Is sexual orientation choice or biologically predetermined
- Table of Contentss
- List of Tables
- Thesis statement
- Statement of the job
- Definition of footings
- Sexual orientation
- Monozygotic twins
- Dizygotic twins
- Restrictions of the survey
- Theoretical model
- Literature reappraisal
- American Psychological Task Force.
- Alien Becomes Erotic Theory
- Biological Determinism and homosexualism
- Discussion, recommendation and decision
There have been heated arguments refering sexual orientation in about all the societies in the universe. Becoming either a homosexual, bisexual or a heterosexual is a affair of pick harmonizing to many civilizations and races. The society is made in a manner that there are norms that govern the manner people behave including the gustatory sensations and penchants. Anything done against the social building is deemed unusual and hence unacceptable and it is apt to negative countenances.
The biggest inquiry that many people contend with is what precisely determines the sexual orientation. Several scientific surveies have been conducted and they are disapproving the conventional beliefs that people have. It is believed by most people that if person is a homosexual, so they must be unnatural, cursed, and immoral or under a certain sort of penalty. They are considered societal castawaies in most societies as what they do is contrary to the norms of the communities they belong.
Harmonizing to some theories, for case ‘exotic becomes titillating, ‘ it is made clear that sexual orientation is brought approximately by the biological factors instead than what is presently held by many. Many people look at the environment under which 1 is raised as the chief finding factor of one ‘s sexual orientation.
The survey of the twins done by some research workers is an indicant that so environment does non order whether one will be a homosexual or a heterosexual. There is a high likeliness that indistinguishable twins can be homophiles than it is for the fraternal twins where merely one of them could be but the other one remain heterosexual. This is an
illustration that so cistrons play a great function in finding the gender where one will project their titillating feelings.
There has been favoritism against the homophiles to the extent that some of them have been attacked by the people they live with. Most of them live in fright of isolation and rejection doing them non pattern their sexual orientation publically. The spiritual establishment has been one of the greatest forces that have been hitting hard on them because of the beliefs held. However, this is incorrect and that ‘s why several recommendations have been highlighted at the terminal of this treatment in order to populate in harmoniousness and love for all people.
Table of Contentss
Statement of the Problem 1
Definition of Footings 3
Restrictions of the Study 4
Theoretical Framework 6
Literature Review 6
American Psychological Task Force 6
Alien becomes Erotic Theory 8
Biological Determinism and Homosexuality 8
List of Tables
Table 1. Correlation between gender activities and sexual orientation. aˆ¦ … 11
Table 2. Familial heritage and sexual orientationaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ 12
Many surveies now show that one ‘s sexual orientation may non be by pick at all ; instead a biological predestination.
Statement of the job
Sexual orientation issues unless addressed could ensue in black minutes in our times. The figure of those practising homosexualism and the bisexuals has been on the rise non merely in the western states but throughout the universe. However, they have non been so expressed in their activities for fright of being lynched or alienated by the society.
In the recent yesteryear, homophiles faced the wrath of the jurisprudence one time found guilt of the act. This goes back to the fourteenth century when Leonardo district attorney Vinci who is said to hold been a homosexual escaped decease by a whisky. Most societies have non changed their base and still there is small being done to extinguish the conventional beliefs about sexual orientation.
In the recent yesteryear, Uganda and Malawi, African states have declared that the homophiles are non welcome in their states because they are considered, ‘violating the morality ‘ of the society. The chief forces behind the determinations being taken by these and many other states has been the faith and the cultural beliefs of the people.
Therefore, sexual orientation poses a large challenge in the society and unless undressed can take to societal agitation. One of the chief grounds why people want to hold nil to make with the homophiles is deficiency of right information apart from the biased 1 they have gotten in their cultural backgrounds. The society is hence deemed to be entirely heterosexual which is non true since even the Holy Scriptures indicates that there were so homophiles.
Peoples in general have ill information refering the affair doing it difficult for the homophiles to populate in peace and harmoniousness. Even the educated few fail to show empathy to this class of people which many have labeled ‘marginalized ‘ or the ‘minority ‘ group. The universe is traveling towards liberalisation and hence people should be given the freedom to exert their gustatory sensations and penchants without being discriminated on the footing of their sexual orientation.
Due to the negativeness associated with bias and favoritism against the homophiles, it justifies so that there is need to allow the society appreciate the fact that sexual orientation is non a affair of pick but it is predetermined by the cistrons. This is what has prompted me to research on the biological factors as the chief determiners of sexual orientation.
Therefore, to convey the society at the degree of normality where everyone will be appreciated irrespective of their sexual orientation, there is demand for more information to be disseminated. It is of import that the society understand that the environment has small influence on one ‘s pick of sexual spouse. On the contrary, it is the biological factors that truly affect such a pick.
Having said that, it is clear that there is demand to carry on this sort of research, as it will assist to alter the society ‘s position, and enable them to develop a sense of tolerance towards one another regardless of their sexual orientation.
Definition of footings
Has been defined as the emotional or sexual attractive force to people of the opposite sex, same sex or of both sexes. The pick is influence by environmental factors, but to a larger extent by endocrines and biological factors.
Has been defined as the sexual or emotional attractive force towards the people of the opposite gender or sex.
This is the emotional or sexual attractive force being directed towards people of the same sex.
It has been defined as the sexual or emotional attractive force towards the people of both genders.
In full it is ‘interstitial karyon of the anterior hypothalamus. The concentration of these cells in this portion of the encephalon has the power to order the sexual orientation. Homosexual and adult females have small INAH-3 compared with the straight persons.
It is a portion of the encephalon which controls many activities including temperature ordinance, hungriness and thirst. It besides influences the sexual rousing and sexual orientation to a certain grade.
