Italian Unification – IB HL History

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What year was the Congress of Vienna?
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1815
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What was the leading power at the congress of Vienna?
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Austria
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Who was the diplomatic figure-head of Austria?
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Metternich
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What were the results of the Congress of Vienna 1815?
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Re-creation of Kingdom of Naples, Papal States, Central Duchies, Lombardy, Venetia, Kingdom of Piedmont
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Name five ‘Liberal’ goals in the 19th century.
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Goals: Bill of Rights, Constitutions, Representative Governments, Personal Freedoms, No press censorship
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What were the cultural and economic divides between 1799-1847
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Political Ideologies were limited to states, not Italy. Italy was divided linguistically. Power of the papacy limited unification by seeking italians to be loyal to God.
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What is the name of the Italian ‘re-birth’ movement?
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Risorgimento
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Name four secret Italian societies focussed on Risorgimento
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Freemasons, Federati, Carbonari, Spillo Negro
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What was the largest Italian secret society? What did they seek?
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Carbonari. Sought Constitutional Monarchy and other limited reforms.
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Approximately what percentage of Naples’ male population were members of the carbonari?
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5%
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What were the inherent weaknesses within many of these secret societies?
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They were very small. They kept secret from other groups. Highly disorganised. Uncoordinated. Had divided goals and aspirations.
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What were the reasons for the 1820 revolutions?
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Hatred of Austrian influence. Misrule of repressive King Ferdinand. Poor socio-economic situation.
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What Italian states did the 1820 revolutions affect?
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Kingdom of Naples. Sicily – which was ruled by Naples
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What happened during the 1820 revolutions?
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Revolution broke out in Naples – middle class Carbonari revolutionaries seeking liberal reforms in mainland Naples – they seize Naples and King Ferdinand bows down. Sicilians also rose up and expelled the Neopolitan Governor General Pepe takes command of revolution in Naples – King Ferdinand grants Constitution and Liberal Reforms. Revolutionaries in Naples agree they must attack and defeat revolutionaries in Sicily – begin fighting them.
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What was the name of the Congress that Metternich organised to deal with the revolutions? What was agreed?
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Congress of Troppau. Agrees with Prussia and Russia that the revolutions must be suppressed. Austrian troops invaded – rebellion is crushed.
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Which state did the revolts in Naples spur secret societies to rise up?
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Piedmont
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What happened during the revolution in Piedmont?
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Secret societies in Piedmont rise up against Victor Emmanuel I – seeking a constitution. Emmanuel abdicates Results in a power scramble between Charles Albert and Charles Felix – Felix wins. Felix calls upon Austrian troops – revolution is crushed.
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Which states did the revolutions of 1830 affect?
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Modena and Parma. Papal States
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What happened during the 1830 revolutions?
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Modena and Parma: Middle class citizens demand constitutional reforms – both leaders of the states call on Austria to save them – revolutions defeated. Papal States: Middle Class demand an end to Church domination of government – Austrians invade and defeat them – Papal authority reasserted.
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What foreign nation was instrumental in the crushing of the revolutions of both 1820 and 1830?
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Austria.
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Specify 5 reasons as to why the revolutions of 1820 and 1830 failed.
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Localised conflicts focused on local grievances and concerns. Lack in communication and co-operation between revolutionary groups. Middle class leadership were not keen on violence and had moderate goals – they were too easily satisfied and tricked by leaders. Lack of popular support for revolutions as goals of the middle class didn’t appeal to the common man – Sicily was the only revolution that was popular as it was driven by socio-economic reasons. The revolutions were ill equipped and lacked proper supplies and armaments to effectively resist the Austrian army. There was a lack of external aid or support – especially from France in the 1830 revolutions. Austrian strength and dominance.
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What Italian unification movement did Giuseppe Mazzini found in 1831?
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Young Italy Society
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What were Mazzini’s goals?
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A Youth Movement – age limit of 40. Wanted full unity of Italy rather than the moderate revolutionaries who wanted a constitutional monarchy. Believed Italian unification should come down to Italians fighting for Italy – rather than external help. Sought a Republican government.
