JLMC Exam 4

A radio company collecting advertising revenue is an example of direct payment (T/F)
F

News organizations owned by large media conglomerates have been significantly increasing the number of reporters assigned to cover international issues, especially following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. (T/F)
F

Public debates about the structure and ownership of the mass media are encouraged by media owners, who consider such discussion to be in their best interests.(T/F)
F

The public journalism movement asks reporters to remain detached from their communities and avoid involvement that could reveal a point of view(T/F)
F

Results from the media diary assignment show that most students recorded using the internet the most in the morning, followed by the afternoon(T/F)
F

The purpose of antitrust laws is to encourage diversity and competition in the marketplace.(T/F)
T

The government trend toward deregulation was actually begun during the Carter years.(T/F)
T

Government controls over business were drastically weakened during the presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981-1989). (T/F)
T

Because of the rise of specialization, people under eighteen and women over thirty-five have more cable television shows targeted at them. (T/F)
T

Former CBS broadcast chief William Paley once argued that anyone who attacked the commercial broadcast system was attacking democracy itself(T/F)
T

For hegemony to work, the culture must convince consumers and citizens that the interests of the powerful are common sense and thus normal or natural(T/F)
T

Newspaper editors feel that the public’s right to know always outweighs other issues, including national security(T/F)
T

The case of Richard Jewell and the Olympic Park bombing in 1996 demonstrates the danger of journalists’ not independently verifying what they report(T/F)
T

Many journalists take great pride in asking tough questions and acting as an adversary to the prominent political leaders and major institutions they cover. (T/F)
T

Walter Lippmann’s Public Opinion is considered by many academics to be “the founding book in American media studies.”(T/F)
T

Media effects research first emerged because of concerns about television violence.(T/F)
F

Researchers associated with the minimal-effects model argue that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention with regard to the media. (T/F)
T

One of the main problems in studying the effects of media is that whatever real effects the media cause, they also often serve as a scapegoat for larger social problems(T/F)
T

Philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas believed that critical public debate beyond the control of aristocrats, royalty, and religious elites led to support for causes like free speech.(T/F)
T

Jürgen Habermas’s theory of the public sphere was about the need for global cooperation with public projects(T/F)
T

Results from the media diary assignment showed that most students in this class use media for social reasons(T/F)
T

The book publishing and motion-picture industries are both examples of ______.
A. monopolies
B. oligopolies
C. O & Os
D. limited competition
E. None of the above options is correct.
B. oligopolies

Which of the following best describes limited competition?
A. A single firm that dominates an industry
B. A market that has many producers and sellers, but only a few products
C. A few firms that dominate an industry
D. Customers that pay directly for media goods, such as a cable TV or a magazine subscription
E. A company that is limited in the way it can compete with its rivals, as in case of price fixing
B. A market that has many producers and sellers, but only a few products

Media that rely primarily on direct payment to collect revenues include ______.
A. movies
B. online search engines
C. over-the-air radio stations
D. consumer magazines
E. daily newspapers
A. movies

When a media business relies on indirect payments for most of its revenue, consumers tend to ______.
A. become commodities to be “sold” to advertisers, who are the real clients
B. become completely unimportant
C. have the ability to communicate their preferences immediately
D. have the power to determine the type of advertising used
E. None of the above options is correct.
A. become commodities to be “sold” to advertisers, who are the real clients

Which of the following is a characteristic of the shift from an industrial to an information economy?
A. A change in focus from mass production to niche markets
B. A movement from global to local markets
C. A movement from office work to factory and industrialized production
D. An emphasis on laborers rather than service workers
E. All of the options are correct.
A. A change in focus from mass production to niche markets

The transition to an information economy was characterized by ______.
A. an increasingly centralized and permanent workforce
B. intense product rivalry between one country and another
C. an emphasis on mass rather than niche markets
D. concentrated ownership in nearly every media sector
E. the ever-increasing power of labor union movements
D. concentrated ownership in nearly every media sector

