IT paper and paperboard

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sustainability
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using resources in a way that doesnt completely destroy or ruin them in the future
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Paper board (weight/thickness)
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more than 51 lbs/1000 sqft more than .012 in
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fibers
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elongated cells made of cellulose with tapering ends and very thick, heavily lignified cell walls.
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fiber composition
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~50% Cellulose ~25% Hemicellulose ~25% Lignin all polymers
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polymer formation
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made by stringing together a bunch of little molecules to make a big molecule
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rule of plastics and polymers
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plastics are man-made polymers occur naturally or can be man-mad all plastics are polymers but not all polymers are plastics
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fiber source and length
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hardwood .08 in softwood .16 in straw,bagasse .08 in bast (cotten, linen) .5 in
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Industry Standard
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5‐7 times recycled fibers tend to become unusable towards papermaking
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long fibers
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Better fiber entanglement Better tensile, tear, fold and puncture strengths If not aligned properly or entangled (wild formation), create rougher surface Poor printability Obtained mainly from virgin fibers
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short fibers
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smooth surface good printability poor tensile, tear, fold and puncture strengths cheaper contained in recovered or recycled paper
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pulping
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to produce pulp, logs and wood chips must be reduced to a mass of fibers. extracting cellulose fibers ground wood – mechanical pulping sulfite and sulfate – chemical pulping
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pupling: sulfite process
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chips are cooked in digester with bi-sulfites softened fibers forcibly blown into a chamber to separate them paper product has high acid content and begins to disinigrate after 100 years
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pulping: sulfate method
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alkaline rather than acid based process digestive agents include sodium sulfate, sodium sulfide, sodium hydroxide most widely used because this acid free paper has > longevity resolves the resins out of the pulp
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removing lignin
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removed to create fine quality paper paper bags/ cardboard are stiff and brown because they contain lignins
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sizing agents
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make high quality paper ( books, magazines, money)
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natural thickening agents ( sizing)
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added to paper and cloth to stiffen and fill surface irregularities starches, gums. resins
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sizing in paper industry
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prevents paper from becoming to absorbant so inks dont bleed
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calcium carbonate crystals
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improve paper brightness and make it easier to recycle
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flattened fibers
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are initially round flattening them increases surface area and bond potential
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fourdrinier machine
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mainly makes paper slurry (half fiber half water) is poured onto the wire or converyer belt to create a continuous web of paper. wet slury is drained and then dried thickness of paper controlled by slurry flow rate and wire speed
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cylinder machine
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mainly makes paperboard slury is picked up by wire, not poured (4-8 wire mesh cylinders) starts at 98% moisture and end with 7% thickness controlled by amount of water (>water>fibers>basis wt) and by speed of cylinders (faster=thinner, slower=thicker)
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paper/paperboard terms
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paper ream = 3000 sqft paperboard ream = 1000 sqft
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basis weight
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the weight, in pounds, of a ream BW=(lbs of sample x ream sqft) / sqft of smaple
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machine direction (grain direction)
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direction of the grain of the fibers Fourdrinier-usually parallel to the length of the paper machine paper roll or web- usually perpendicular to the roll axis
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cross direction (cross grani
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direction perpendicular to machine direction
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gloss
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property of a surface that causes light to reflect specularly depends on the characterisitcs of the coating
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opacity
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property of a sheet that describes the resistance to light transmission important in printing and wrapping papers depends on coatings, paper thickness, surface condition…
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paperbaord grades
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four basic types ( SBB, SUB, FBB, WLC) variety of weights and thicknesses can be treated with chemicals to improve various properties
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Solid Bleached Board (SBB)
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made from pure bleached chemical pulp with 2-3 layers of coating on the top and one on the reverse (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, luxury packaging)
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Solid Unbleached Board (SUB)
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made from pure unbleached chemical pulp with 2-3 layers of coating on the top surface. strong and can be water resistant (beverage – bottles/cans- packaging)
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Folding Boxboard (FBB)
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made from layers of mechanical pulp sandwiched btw 2 layers of chemical pulp with up to 3 layers of coating on the top and one layer of coating on the reverse (frozen, chilled foods, drinks, pharmaceuticals)
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Whitelined Chipboard (WLC)
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made using predominately waste paper/recovered fibers many layers of selected grades of raw materials (mixed &/or carton) 3 coating layers on top and one layer on the reverse (breakfast cereals, shoes, tissues, toys)
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OH hydroxyl groups
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what bond fibers/cellulose more OH = greater strength
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Carton production
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1. prepress preparation 2. printing press 3. C&C machine 4. Folding and gluing
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prepress (step 1)
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graphics are prepared, printing plate for each color prepared and layout designed, layout ensures least amount of board is unused and prepares cutting and creasing forms
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sheet fed waste
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gripper waste-horizontal bars at top and bottom edge trim- verical bars at side nesting waste- sides where another cut out cant fit
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web fed waste
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edge trim- horizontal bars at top and bottom no gripper waste or nesting waste
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printing press (step 2)
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carton board loaded and printed in one pass with each color being added in turn (usually 6 colors at a time) varnish may be printed after the colors
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Cutting & Creasing (step 3)
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cuts cartons and puts in creases to enable folding later Uses a forme with knives set into it emobossing possible at this stage
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Folding and GLuing (step 4)
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cartons move through gluing line to be folded and glued
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carton styles
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tube tray-wide opening multiple packaging- ex)wine carrier speacialty packaging- pillow pack, display

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