Latin Constructions

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Cum Causal Clauses
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Introduces a reason or gives a cause. If the verb in the main clause is in the present or future tense, the present or perfect subjunctive is used in the casual clause; if the main verb is in a past tense, the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive is used in the casual clause (ie: cum nox iam appeteret, ad speluncam devertit: since night was already approaching, he turned aside to a cave).
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Future More Vivid Conditions
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Expresses strong probabilities or certainties with reference to the future. The if-clause has a future or future-perfect indicative and the main clause has a future indicative. In English, the if-clause should always be translated in the present tense. (ie: si id dedero, centauri me interficient: If I give it, the centaurs will kill me). The future perfect must be used in the if-clause when the action of that clause is thought of as having been completed prior to the action of the main clause (such as in this example).
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Ad + Noun in the Accusative to Express Purpose (Accusative of Purpose?)
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Ad + Noun/Noun Phrase may express purpose (ie: ad salutem – to safety/for the purpose of creating safety)
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Double Dative
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Dative of Purpose + Dative of Reference. The Dative of Purpose denotes the Purpose, and the Dative of Reference denotes the person/thing which the Purpose concerns (ie: cancer ingens auxilio Hydrae venit – The huge crab came for the purpose of aid with reference to the hydra)
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Dative of Possession
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Noun/Pronoun in Dative + Form of sum indicates possession. The thing possessed is the subject of the verb, and the person/thing that posssesses it is in the Dative Case (ie: cui novem erant capita – to which there were nine heads)
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Gerund/Verbal Noun
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A neuter verbal noun that appears in the Gen, Dat, Acc, and Abl Singulars only. Translated often as verbal nouns in English (ie: of preparing; to or for preparing) Gerunds of deponent verbs are the same in form as those of regular verbs (ie: complectendi: of grasping). One such example is “respirandi facultas” which means means OF BREATHING. Note the “-nd” in all forms.
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Present Active Infinitive
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Second Principle Part of a verb. “to ______”
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Present Passive Infinitive
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Second Principle Part -‘are’ + ‘ari’ N.B. In 3rd and 3rd IO Conjugations the added ‘ari’ becomes just an ‘i’
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Past General
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A complex sentence that refers to a general truth or makes a general statement about something that happened in past time takes the IMPERFECT INDICATIVE in the main clause and the PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE in the subordinate clause. e.g.: “Pythia consilium dabat eis qui ad oraculum venerant” which means Pythia always gave advice to whoever came to the oracle. The words ‘always’ and ‘ever’ emphasize the generality of the statement being made.
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Deponent Verbs
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Passive in form but active in meaning. Comes from “deponere” so it means the verbs ‘put aside’ their active forms and appear only in the passive (with active meanings).
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Ablative of Accompaniment
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Cum + ABL often expresses the idea of accompaniment. (Erginus CUM OMNIBUS COPIIS in fines Thebanorum contendit: Erginus hurried into the territory of the Thebans WITH ALL HIS FORCES.)
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Accusative of Place to Which
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Accusative without a preposition may express idea of PLACE TO WHICH with names of cities, towns, small islands, peninsulas and the word domus and rus. (ie: Hi Thebas veniebant: they used to come to Thebes)
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Locative Form
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1st and 2nd Declensions = GEN Sg. Sg 3rd Declension = ABL Sg Pl for all Declensions = ABL Pl
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Ablative of Separation
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Verbs or adjectives implying separation are often accompanied by words or phrases in the ABLATIVE, sometimes with ‘ab’ or ‘ex’ or with no preposition to express the thing from which something is separated or set free (ie: Hercules cives suos hoc tributo liberare constituit = Hercules decided to free his citizens from this tribute)
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Dative of Purpose
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A word or phrase in the DATIVE may indicate the purpose for which an action is carried out or the end that it has in view (ie: he set a day for the [purpose of the] sacrifice)
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Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs
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The meaning of many intransitive verbs such as ‘studeo, studere’ is completed by a word or phrase in the DATIVE (ie: huic arti minus diligenter studebat = he was applying himself less diligently TO THIS ART)
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Ablative of Degree of Difference
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A noun, adjective, or phrase in the ablative may indicate the degree of difference with comparative adjectives (ie: the woman was taller than the man BY A FOOT) (ie: paulo post = later BY A LITTLE)
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Partitive Genitive
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A word or phrase in the GENITIVE may express the whole of which the word on which the genitive depends is a part (ie: magnam partem diei = a large part OF THE DAY)
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Partitive Genitive with Superlative Adjective
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a noun or phrase in the GENITIVE often accompanies a superlative adjective to express the whole or the group within which a comparison is being made (ie: the strongest OF ALL MEN)
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Genitive of Description
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A GENITIVE use where it describes the subject (ie: Perseus erat vir magni virtutis = Perseus was a man of great courage)
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Dative with Compound Verbs
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A DATIVE with a compound verb (which originates from an intransitive verb which needs the dative)
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Ablative of Description
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A noun/adjective in the ABLATIVE case without a preposition may describe another noun (ie: Gorgones monstra erant specie horribili = The Gorgons were monsters of horrible appearance)
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Double Accusative/Predicate Accusative
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Verbs of naming, electing, making, and asking often take two ACCUSATIVES, the first the direct object and the second a predicate to that object (ie: Tranquillum mare fecit = He made THE SEA [Dir. Obj] CALM [Predicate])
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Cum Concessive Clause
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Although (‘yeah… but’ with “tamen” usually in the following clause) – Uses Subjunctive
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Cum Temporal Clause
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Tells when (the exact time/date) – Uses Indicative
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Cum Circumstancial Clause
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Tells when/after/before (in relationship to another activity/action) – Uses Subjunctive
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Present General
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Uses Present Tense Indicative Verbs If (I) _____, then (you) ______
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Past General
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Uses Imp, Perf, or Plu-Perf. Indicative If (I) ______-ed, then you ______ (past tense)
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Future More-Vivid
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Uses Fut./Fut. Perf. Indicative If (I) (will) ______, then (you) (will) _______
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Present Contrary-to-Fact
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Uses Imp. Subjunctive If (I) were to ______, then (you) would _______
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Past Contrary- to-Fact
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Uses Plu.Perf Subjunctive If (I) had ______ed, then (you) would have ______
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Future Less-Vivid
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Uses Present Subjunctive If (I) should ____, then (you) would ______

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