The first antitrust law, enacted in 1890, was the ______ Act.
A. Clayton Antitrust
B. Sherman Antitrust
C. Celler-Kefauver
D. Federal Trade Commission
E. None of the above options is correct.
B. Sherman Antitrust

Which of the following statements regarding the U.S. government’s action against monopolies in the late 1800s to early 1900s is false?
A. The government passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, outlawing monopoly practices.
B. The American Tobacco Company was one of the monopolies that broke up due to government action.
C. The Clayton Antitrust Act was passed in 1914, prohibiting manufacturers to sell to dealers who agreed to reject the products of their rivals.
D. Despite the Sherman Antitrust Act, Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company remained a monopoly.
E. All of the statements are true.
D. Despite the Sherman Antitrust Act, Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company remained a monopoly.

The 1996 Telecommunications Act ______.
A. placed limits on cable company rate increases
B. allowed telephone companies to enter the TV and radio business
C. allowed a company in the Top 20 market to own a newspaper and a TV station, as long as there were at least eight TV stations in the market
D. used regulation to guard against ownership concentration
E. None of the above options is correct.
B. allowed telephone companies to enter the TV and radio business

By 2013, the average U.S. home received ______ TV channels, but watched only about 17.
A. 50
B. 78
C. 133
D. 189
E. None of the above options is correct.
D. 189

The billion-dollar mergers and takeovers that swept the mass media in the 1990s were possible because of ______.
A. speculation on Wall Street
B. deregulation
C. the collapse of communism
D. the rise of the World Wide Web
E. tighter legal controls on corporate spending
B. deregulation

Given that ______ percent of new media products fail, a flexible economy demands fast product development and market research.
A. 10-20
B. 30-35
C. 40-50
D. 80-90
E. over 95
D. 80-90

According to your textbook, today’s flexible media system, in which new products are constantly rushed to the marketplace, favors ______.
A. workers who belong to labor unions
B. individual entrepreneurs who can tailor a unique media product to meet a niche market
C. large companies that can easily absorb losses incurred from failed products
D. government-subsidized companies that don’t have to be concerned with making a profit
E. None of the above options is correct.
C. large companies that can easily absorb losses incurred from failed products

Which statement best reflects the progress of U.S. labor unions over the last seventy years?
A. They have experienced steady growth and now represent 35 percent of workers.
B. After being painted as “socialist,” they saw their enrollment suffer badly through the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, but they have rebounded strongly in the last thirty years.
C. Enrollment seems to rise and fall each decade, but with an overall peak since the turn of the twenty-first century.
D. They have benefited greatly from the steady influx of manufacturing away from other countries.
E. They grew steadily following World War II, peaked in the 1950s when about a third of Americans belonged to a union, then have watched their numbers dwindle as more manufacturing jobs move overseas.
E. They grew steadily following World War II, peaked in the 1950s when about a third of Americans belonged to a union, then have watched their numbers dwindle as more manufacturing jobs move overseas.

In the textbook, the term wage gap refers to ______.
A. the growing difference in pay based on gender
B. the downsizing of traditional newsrooms, with fewer reporters earning much higher salaries
C. the rapidly growing difference in compensation between average wage earners and top corporate executives
D. the gap between union salaries in the 1950s and the 2000s
E. the shrinking gap in pay between hourly and salaried employees
C. the rapidly growing difference in compensation between average wage earners and top corporate executives

Which of the following is not a statement that describes the modern concept of hegemony?
A. Hegemony is a good tool for encouraging conversation and debate.
B. Hegemony was a technique recommended by modern public relations founder Edward Bernays as a way to control public opinion.
C. Hegemony’s qualities are often defined or reinforced by narratives, or stories, told in various media forms including books, movies, and television.
D. Hegemony tends to portray the social, economic, and political status quo as normal and natural ways to see the world.
E. Hegemony tends to repel self-scrutiny or critical examination.
A. Hegemony is a good tool for encouraging conversation and debate.