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In which states did Mazzini attempt to provoke revolutions in 1833-34?
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Piedmont Savoy Naples
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Who was Pope during the 1848-1849 revolutions in Rome?
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Pope Pius IX
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What state did Mazzini create in Rome in 1849?
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Created a Roman Republic
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Describe three key attributes of the Roman Republic.
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Proportional representation. Free education system. Dissolution of Church Lands.
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How many days did the Roman Republic survive for?
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100
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How did Mazzini benefit the Italian unification movement through the written word?
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He spread the idea and message of Italian unification through thousand of letters and articles.
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What other key contributor to Italian Unification did Mazzini persuade to join the ‘Young Italy’ in 1834?
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Garibaldi
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What did the Roman Republic show?
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It showed what was possible and set an example for other Italians to base work upon.
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What liberal actions did Pope Pius IX carry out in 1846-47
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Freed 2,000 political prisoners. Introduced legal and judicial reforms. Investigated papal education and administration system. Allowed freedom of press.
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Why were some Italian Nationalists convinced that Italy should be unified around the Papacy and Pius?
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It seemed logical.
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Name the key liberal thinker who supported the view that Italy should be unified around the Pope and the papacy?
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Gioberti
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What effect did Pope Pius IX liberal actions have?
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Spurred people throughout Italy to demand similar reforms from their leaders. Results in Genoa, Piedmont, Tuscany and Lucca – acts as a catalyst for 1848 revolutions.
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What were key reasons for the outbreak of revolution across the Italian states in 1848?
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Pope Pius IX’s liberal reforms lead to a Papal States revolt and received a constitution from the Pope – this spurred on other revolutions.
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Name the leader of Piedmont in 1848?
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Charles Albert
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Why is Piedmont looked to, in 1848, as the centre of the Italian unification movement?
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Charles Albert saw himself seeking Italian unification around Piedmont. Piedmont was the most powerful state and had the most chance of success.
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What liberal and progressive document does Charles Albert pass in 1848 for Piedmont?
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Il Statuto. Gave the people of Piedmont more rights and a degree of political freedom. Attracted thousands of political refugees.
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What power does Charles Albert call war on?
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Austria
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At what battles are the Piedmontese army defeated and what years are each of these?
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Battles of Custoza – July 1948. Battle of Novara – March 1949.
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What two Italian powers abandon Piedmont?
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Naples and Papacy
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What two states does Piedmont abandon? And who reconquers them?
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Lombardy and Venetia. Austria reconquers them.
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What happened to Charles Albert after the 1848 revolutions?
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He abdicated and Victor Emmanuel II took over in the 1850s.
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What was the political attitude of Victor Emmanuel?
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He was not a supporter of liberalism. He wanted aggrandisement of Piedmont.
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What power defeats Mazzini’s Roman Republic and until what year will that power leave a garrison in Rome?
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France. Removed in 1871.
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What happened to Pope Pius IX during the Roman Republic?
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He changes his attitude from liberal to highly conservative. Flees to Naples and declares all revolutionaries to be fighting against God. Calls on Catholic powers to invade Rome and take it back for him.
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What newspaper did Cavour set up
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Il Risorgimento 1847
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What year does Camillo Cavour become Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and Navy?
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1850
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What year does Cavour become Minister of Finance?
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1851
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What year does Cavour become prime-minister and who does he replace?
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Replaces the D’Azeglio Ministry in 1852.
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What two nations did Cavour create free-trade agreements with?
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France and Britain.
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What other things did Cavour set up for the Piedmontese economic state during the 1850s?
