggestive prompt to continue with an ongoing response, such as “OK” is which type of prompt?

Research has shown that children_________sometimes have difficulty distinguishing between imagined and real events.
under 5

Another way that children are able to testify in a case is through the use of a closed-circuit television (CCTV). Its use allows the judge and jury to see the child without exposing the alleged victim to the emotional trauma that may present itself while in the presence of the defendant. In the case of Marylan v. Craig, the Court decided that the ___________child_________the defendant’s right to confront his or her accuser.
need to protect; outweighs

Children who have been sexually abused may also display which of the following behaviors, according to research noted in the text?
denial of abuse and recantation of allegations.

Requesting children who may have been abused to refocus their attention to details that have already been mentioned and then to use those details as cues for further investigation, is referred to as a(n):
cued invitation.

Forgetting that occurs with the passage of time is referred to as:
transience memory

When interviewing a child in an abuse case, it is often necessary to focus attention to information previously mentioned in order to extract more specific details. This outcome is often accomplished through using words such as “where”, “when”, “what”, etc. This type of interviewer prompt is a(n)___________prompt.

When reviewing testimony by children at trial, it appears that jurors are ___________to believe young children than adolescents.
more likely

When a child is abused by a parental figure, a reason that the child may recant allegations of abuse may be because of lack of support from:
the non-abusing parent.

When jurors change their minds through the compelling arguments of other jurors, this phenomenon is also referred to as:
informal influence

the average compensatory amount for damages against corporate defendants is approximately

according to the text, jurors that heard negative pretrial publicity were more likely to judge the defendant as

jurors that create chain of events are said to be utilizing the _____ of decision making
story model

pretrial publicity sometimes is misremembered by jurors as having been presented
at the trial

pre instructions given to a jury before the begging of a trial appear to provide a ____ that proves to be helpful to jurors in organizing information presented in trials

according to the text, the rate of sexual reoffense is _______ than that of other crimes
not different

when evaluating risk assessment evidence, it has been found that jurors and judges may find _____ more appealing
clinical predictions

static markers of future violent behavior are also called
historial markers

according to the text, as of 2009, ________ states adopted sexually violent predator civil commitment laws (SVP laws).

an idiographic, qualitative approach to the prediction of violent behavior is based on:
a specific individual

three states have been responsible for over half the total executions in the united stats since 1976, they are
Texas, Oklahoma, and Virginia

According to a report completed by Gookin (2007) nearly _____ sex offenders have been incarcerated as a result of the SVP law since 1990. of that number ______ have been released as of 2007.
4,500; 494

placing someone in a psychiatric facility against his or her will is known as
involuntary civil commitment

based on research done by Hanson & Morton-Bourgon (2005), the rate of recidivism for sex offenders is approximately

____________ was the first person to be subjected to the sexually violent predator civil commitment laws (SVP laws)
Leroy Hendricks

________ is a method of prediction that requires that relevant risk factors be statistically evaluated to calculate the probability of future violence
acturial prediction

an invididual who has a “recurrent, intense sexual urge or behavior involving seal activity with a prepubescent child or children” is classified as a

according to the text, rates of antisocial personality disorder in the general population are approximately ______, whereas the incidence of antisocial personality disorder in prison inmates is ______
1-3%; up to 70%

community notification requiring states to make personal and private information and private information about known sex offenders available to the public is a result of the enactment of
Megans Law

at its hight point, the number of ppl housed in menial asylums reached almost _____ individuals

predictive markers that change over time are referred to as
dynamic markers

The _______ is the probability that the defendant would commit an act of violence that would continue to threaten society
future dangerousness standard

james ha a history of violent behavior. many times, he has demonstrated he has not mastered the ability to maintain control over his own emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. this inability is also known as

cathy has been incarcerated because she has a history of physical and mental abuse of her stepchildren. as a result, she has been incarcerated for an extended period because she has the possibility of becoming violent, which is also known as
preventative detention

a nomothetic, quantitative approach relies on characteristics identified in research
on large groups of ppl.