According to the textbook, what’s wrong with referring to a position as “common sense”?
A. It creates a context in which there is less chance for challenge and criticism.
B. Social and political leaders use it as a tool to stifle changes to the status quo.
C. It is a social construct that shifts over time rather than representing any solid “truth.”
D. It is a powerful tool of hegemony.
E. All of the options are correct.
E. All of the options are correct.

The significant trends in major mainstream media economics today are ______.
A. community ownership and civic action
B. specialization and synergy
C. partisanship and deference
D. national ownership and community action
E. dramatically greater diversity in ownership
B. specialization and synergy

The concept of synergy can best be described as ______.
A. the power of a new media development as it displaces old, less technologically advanced media
B. several media subsidiaries working under one corporate umbrella to promote different versions of a media product
C. the development of shopping-mall bookstores to boost book sales
D. the development of more multimediated ways to distribute books
E. the ability of one culture to dominate another
B. several media subsidiaries working under one corporate umbrella to promote different versions of a media product

In the 1950s, Disney was marked by ______.
A. legal trouble
B. corporate diversification
C. global expansion
D. economic turmoil
E. corporate shake-ups
B. corporate diversification

Which of the following is true about the globalization of media?
A. It’s more difficult for American media to reach other parts of the world.
B. Globalization allows foreign companies to have more control over the media that Americans consume.
C. Globalization has prevented U.S. TV channels from establishing a foothold in other countries.
D. Globalization facilitates the equal development of media in both the United States and other countries.
E. Globalization allows companies to recoup losses in the United States with sales overseas.
E. Globalization allows companies to recoup losses in the United States with sales overseas.

Unlike the other digital companies, Facebook lacks ______ to access the Internet and digital media.
A. hardware devices
B. funding
C. data
D. leverage
E. All of the options are correct.
E. All of the options are correct.

All five digital media conglomerates are weak in the area of ______.
A. e-commerce
B. search consoles
C. hardware devices
D. media narratives
E. social media
D. media narratives

The ______ merger is considered the biggest media merger failure ever.
A. Universal Music Group and EMI
B. Time Warner and Turner Broadcasting
C. Sirius and XM
D. Disney and ABC
E. AOL and Time Warner
E. AOL and Time Warner

How might diversification be used to skirt antitrust laws?
A. Employing minorities tends to make regulators happy and reluctant to target companies.
B. It gets local communities to issue licensed monopolies, such as is the case with many local cable companies that are often the only cable company allowed to operate in a local community.
C. By buying up lots of different media products, a company can avoid the appearance of monopolizing any one product, yet still be large enough that it only really competes with a handful of other similar companies.
D. A company avoids U.S. antitrust laws by buying up media companies around the world.
E. None of the options is correct.
C. By buying up lots of different media products, a company can avoid the appearance of monopolizing any one product, yet still be large enough that it only really competes with a handful of other similar companies.

In our market economy, citizens have ______, but not very much control over the types of products they might actually want.
A. consumer choice
B. enormous power
C. freedom from thought
D. great responsibility
E. None of the above options is correct.
A. consumer choice

Cultural imperialism is ______.
A. a concept in journalism ethics that argues that journalists must know the culture they are reporting on
B. the theory that globalization is good for media, since it makes media more culturally diverse
C. the idea that large and powerful countries can dominate and even change the culture of smaller countries through media
D. the argument that people are more affected by the media that is familiar to them
E. the process of colonization of smaller and weaker countries by larger and more powerful countries
C. the idea that large and powerful countries can dominate and even change the culture of smaller countries through media

The exportation of U.S. entertainment media is sometimes viewed as ______ because it discourages the development of original local products and value systems.
A. criminal
B. cultural dumping
C. monopolistic
D. consumer choice
E. capitalistic
B. cultural dumping