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Secured large foreign loans to pay off war indemnity to Austria and also build industrial infrastructure. Built massive railway network in Piedmont which linked it to the rest of Europe.
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By how many times did Piedmontese trade grow in the 1850s?
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three
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What type of transport was developed by Cavour to be the best in Italy?
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Railway
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What war did Cavour convince Victor Emmanuel II to join in 1854?
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Crimean War
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Which countries were fighting who during the Crimean War 1854?
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UK and France vs Russia
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How many troops did Piedmont send to the Crimean War 1854?
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18,000
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What was the result of the war for Piedmont?
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They were offered a seat at the peace conference – The Congress of Paris
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Name 3 historians that disagree over Cavour’s purpose in this war and peace process
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Traditional Italian Nationalist Historians – master stroke by Cavour as he knowingly involves Piedmont which makes it into a great power. Liberal Historians (Salvadori, Beales) – The fact that the UK and France pressured VE II and Cavour to join was to try and motivate Austria to join. Revisionist Historians (Denis Mack Smith) – VE orchestrated the whole thing to reassert his royal authority.
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What powerful European figure did Cavour meet as a result of the peace conference?
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Emperor Napoleon III
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Why was Napoleon III supportive of Italian unification in the 1850s?
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He was a liberal
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What was the name of the event where an Italian Nationalist attempted to assassinate Napoleon III in 1858?
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Orsini Affair
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Where did the meeting between Napoleon III and Cavour in 1858 take place?
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Plombieres – spa town
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What was agreed at Plombieres 1858?
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Plans for a joint defensive alliance against Austria. Austria must be seen as the aggressor. France would send 200,000 troops and Piedmont would send 100,000. Italy would receive Lombardy and Venetia and France would receive Nice and Savoy.
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What year was the Austro-Franco war?
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1859
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How is the war provoked?
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Cavour gets VE II to make public speeches saying Piedmont seeks to annex Lombardy and Venetia.
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What Italian State was also involved in the Austro-Franco War 1859?
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Piedmont
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What percentage of troops promised by Piedmont were actually provided to fight along the french in the Austro Franco war 1859?
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40%
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Name two major battles of the Austro-Franco War 1859
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Magenta and Solferino
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Name the peace that ended the Austro-Franco War 1859
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Peace of Villafranca
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What two powers was this peace treaty concluded by and who was left out?
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Concluded by Austria and France. Left out piedmont.
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What was decided at the Peace of Villafranca 1859?
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Lombardy given to Piedmont via France. Rulers of Tuscany and Modena to be restored. Venetia to remain in Austrian hands.
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What did Cavour urge VE II to do when the peace was declared?
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Demands he continues was against Austria without the french allies.
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What did Cavour do when VE II refused his demand to continue war against Austria?
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Resigned as prime minister
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How long did Cavour remain out of government when he resigned?
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Nine months.
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What year were the plebiscites and annexations of the Central Duchies to Piedmont of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna?
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1860
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What did Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna initially do to avoid provoking Napoleon III?
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Set up pro-piedmontese governments. All states are combined to make ‘Emilia’ which was pro-piedmont.
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Which Piedmontese politician was integral to these annexations?
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Cavour
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What did Cavour do in 1860?
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Returned in January 1960 and seizes moment in orchestrating plebiscite votes in central duchy states for annexation to Piedmont. 99% in Emilia vote for annexation. Tuscany also approves annexation to Piedmont.
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What Italian state that Cavour sought for ‘Italy’ was not gained by 1860?
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Venetia
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What were the successes from the Austro-Franco War and the following year?
answer

