Lab 47 Female Reproductive

question

Female Reproductive
answer

47.1-47.3
question

Female Reproductive
answer

47.5
question

Female Reproductive
answer

47.7-47.11
question

Female reproduction sytem functions
answer

*produces gametes (eggs) and recieves the gametes from the male * provides space and maternal nutrients for the developing conceptus (fetus, child, baby) *and delivers the child into the outer environment
question

conceptus
answer

fetus, child, baby
question

ovaries
answer

are the gonads or gamete-producing organs of the female reproductive system; they produce oocytes and female sex hormones (estrogen (estradiol) and progesterone), each is apprx. 3 to 4 cm long and oblong. They produce the oocyte which is shed from the outer surface of the ovary during ovulation
question

female sex hormones
answer

estrogen (estradiol) and progesterone
question

ovulation
answer

the shedding of the oocyte from the outer surface of the ovary into the uterine (fallopian tube). They do not always just stay in a closed tube, sometimes they are shed into the pelvic cavity but mostly into the tube
question

Ovary histology
answer

*stroma- a vascular, fibrous tissue in the middle of the ovary *ovarian follicles- circular structures in the ovary *primordial follicles- towards the surface of the ovary, the smallest most immature, the beginning structure of the egg turning ——>into the primary —->and secondary follicle—-> mature follicle with an oocyte *Primary follicle -2nd step of the proccess of developing an mature follicle with an oocyte may of may not have a primary oocyte *Secondary follicle- 3rd step of the proccess of developing mature follicle with an oocyte may or may not have an secondary oocyte, during ovulation one secondary follicle is released * mature follicle (Graafian follicles), the largest follicles
question

after ovulation
answer

the remains of a mature ovarian follicle become a corpus luteum which primarily secretes progesterone. If pregnancy does not occure the corpus luteum decreases in size and becomes a “corpus albicans”
question

Corpus luteum
answer

a mature follicle that decreases in size to become a cropus luteum after ovulation if there is no pregancy it becomes a corpus albicans
question

corpus albicans
answer

is a corpus luteum that develops if it is not fertilized in a pregancy
question

Uterine tube
answer

*is composed of an enlarge area called the ampulla, and a narrower protions towards the uterus (isthmus) *has a small fringe on the distal region known as the fimbriae attached to an expanded region known as the infundibulum,
question

fimbriae
answer

a small fringe on the distal region of the Uterine tube attached to an expanded region known as the infundibulum
question

infundibulum
answer

an expanded region on the utrine tube that has fimbriae attached to it
question

ampulla
answer

an enlarged region on the uterine
question

Uterus
answer

*a pear shaped organ with a domed “fundus”a body, and a circular, inferior end called the cervix * the wall is composed of 3 layers: the perimertium (located near the body cavity), the Myometrium (a thick layer of smooth muscle and it makes up most of the wall, biggest layer; and the endometrium the innermost/deepest layer of the uterus
question

cervix
answer

is a cylindrical, terminal protion of the uterus where it connects to the vagina, the uterine tubes enter the uterus at about the junction of the fundus with the uterine body
question

the perimertium
answer

the perimertium (located near the body cavity) outsided layer
question

Myometrium
answer

a thick layer of smooth muscle and it makes up most of the wall, biggest layer, located between the two other layers (the peanut butter in a sandwich) id. hint the smooth layer
question

endometrium
answer

the innermost/deepest layer of the uterus , the one that gets covered with a lining of blood that sheds off making you period, or where the egg embedds itself
question

endometrium
answer

2 layers *the functional layer is the one shed during menstruation- composed of spiral aterioles and uterine glands (which appear as wavy lines toward the edge of the tissue) *basal layer is deeper and contains straight aterioles
question

pap smears
answer

are scrapings of the cervix to check for the presence of abnormal cells -normal epithelial cells of the cervix have a relatively large cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio -when the nucleus occupies a larger portion of the cell, then there is a concern for cervical cancer -REGULAR PAP SMEARS MAY REDUCE THE CHANCE OF CERVICAL CANCER
question

ovarian and menstrual cycles
answer

the endometrium undergoes dynamic changes during the menstrual cycle -the effects of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) from the anterior pituitary gland -and estrogen and progesterone from the ovary have significant effect on the endometrium. -FSH stimulate the ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens and some progesterone —>, elevated levels of these hormoens promote the thickening of the endometrium
question

menstruation
answer

The loss of the endometrial layer is the beginning of a woman’s period
question

ovarian and menstrual cycles 3 phases
answer

-The menstrual phase of the cycle occurs typically from days 1-5 on a 28-day cycle. -The profliferative phase follow from days 6-14 and the endometrium increases in thickness of the endomertrium -The secretory phase occurs from days 15-26 in an average cycle when glycogen is produced in the endometrium. -After ovulation, progesterone levels increase. Towards the end of a woman’s menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone levels drop and this causes the functional layer of the endometrium to slough off. The loss of the endometrial layer is the beginning of a woman’s period, or menstruation.
question

hormonal contraceptive
answer

One method of birth control is to alter the levels of hormones in females. Pills that use higher levels of estrogen prevent a women from ovulation. The stimulus for ovulation is a spike in estrogen levels, therefor, if estrogen is already elevated no ovulation occurs. Pills that have high levels of progesterone increase the ability of the sperm to pass into the uterus.
question

Ligaments
answer

Uterus and ovaries are suspended in the pelvic cavity by a nuber of connective tissue sheaths called ligaments -broad ligament anchors the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall -round ligament attached the uterus to the anterior body wall at about the region of the inguinal canal -ovarian ligament directly attaches the ovary to the uterus -suspensory ligament attaches the ovaries to the lumbar region
question