One key paradox of the Information Age is that for economic discussions to be meaningful and democratic, they must be carried out in ______.
A. educational settings
B. the popular media as well as in educational settings
C. community-action groups
D. American homes
E. presidential debates
B. the popular media as well as in educational settings

What was the impact/outcome of a 2010 Supreme Court decision (in a five-to-four vote) regarding campaign financing?
A. Stricter limits were placed on the amount of money businesses could donate to political candidates and causes.
B. No business or corporation is allowed to influence politicians with campaign cash.
C. Only small businesses and unions can donate money to campaigns.
D. The government cannot interfere in campaign spending by corporations.
E. None of the above options is correct.
D. The government cannot interfere in campaign spending by corporations.

Which of the following is not one of the techniques outlined by NBC news president Reuven Frank in 1963 as an effective way to tell a news story?
A. A story should have a beginning, middle, and end.
B. A story should include colorful descriptions that may or may not be factual.
C. A story should have structure and conflict.
D. A story should have rising and falling action.
E. A story should have a problem and denouement.
B. A story should include colorful descriptions that may or may not be factual.

Which of the following is not one of the basic criteria of newsworthiness?
A. Human interest
B. Proximity
C. Timeliness
D. Conflict
E. Consensus
E. Consensus

Based on the criteria a local broadcaster would use to determine newsworthiness, which of the following stories would most likely be covered?
A. Two local city council members get into a heated argument over building a new statue to honor a local celebrity.
B. People in a small foreign nation elect a new president.
C. Two local city council members agree to spend ten dollars on a new sign for the council chambers.
D. A local woman takes in a stray cat.
E. A Girl Scout helps an elderly woman cross the road.
A. Two local city council members get into a heated argument over building a new statue to honor a local celebrity.

One of the main reasons newspaper organizations started wanting their reporters to write in a neutral, detached style was that ______.
A. it would take less ink than printing stories with lots of adjectives
B. it would help reporters determine what is newsworthy
C. it would alienate fewer potential subscribers and advertisers
D. the tradition of a partisan press had become too old-fashioned
E. it made for shorter stories that would mean spending less on ink and paper
C. it would alienate fewer potential subscribers and advertisers

Historically, “objectivity” became valuable for newspapers and journalists because ______.
A. it was highly valued by Joseph Pulitzer
B. offending the smallest number of people meant earning the largest profit
C. the general public loved the partisan press
D. reporters had a desire to be “fair and balanced” for society’s sake
E. All of the options are correct.
B. offending the smallest number of people meant earning the largest profit

Herbert Gans studied the newsroom cultures of CBS, NBC, Newsweek, and Time during the 1970s. Which of the following is not one of the enduring values he identified within these newsroom cultures?
A. A preference for large-scale, urban settings — a focus on cities rather than rural communities
B. A focus on the power of individuals to overcome obstacles and personal adversity
C. A relatively procapitalist assumption that businesses compete for the well-being of the community rather than merely to increase profits
D. A tendency to judge other nations based on how they live up to American values
E. All of the options are correct.
A. A preference for large-scale, urban settings — a focus on cities rather than rural communities

According to the textbook, which of the following ideas developed into an underlying, subjective value in the culture of American journalism?
A. Ethnocentrism
B. Individualism
C. Responsible capitalism
D. Small-town pastoralism
E. All of the options are correct.
E. All of the options are correct.

Which of the following would be okay for a journalist to accept from a news source and still avoid a conflict of interest?
A. A train ride
B. A meal
C. Box seats for a baseball game
D. A promise of greater access to an important figure in exchange for positive stories
E. None of the options is correct.
E. None of the options is correct.

Which of the following could help a journalist resolve a moral or ethical dilemma?
A. The Golden Rule, translated as treating others as you would want to be treated
B. Aristotle’s ideal of the “golden mean”
C. Immanuel Kant’s principle that you should at all times stick to universal codes of behavior, such as honesty
D. Jeremy Bentham’s and John Stuart Mill’s principle of doing the greatest good for the greatest number
E. All of the options are correct.
E. All of the options are correct.