Emilia and Tuscany and Lombardy gained by Piedmont – doubling the geographic size and population on Piedmont. Kingdom of Italy created comprising of Northern Italian States.
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What were the failures of the Austro-Franco War and the year after?
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Fail to gain Venetia. Also loose Nice and Savoy.
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What year does Cavour die?
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1861
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In which Piedmontese controlled state was Garibaldi born?
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Nice
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What year did Garibaldi meet Mazzini?
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1831
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What was Garibaldi’s core concern for Italy?
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Main concern was Unification of Italian peninsula
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Between what years was Garibaldi a supporter of Mazzinian unification ideals?
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1834-1848
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Between what years was Garibaldi a supporter of Piedmontese-centric unification?
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1848-1866
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What was Garibaldi’s role in the Roman Republic 1849?
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Brings his legion from south america to fight for Charles Albert – but is rejected. Then joins the Roman Republic and Mazzini. After the last defence of Rome against Napoleon III’s army he flees to America to his island of Caprera.
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What is the name of the Mediterranean island that Garibaldi buys with inherited money?
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Caprera.
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What was Garibaldi’s role in the 1859 Austro-Franco war?
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Approached on his island and asked to fight against Austria. he gathered up his volunteer force and fought against Austrian supply columns.
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How was Garibaldi betrayed by the Peace of Villafranca 1859?
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It gives up Nice – was his Italian home
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What does Garibaldi plan to do after the Peace of Villafranca 1859?
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Organises his own invasion force to attack Nice to try and get it back.
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Why does Cavour try and stop Garibaldi from attacking Nice?
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Did not want to risk war with France
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Why does the Sicilian Revolt break out in 1860?
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Mazzinian leaders revolt against Conservative new King Francis II. Peasantry join revolt for socio-economic reasons.
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Why does Garibaldi decide to invade Sicily rather the Nice in 1860?
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Garibaldi sees it as a fortuitous situation
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What was Garibaldi’s force that left to invade Sicily known as?
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Garibaldi’s Thousand
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How and why does Cavour attempt to stop Garibaldi’s invasion of Sicily?
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Refuses to release Garibaldi’s 12,000 guns in Genoa. Refuses to give any ships to Garibaldi – Garibaldi steals them. Does this as Garibaldi invading Sicily would risk compromising Piedmont’s position.
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Why can Cavour and VE II not be seen to publicly stop Garibaldi from invading Sicily?
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Garibaldi’s invasion was popular with Italian people – would loose VE II and Cavour support
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Why is Garibaldi’s invasion of Sicily successful?
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Used guerrilla warfare which quickly defeated 20,000 Neapolitan troops who flee to Naples.
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What does Garibaldi become in Sicily?
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Dictator
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Why does Garibaldi not immediately cede Sicily to VE II and what does that make people think?
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Garibaldi wanted to use Sicily as a base of inaction for Naples and knows VE II won’t allow this. Makes people question Garibaldi’s loyalty to VE II.
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How is Garibaldi a threat to VE II?
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VE II feared that Garibaldi would become most popular figure of unified Italy and thus be a threat.
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What did Cavour try to provoke in the Kingdom of Naples in 1860 before Garibaldi invaded?
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Tried to provoke a pro-piedmont rebellion before Garibaldi invaded – however it failed.
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After Sicily, what is the next Italian nation the Garibaldi conquers -1860?
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Naples
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After Naples what was the next state that Garibaldi had his eyes set on?
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Papal States
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What action does Cavour convince VE II to carry out to stop Garibaldi’s invasion of the papal states?
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He convinces VE II to lead Piedmontese invasion force through the Papal States to stop Garibaldi.
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Where do Garibaldi and VE II’s armies meet?
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Teano – 1861
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What does Garibaldi do at Teano 1861?
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He cedes his conquests over to VE II – Shows that Garibaldi is loyal to VE II and to the idea of Italian unification.
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What year is Garibaldi’s first invasion of the Papal States?
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1862
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Why does Garibaldi decide to invade the Papal states..again?
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Garibaldi saw it that the leaders of Italian State were not doing anything – saw it as his responsibility to take action.
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Why is Garibaldi’s invasion of the Papal States a danger to Piedmont?
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The French garrison was still defending the Pope in the Papal States – risked war with france.
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Who mobilises their army against Garibaldi and defeats him at the battle of Aspromonte?
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Piedmontese forces
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Why was Garibaldi’s defeat humiliating for both him and VE II?
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Garibaldi had failed in his attack. VE II had to punish one of Italy’s greatest heroes.
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What year was the Austro-Prusso war?
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1866
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What were Garibaldi’s contributions to the Austro-Prusso War 1866?
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Garibaldi led a contingent of troops very affectively against Austria. His forces attacked Austria’s supply columns and used guerrilla warfare to great effect
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What territory is gained by Italy as a result of the Austro-Prusso war?
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Venetia
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What was agreed in 1964 concerning the Papal States?
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The removal of French garrison from Rome. Italian capital will be moved to Florence. Papal states will have its own army.
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What year was Garibaldi’s second invasion of the Papal States?
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1867
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Whose army defeats Garibaldi during his second invasion of the Papal States 1867 and at what Battle?
answer

