Kaplan Nursing Assessment Test

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plasma, interstitial fluid
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The primary components of ECF are __________ and ___________.
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phosphate, proteins
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The principle anions in the ICF are ______ and _______.
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osmoreceptors, ADH
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_________ are receptors in the hypothalamus that monitor the osmotic concentration in the ECF and secrete ___________ in response to high osmotic concentrations
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carbon dioxide
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The most important factor affecting the pH of body tissues is the concentration of ____________.
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decrease, increase
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Respiratory acidosis develops when blood pH _______ due to an ________ in PCO2 levels (input decrease, increase)
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elevated
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Metabolic alkalosis occurs when bicarbonate ion concentrations are ___________ (depressed, elevated)
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ADH
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___________ hormone stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and stimulates thirst
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aldosterone
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__________ hormone increases rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion along DCT and collecting system of kidney
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ANP, BNP
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__________ hormones oppose release of aldosterone and ADH; promotes urine excretion
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increase, hypotonic
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Drinking a solution hypotonic to the ECF will cause the ECF _____________ (in/de)crease in volume and become (hyper/hypo)tonic to the ICF
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gain of electrolytes
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The osmotic concentration of the ECF decreases if an individual gains water without a corresponding ____________.
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amino
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When pH of body fluids begins to decrease, free amino acids and proteins will bind H at the _________ group
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increases
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In a protein buffer system, if pH ________ (in/de)creases, hydrogen ion is released and carboxylate ion is formed.
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fluid
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__________ balance is a state in which the amount of water gained each day is equal to the amount lost to the environment; water accounts for 99% ECF
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electrolyte
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_________ balance exists when there is neither a net gain nor net loss of any ion in body fluids; important that ionic concentrations remain within normal limits
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acid base
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_______________ balance exists when production of hydrogen ions precisely offsets their loss; pH of body fluids must remain within narrow range, outside of range becomes life threatening
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fluid shift
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____________ = rapid water movement between ECF and ICF that occur in response to increase or decrease in osmotic concentration of ECF
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volatile
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________ acids can leave the solution and enter the atmosphere (EX: carbonic acids)
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fixed
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________ acids cannot leave the solution (EX: sulfuric acids)
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organic
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_______ acids are produced during metabolism (lactic acid, ketones)
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volatile
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Which type of acid is a major threat to the acid-base balance? (fixed, organic, volatile)
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7.35, 7.45
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Normal pH range falls in between _________ – __________.
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21, 28
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Normal HCO3- range falls between ________ – _________
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35, 45
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Normal PCO2 range falls between ________ – _________
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respiratory acidosis
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_____________ is generally caused by hypoventilation and CO2 build up in tissues and blood; can be improved with bronchodilation and mechanical assistance
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metabolic acidosis
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_____________ is generally caused by buildup of organic or fixed acid, impaired H+ elimination at kidnys, or HCO3- loss in urine or feces
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respiratory alkalosis
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___________ is caused by hyperventilation and reduction in plasma CO2 levels
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metabolic alkalosis
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___________ caused by prolonged vomiting and associated acid loss
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right lymphatic duct
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Lymph from the right arm, the right half of the head, and the right chest is received by the ___________.
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variable region
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The
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MHC
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__________ is a group of genes that codes for human leukocyte antigens
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spleen
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RBCs that are damaged or defective are removed from the bloodstream by the _____________
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diapedesis
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Phagocytes move through capillary walls by squeezing between adjacent endothelial cells, a process known as _____________
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NK
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Perforins are proteins associated with the activity of ___________ (T, B, NK, plasma) cells
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complement activation
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______________ stimulates inflammation, attracts phagocytes, and enhances phagocytosis.
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fever
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__________ functions to inhibit spread of some bacteria and viruses and increases metabolic rate by up to 10%
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CD4
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Helper T cells are associated with __________ markers
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cytotoxic T
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__________ cells are lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity
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helper T
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__________ cells are responsible for stimulating the activation and function of T and B cells
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suppressor T
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__________ cells are responsible for inhibiting the activation and function of T and B cells
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plasma
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__________ cells are responsible for producing and secreting antibodies
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NK
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__________ cells are responsible for recognizing and destroying abnormal cells
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stromal
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__________ cells are responsible for producing interleukin-7, which promotes differentiation of B cells
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thymic epithelial
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__________ cells are responsible for regulating T cell development and function
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interferons
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__________ cells are responsible for interfering with viral replication inside the cell and stimulating activities of macrophages and NK cells
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pyrogens
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__________ cells are responsible for reset the body’s thermostat, causing a rise in body temp (fever)
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T
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__________ cells are responsible for providing cell mediated immunity, which defends against abnormal cells and pathogens in cells.
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B
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__________ cells are responsible for providing humoral immunity, which defends against antigens pathogens in the body (but not inside cells)
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interleukins
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__________ cells are responsible for enhancing innate (nonspecific) defenses and increasing T cell sensitivity and stimulating B cell activity
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tumor necrosis factor
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__________ cells are responsible for slowing tumor growth and killing sensitive tumor cells
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colony stimulating factor
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__________ cells are responsible for stimulating the production of blood cells in the bone marrow and lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues
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thymus
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T cells derive from the __________
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red bone marrow
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B cells derive from the ___________
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red bone marrow
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NK cells derive from the ___________
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chemical breakdown
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The enzymatic breakdown of large molecules into their basic building blocks is called :
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serosa
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The outer layer of the digestive tract is known as the __________.
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mesenteries
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Double sheets of peritoneum that provide support and stability for the organs of the peritoneal cavity are the :
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portal area
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A branch of the hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery proper and branch of the bile duct form:
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simple columnar
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Most of the digestive tract is lined by _____________ epithelium
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segmentation
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Regional movements that occur in the small intestine and function to churn and fragment the digestive material are called:
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cholecystokinin
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Bile release from the gallbladder into the duodenum occurs only under stimulation of :
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large intestine
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The ____________ functions mainly in reabsorption of water and compaction of feces, absorption of vitamins liberated by bacterial action, storage of fecal material prior to defecation
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pancreas
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The ____________ functions to provide digestive enzymes, plus bicarbonate ions that elevate the pH of chyme
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liver
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The ____________ functions to produce bile and is the primary organ involved in regulating composition of circulating blood
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gallbladder
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The ____________ functions to store and release bile, which contains additional buffers and bile salts that aid in digestion and absorption of lipids
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enterocrinin
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_____________ is a hormone that stimulates the submucosal glands of the duodenum
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secretin
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___________ is a hormone that stimulates the pancreas and liver to increase secretion of water and bicarbonate ions
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cholecystokinin
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___________ is a hormone that cause an increase in release of pancreatic secretions and bile into duodenum, inhibits gastric activity and appears to have CNS affects that reduce the sensation of hunger
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gastric inhibitory peptide
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___________ is a hormone that stimulates insulin release at pancreatic islets and activity of duodenal submucosal glands
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gastrin
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___________ is a hormone secreted by G cells in duodenum that when exposed to large quantities of incompletely digested proteins

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