The textbook suggests that the best way for journalists to reach ethical decisions might be ______.
A. dealing with complex issues as they arise on a case-by-case basis
B. leaving all decisions to senior management
C. taking the time to work through several critical thinking steps
D. choosing one ethical model (such as Aristotle’s) and sticking with it absolutely
E. always assuming that the public’s need to know outweighs all other concerns
C. taking the time to work through several critical thinking steps

According to the textbook, which of the following is not characteristic of modern journalism?
A. It tends to rely on “expert” sources for information.
B. It provides little historical context in most front-page stories.
C. It provides detailed interpretation and analysis of news events.
D. It creates an appearance that the reporter is neutral or detached.
E. All of the options are not characteristic.
C. It provides detailed interpretation and analysis of news events.

For most journalists, the bottom line is ______.
A. “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”
B. “Fairness first”
C. the public’s right to know
D. “Get the story”
E. managing conflicts of interest
D. “Get the story”

Journalism critics say the quest for balance presents some problems, including ______.
A. leading to stories that misrepresent complex issues as two-sided dramas
B. disguising that quotes may be selected for the purpose of drama instead of fairness
C. serving business interests rather than journalistic interests
D. failing to represent those who hold a middle position
E. All of the options are correct.
E. All of the options are correct.

Why have local TV newscasts developed a similar look since the 1970s?
A. TV news directors copied each other.
B. Local news programs became syndicated.
C. Stations hired news consultants, who advised them to buy national prepackaged formats.
D. Technology dictated that news programs look alike.
E. Studies showed that there was only way the news could logically be delivered to viewers.
C. Stations hired news consultants, who advised them to buy national prepackaged formats.

Which of the following did not result from hiring television news consultants?
A. Local news directors purchased national prepackaged formats.
B. Local news put its issues-oriented reporting at the forefront, often starting newscasts with those stories.
C. A culture of “if it bleeds, it leads” developed in the industry.
D. Everything from music to opening graphics developed a similar look across the country.
E. Standards of appearance for news anchors became even more rigid.
B. Local news put its issues-oriented reporting at the forefront, often starting newscasts with those stories.

Ad-libbed or scripted banter that goes on among local news anchors, reporters, meteorologists, and sports reporters before and after news reports is called ______.
A. happy talk
B. crime blocks
C. pretty-face
D. sound bites
E. talking heads
A. happy talk

The sound bite in a TV news report is the equivalent of a ______ in a newspaper story.
A. source
B. byline
C. lead paragraph
D. quote
E. footnote
D. quote

The growing trend of twenty-four-hour cable news stations filling time with “talking head” pundits ______.
A. enables the stations to spend more money on producing “solid” journalism
B. allows these stations to appeal to the broadest possible audience by avoiding offending viewers
C. displays a continued rejection of the “partisan press” roots of American journalism
D. encourages civil conversation about American politics
E. None of the above options is correct.
E. None of the above options is correct.

Which of the following is not a change the Internet has wrought upon traditional journalism?
A. News reporters are increasingly required to have video and audio elements in their stories.
B. News consumers can more often see entire interviews instead of only sound bites.
C. Both print and TV news can continually update breaking news stories online.
D. Journalists might rely too heavily on Internet research rather than physically going to investigate stories.
E. E-mail interviews allow journalists to get more spontaneity out of interview subjects.
E. E-mail interviews allow journalists to get more spontaneity out of interview subjects.