The French army Battle of Mentana.
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What was the effect of VE II leaving the ‘Statuto’ in Piedmont, and how did this contribute to unification around Piedmont?
answer

Meant that liberal ideas of unification could continue. Allowed political refugees from the rest of Italy to come to Piedmont – making it the centre for unification.
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What was the name of VE II’s famous speech made in 1859 and what he say in it?
answer

‘Grido di dalore’ Condemned austrian influence in Italian peninsula Caused many to see him as focal point of Italian unification.
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Describe how Cavour was reliant upon VE II and how VE II can actually be seen as more important than Cavour
answer

VE II held all the power – he allowed for, approved and supported all Cavour’s financial and political policies – Cavour could not have done this without VE II. VE II refused Cavour’s advice in 1859 to continued Austro-Franco war – this saved Piedmont and italian unification.
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Why was Garibaldi so loyal to VE II and how can it be argued that VE II was therefore more important to unification than Garibaldi?
answer

VE II had created himself the image of a great leader for Italy – gained him loyalty from Garibaldi who saw VE II as the right man to give his conquests to. Without this loyalty Garibaldi would not have given him Kingdoms of Sicily and Naples.
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What year was Venetia added to the Italian Nation and as a result of which war?
answer

1866. Result of the Austro-Prusso war
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What year were the Papal States finally added to Italy?
answer

1871
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Whose troops were earlier pulled out of Papal States as a result of invasion by Prussian forces – making Papal States vulnerable?
answer

French troops
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How did the Papacy resist the rule of the new Italian State?
answer

Pope keeps the Vatican. Pope issues a ‘Doctrine of Papal Infallibility’ – attacked italian government severely.1870 Pope says Italian State was illegal and citizens must choose whether they will be Catholics or Italians.
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What year does the Pope finally recognise the Italian State?
answer

1929
question

To what extent was Italy geographically unified by 1871?
answer

Unification had been centred around Piedmont State – had been fully unified geographically by 1871.
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Describe ways that the Italian peninsula had been politically unified by 1871
answer

Customs, coinage, weights and measures all standardised. Italian Constitution is created – enforced throughout Italy -based on Piedmont Constitution
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What was wrong with the voting system for annexation of Sicily and Naples carried out by Piedmont?
answer

Filled with problems and highly corrupt. Piedmont doesn’t inform southerners what they are voting for, and many are illiterate they don’t understand. Sicily and Naples told they are voting for a ‘better life’.
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Who did Piedmont take subsidy money from to fund their government education for Italian South?
answer

The Church
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Why does this anger southerners?
answer

Saw it as an attack on the Catholic Church as they were a much more religious culture in the South.
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What percentage of the Italian south was illiterate?
answer

90%
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In what year were the revolts and rebellions in southern states?
answer

1860s
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What did the government have to do to control the rebellious south?
answer

had to send 90,000 troops in 1863 to control the South
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Who made the famous quote ‘Italy is made, now we must make italians’?
answer

Minister D’Azeglio
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What were the successful economic actions of unification?
answer

All Italy was brought together as a single economic sphere for taxes, production and skilled labour. Northern Italy benefits greatly as it is already relatively industrialised and economic growth continues.
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What were the economic failures of unification?
answer

Southern italy was not full of the natural resources hoped for. There was a massive cost of administering and ruling the new Italy – becomes a source of resentment. Agricultural production in S.Italy is outdated and inefficient – more cost needed form N.Italy

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