Vagina
answer

*The vagina consists of the “vaginal canal” and the “vaginal orfice”, *The uterus joins with teh vaginal canal at the cervix. *The vaginal canal is a tough muscular tube with a recessed region around the cervix known as the “fornix” thus (fornication???) *vagina is 8-10 cm long, although it can stretch considerably during intercourse and delivery * it is located between the urethra, on the anterior side, and the rectum which is posterior -the outermost layer of the vaginal wall is the “adventitia” –There is a middle muscularis layer – and the layer near the lumen (inside) is the mucosa (made up of stratified squamos epitheliim in adult women) the vaginal canal is poorly supplied with nerves and the wall of the vagina has cross ridges called the “RUGAE” the vaginal canal and orfice can expand considerably during child birth
question

the vaginal canal
answer

The vaginal canal is a tough muscular tube with a recessed region around the cervix known as the “fornix” thus (fornication???) *the vaginal canal is poorly supplied with nerves and the the vaginal canal and orfice can expand considerably during child birth
question

fonix
answer

the region of the vagina around the cervix
question

Rugae
answer

the wall of the vagina has cross ridges called
question

the three layers of the vagina are
answer

-the outermost layer of the vaginal wall is the “adventitia” –There is a middle muscularis layer – and the layer near the lumen (inside) is the mucosa
question

External Genitalia
answer

the floor of the pelvis of the pelvis as seen from the outside is referred to as the perineum -it can be divided into a posterior anal (rectal) triangle (a region enclosing the anus) – the uregenital triangle- a anterior region consisting of the reproductive and urinary structures the external female reproductive structures are called the outer genitalia and are reffered to as the vulva -the mons pubis is the anterior-most structure of the vulva and is an adipse pad that overlies the symphysis pubis.
question

External Genitalia
answer

-the clitoris is posterior to the mons pubis and is a cylinder of erectile tissue embedded in the body wall that terminates anterior to the urethral orfice as the glans clitoris—–the clitoris has the same embryonic origin as the penis in males and is richly supplied with nerve endings, the body of the clitoris is the terminal portion The clitoris is enclosed by the prepuce (an extension of the labia minora). Posterior to the clitoris is the external urthral orfice and posterior to this is the vaginal orfice (is partially enclosed by a mucous membrane structure known as the hymen). The hymen is a variable anatomically and has historically and has historically (and incorrectly) been used as an indicator of virginity. Lateral to the vaginal orfice are the labia minora (labium minus). the space between the labia minora is known as the vestibule, and located laterally and posteriorly to the vestibule are the greater vestibular glands (or Bartholins glands). Lateral to the labia minora are the paired labia majora.
question

mons pubis
answer

the mons pubis is the anterior-most structure of the vulva and is an adipse pad that overlies the symphysis pubis.
question

clitoris
answer

-the clitoris is posterior to the mons pubis and is a cylinder of erectile tissue embedded in the body wall that terminates anterior to the urethral orfice as the glans clitoris—–the clitoris has the same embryonic origin as the penis in males and is richly supplied with nerve endings, the body of the clitoris is the terminal portion The clitoris is enclosed by the prepuce (an extension of the labia minora)
question

prepuce
answer

an extension of the labia minora
question

hymen
answer

The hymen is a variable anatomically and has historically and has historically (and incorrectly) been used as an indicator of virginity
question

the labia minora (labium minus).
answer

Lateral to the vaginal orfice are small lips called the labia minora
question

vestibule,
answer

the space between the labia minora
question

greater vestibular glands (or Bartholins glands).
answer

located laterally and posteriorly to the vestibule are the greater vestibular glands (or Bartholins glands).
question

the paired labia majora
answer

Lateral to the labia minora are the paired labia majora.
question

Anatomy of the breast
answer

*The structure of the breast derives from the integumentary system (skin), yet the role of the breast in reproduction is importanct as a source of nourishment for the offspring. Major stuctures are : pigmented areola, the protruding nipple, the bdoy of the breast, and the axillary tail (tail of Spense) — improtant breast tumors frequently occur there
question

Anatomy of breast Internal structures
answer

*suspensory ligaments that anchor the breast to the pectoralis major *Adipose tissue- much of the breast is made up of this (fat) *Mammary glands-embedded in the tissue, responsible for the production of milk in lactating females; the glands are clustered in lobes, and there are 15-20 lobes in each breast, they increase in sixe in nursing women and lead to lactiferous ducts —> to lactiferous sinuses (ampullae) that exit via the nipple, These glands begin to undergo changes prior to puberty and become functional glands after delivery of a child
question

Mammary glands
answer

*Mammary glands-embedded in the tissue, responsible for the production of milk in lactating females; the glands are clustered in lobes, and there are 15-20 lobes in each breast, they increase in sixe in nursing women and lead to lactiferous ducts —> to lactiferous sinuses (ampullae) that exit via the nipple, These glands begin to undergo changes prior to puberty and become functional glands after delivery of a child
question

Female contraception
answer

goal it to prevent the uniting of the female and male gametes -Abstention, refraining from intercourse best birth control -other methods include oral contraceptives or hormonal implants, tubal ligation (cutting and tying the uterine tubes), use of barrier methods such as the condoms or diaphram, and use of spermicidal foams
question

oral contraceptives, synthetic estrogens, and progesterones
answer

decrease the levels of LH and FSH in the pituitary (by negative feed back mechanisms) thus preventing ovulation.
question

Progesterone implants
answer

also prevent ovulation, eleveate hormones levels Look at diagrams 47.7 to see how high levels of progesterone affect levels of FSH and LH by lowering them

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member