Tweeting and blogging are ______.
A. considered a waste of time by almost all news organizations
B. mostly ignored by news media audiences
C. a journalism fad that has passed
D. becoming required duties for journalists
E. done only by journalists of small local papers
D. becoming required duties for journalists

A journalist who practices an informational or modern model approach to journalism would most likely be inclined to focus a story about a crime spree around ______.
A. presenting official comments and statistics in a neutral manner
B. taking an advocacy stance
C. condemning the criminals involved
D. acknowledging his or her own point of view
E. None of the above options is correct.
A. presenting official comments and statistics in a neutral manner

Which of the following is a characteristic of public journalism?
A. A focus on the most recent events
B. It follows a “he said-she said” format for reporting news.
C. An emphasis on human-interest stories to attract readers
D. Journalists not only criticize communities but try to improve them.
E. The complete objectivity of reporters
D. Journalists not only criticize communities but try to improve them.

In which way does the current trend toward public journalism differ from modern journalism?
A. It moves away from just telling the news to becoming involved in community life.
B. It insists that neutrality and objectivity are essential to any type of journalism.
C. It moves to increase editorial control in the newsroom and encourage the detached watchdog mission of journalists.
D. It does not propose solutions to the political and social problems of the day.
E. All of the options are correct.
A. It moves away from just telling the news to becoming involved in community life.

Supporters of public journalism argue that insisting journalists are “value-neutral” ______.
A. helps bolster the actual professionalism and objectivity of journalists
B. creates a sense of greater trust by the public in the journalism profession
C. actually results in less credibility with the public
D. will help the news remain fair and unbiased
E. is a true reflection of the values held by journalists
C. actually results in less credibility with the public

Which of the following is a basic tenet, or belief, of conventional journalism?
A. Reporters have a moral and ethical duty to help improve civic life.
B. Journalists should help improve political discourse.
C. A free press should question the government and get both sides of a story.
D. Journalists need to become activists for engaging the public in the political process.
E. All of the options are correct.
C. A free press should question the government and get both sides of a story.

Referring to journalism, what is narrowcasting?
A. A bipartisan approach to the news.
B. A neutral standpoint that broadcast journalists take when reporting.
C. Targeting a specific audience with specific news.
D. Broadcast channels that have built their programming along partisan lines.
E. None of the options are correct.
C. Targeting a specific audience with specific news.

The scientific study of mass media got started because of interest in ______.
A. French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville
B. how media messages were used to inspire public support for World War I
C. knowing which forms of advertising were most effective
D. finding out how the public feels about political and social issues
E. how violent video images might inspire violent behavior
D. finding out how the public feels about political and social issues

Researchers’ negative definition of the kind of propaganda used by various governments during World War I was ______.
A. “the opinions of various political groups and candidates for political office”
B. “the control of military communication through the use of secret codes”
C. “the use of reliable and truthful information in an honest discussion of national policy”
D. “partisan appeal based on half-truths and devious manipulation of communication channels”
E. “the public’s ability to set the agenda of those holding office or other form of power through communication”
D. “partisan appeal based on half-truths and devious manipulation of communication channels”

Call-in online, or person-in-the-street polls that the news media use to address a “question of the day” are known as ______.
A. propaganda analysis
B. the uses and gratifications model
C. the scientific method
D. pseudo-polls
E. random assignment
D. pseudo-polls

The 1938 radio broadcast of War of the Worlds made millions of listeners believe that Martians were invading Earth; however, most listeners didn’t believe that the story was real. This outcome ultimately helped lay the groundwork for which research model?
A. The hypodermic-needle model
B. The minimal-effects model
C. The uses and gratifications model
D. The survey model
E. The textual analysis model
B. The minimal-effects model

The hypodermic-needle research model might be considered the opposite of which research model?
A. The agenda-setting model
B. The minimal-effects model
C. The uses and gratifications model
D. The survey model
E. The textual analysis model
C. The uses and gratifications model

People often choose to expose themselves only to media outlets that express their views. What is this called?
A. The uses and gratifications model
B. Selective exposure and retention
C. The hypodermic-needle model
D. The marketing research model
E. The propaganda analysis model
B. Selective exposure and retention

The question “Why do we use the media?” is often asked under the ______ model.
A. uses and gratifications
B. selective exposure and retention
C. hypodermic-needle
D. marketing research
E. propaganda analysis
A. uses and gratifications

Which of the following is not a common characteristic of private or proprietary mass media research?
A. It is more theoretical than applied.
B. It is generally conducted for a business, a corporation, or even a political campaign.
C. It relies on the scientific method to reach conclusions.
D. It tends to try to find answers to meet a real-life problem or need.
E. It could help create more effective advertising.
E. It could help create more effective advertising.

Which kind of research method employs a control group for comparison?
A. Focus group interviews
B. Content analysis
C. Political economy
D. Experiment
E. Survey
D. Experiment

In experiments, subjects are picked for each group through ______, which simply means that each subject has an equal chance of being placed in either group.
A. random assignment
B. hypotheses
C. control groups
D. scientific method
E. surveys
A. random assignment

A mass media effects researcher might choose an experiment approach if he or she has ______.
A. a desire to get results that reflect some truth about a large population
B. a desire to find out if two variables are related in some undetermined way
C. a desire to try to show a cause-effect relationship between two variables
D. a desire to study a large population
E. the ability to study a large population and see how it changes over time
C. a desire to try to show a cause-effect relationship between two variables

Which of the following is not one of the steps in the scientific method listed in your textbook?
A. Identifying the research problem
B. Determining an appropriate research method or design
C. Collecting information or relevant data
D. Reviewing existing research or theories related to your problem
E. Presenting the proposed research problem to companies for funding
E. Presenting the proposed research problem to companies for funding

A mass media effects researcher might choose a survey approach if he or she has a desire to ______.
A. try to control variables using a control group and an experiment group
B. demonstrate a clear cause-effect relationship
C. observe people in a laboratory, or tightly controlled, situation
D. observe people using mass media in their own homes
E. collect information that applies to a large population
E. collect information that applies to a large population

What type of study looks at changes in a population over time?
A. Content analysis study
B. Longitudinal study
C. Agenda-setting study
D. Experiment study
E. Textual analysis study
B. Longitudinal study

Which kind of research method reveals correlations between two variables?
A. Content analysis
B. Experiment
C. Political economy
D. Focus group interviews
E. Survey
E. Survey

If data showed that heavy consumers of violent videos engage in more violent behavior than do light consumers, a social scientist would likely conclude that ______.
A. watching violent videos causes violent behavior
B. violent personality traits cause people to choose violent videos
C. watching videos has strong effects on the audience
D. viewing violent videos and violent behavior are correlated
E. All of the options are correct.
D. viewing violent videos and violent behavior are correlated

Which kind of research involves systematically coding and measuring media content?
A. Experiments
B. Focus group interviews
C. Surveys
D. Content analysis
E. Political economy
D. Content analysis

What method is a researcher using if he or she watches a season of a television program and counts each time an act of violence is shown?
A. Content analysis
B. Experiment
C. Textual analysis
D. Survey
E. Focus group
A. Content analysis

Which of the following is not one of the four steps identified as part of the social learning theory process?
A. Retention
B. Motivation
C. Attention
D. Motor reproduction
E. Cultivation
E. Cultivation

Which line of research has generally demonstrated that the mass media don’t tell people what to think as much as they tell people what to think about?
A. Cultivation effect
B. Agenda-setting
C. Social learning theory
D. Spiral of silence
E. Audience studies
B. Agenda-setting

Which line of research helps to explain why Midwesterners started to rank shark attacks as a problem after the 1975 release of the movie Jaws and its subsequent press coverage?
A. Cultivation effect
B. Agenda-setting
C. Spiral of silence
D. Textual analysis
E. Social learning theory
B. Agenda-setting

If someone has never been the victim of a violent crime and lives in an area that has very low rates of violent crime, yet still feels he or she is at a high level or risk for such crimes after watching a lot of Law & Order, this might be an example of ______.
A. the cultivation effect
B. agenda-setting
C. political economy
D. textual analysis
E. audience studies
A. the cultivation effect

The major research in the area of cultivation effect grew from the attempts of ______ to make generalizations about the impact of televised violence.
A. social learning theorists
B. George Gerbner and his colleagues
C. Walter Lippman
D. Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann
E. None of the above options is correct.
B. George Gerbner and his colleagues

Which of the following is a theory that contends that people who believe they hold minority opinions on controversial issues tend to keep silent for fear of social isolation?
A. Cultivation effect
B. Agenda-setting
C. Social learning
D. Textual analysis
E. Spiral of silence
E. Spiral of silence

______ is the theory that people believe others are more affected by media messages than they are themselves.
A. Cultivation effect
B. Agenda-setting
C. Third-person effect
D. Textual analysis
E. Spiral of silence
C. Third-person effect

Which of the following is characteristic of a cultural studies approach to mass media research?
A. The belief that audiences are primarily passive and easily persuaded
B. An attempt to understand how people use media to serve their own ends
C. The belief that media don’t tell us what to think but what to think about
D. A focus on how people make meaning, understand reality, and order their experiences
E. An interest in measuring and coding the content of particular media texts
D. A focus on how people make meaning, understand reality, and order their experiences

The close reading and interpretation of the meaning of cultural forms is called ______.
A. content analysis
B. agenda-setting
C. textual analysis
D. the cultivation effect
E. uses and gratifications
C. textual analysis

While social science research can be characterized as trying to establish a cause-and-effect relationship, cultural studies ______.
A. does exactly the same thing, but calls it something different
B. looks at how propaganda might affect a group of people
C. only examines how the media affect the world
D. only focuses on how society shapes mass media
E. forms more general perspectives about how the mass media interact with the world
E. forms more general perspectives about how the mass media interact with the world

Which of the following is a focus of cultural studies approaches to media studies?
A. Textual analysis
B. Audience studies
C. Political economy studies
D. Debate in the public sphere
E. All of the options are correct.
E. All of the options are correct.

When mass media researchers say they are studying political economy, they are most likely looking at which of the following?
A. The ways political candidates make decisions about reaching an audience
B. The ways economists become political candidates
C. The way ownership of a television network influences the kinds of information in the network news
D. The way ordinary people engage in political activism or conversations about politics
E. None of the above options is correct.
C. The way ownership of a television network influences the kinds of information in the network news

Habermas formed his ideas about the public sphere while examining which aspect of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century English and French society?
A. Aristocrats, royalty, and religious leaders’ discussions of important issues
B. The way newspapers manipulated the lower and middle classes
C. How the middle class began to gather in places like coffeehouses to critically discuss public life
D. The idea that communication and culture could be viewed as the same thing
E. None of the above options is correct.
C. How the middle class began to gather in places like coffeehouses to critically discuss public life

Media historian James Carey defined communication as ______.
A. “an exchange of verbal or nonverbal symbols between individuals or groups”
B. “a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed”
C. “the gathering of a middle class to critically discuss the world around them”
D. “a strict set of rules governing how different social classes interact”
E. All of the options are correct.
B. “a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed”

If you are trying to understand human behavior rather than explaining and predicting it, which approach to mass communication research would you take?
A. A media effects approach to research
B. A cultural approach to research
C. An agenda-setting approach to research
D. A content analysis approach to research
E. None of the above options is correct.
B. A cultural approach to research

What theory did Solomon Asch’s research help to form?
A. Social learning theory
B. Agenda-setting theory
C. Third-person effect
D. Spiral of silence
E. Cultivation effect
D. Spiral of silence

Which media type was the most recorded from the media diary assignment?
A. Music
B. Cell Phone
C. Social Media
D. Books
E. Internet
C. Social Media