These are indistinguishable twins that are formed when one egg is fertilized to organize one fertilized ovum which subsequently divides to organize two embryos.
These are twins formed when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the walls of the womb at the same clip.
Restrictions of the survey
One of the chief hindrances for the success of this survey is that the findings are biased to some extent and may non use to certain people. What I mean is that the surveies have largely been conducted in the western universe by people of same race and civilizations. With the impression that the other states have on the western universe, this will be hard as it will be viewed by many as a manner to warrant the pattern which is deemed immoral by many people. The fact that many states have non yet softened their evidences on affairs of sexual orientation is a good indicant that they do non O.K. anything that is unnatural to them.
The samples collected do non stand for the feelings of the full population. For case, some surveies collected information of less than a 100 people and purported that this represented the whole population. Therefore, some of the information collected is under examination and criticized by other bookmans in the same field.
Some of the surveies were subjective instead than objective. This is because it involves largely gathering information about how the homophiles conducted themselves while they were immature, and so from there the research workers compared with what they had in head and made decisions which could be biased. For case, non all people who fail to affect themselves in activities of their gender automatically become homophiles as we are traveling to see shortly. Another of import thing is that one piece of information could be true in one civilization while it is non in another 1. It is hence of import that other races excessively be involved in the survey.
Another failing of this survey is that it seeks to direct a strong statement that people have no power over their sexual orientation. It means that people can non be recruited into going either homosexuals or tribades. Other surveies have shown contrary findings because they besides find the environment to be a strong factor finding one ‘s sexual orientation.
Another restriction of the survey is that it is being frustrated by other forces and particularly the spiritual groups. Research has shown that the picks that people make in affairs associating to their lives are mostly influenced by their belief systems instead than the facts collected. Most of the population is spiritual who have been socialized in a manner that they know how to distinguish between what is evil and what is good. Changing the heads of such people therefore becomes hard and about impossible for the research workers.
Finally, another restriction is the fact that small is done by the bookmans to go through this critical information to the general population. Most of the scientific findings have remained in books while people continue keeping uncorroborated beliefs. The research workers should come out to educate the people by turn outing to them about the worlds of life while at the same clip jabing holes in their belief systems. This will be the beginning of the success of this sort of controversial survey.
Bearing in head the ambiguity and the contentions that the issue of the sexual orientation has had on the environment, many scientific theories have been developed with an purpose to chase away the common belief that homosexualism, androgyny and heterosexualism are affairs of pick. They all indicate that the biological factors are really the greatest determiners of one ‘s sexual orientation.
One of such surveies is found in the theory of ‘exotic becomes titillating ‘ which explains that if one fails to interact with the people of same sex in the early ages, they were likely to develop some titillating feelings for such people they avoided at subsequently age. The scientific survey besides indicates that the dispositions to a certain extent dictate which gender one will be interacting with as they grow up which later will impact the sexual orientation to a larger extent.
American Psychological Task Force.
There are many surveies that have been conducted before in the purpose of explicating different positions o sexual orientation. Some of this information is found on the ‘Report on American psychological undertaking force on appropriate curative responses to sexual orientation ‘ ( APA, 2007 ) . Their chief thought was to challenge what many refer as normal to be a homosexual. They agree nem con that this is a job that needs to be addressed through therapies so that people can get down taking a normal life.
However, they besides agree that sexual orientation is caused by biological factors which a individual has no power over ( APA, 2007 ) . They are besides really peculiar on affairs of favoritism and they call for empathy as a manner of including all members in the national edifice activities irrespective of their sexual orientation.
On the other manus, they believe that the environment has besides a function to play in affairs of sexual orientation ( Fay 1989 ) . They believe that the environment under which the kid develops could lend to the kid either going a heterosexual or homosexual. And in this they concur with the theory of ‘the alien becomes titillating ‘ which emphasis that the gender interaction dictates one ‘s sexual penchant.
Their survey calls for curative exercisings instead than allowing this people become what nature has predisposed them. Therapies have been found to be really utile when it comes to covering with the conflicting issues in the heads of the person. How one behaves is mostly determined by what is held in the unconscious parts of the head. Therefore, therapy plants to convey the unconscious to the witting so that the individual can larn to challenge the irrational Acts of the Apostless and take a existent life.
However, the survey does non seek to challenge the fact that biological procedures play the portion in finding one ‘s sexual orientation. It merely tries to province that one can travel from homosexualism which is deemed unnatural to heterosexualism which bulk of the population sees as normal.
The survey nevertheless does non turn to the issue of favoritism and bias as it ought to. By stating the people with such sexual orientations attend therapies sums to naming them unnatural. Though it is a measure aimed at assisting the people thought top be ‘sick ‘ it could escalate the bias and favoritism that people still keep on people who have different sexual orientation from the norm. It goes against the freedom that people have in practising their gustatory sensations and penchants. On the other manus, it assumes that all the people in the full population will afford to run into the cost of the curative procedures. However, the bottom line is that the survey has agreed that it is so the biological procedures that determine one ‘s sexual orientation.
Alien Becomes Erotic Theory
The other theoretician who played a large function in explicating that the biological procedures were so the chief causes of the sexual orientation was Bem ( Bem, 1996 ) . He developed the theory of ‘exotic becomes titillating ‘ . The ‘exotic ‘ is what is referred as different from who a kid interacts with as they grow up. Erotic on the other manus is the emotional or sexual rousing to the people of either same, different or both sexes ( Bem, 1996 ) .
His theory speaks about the power that the familial stuff have over the sexual orientation of the person. It asserts that the possibility of a individual going a heterosexual or homosexual are determined during the early ages of development. The theory says that if a kid does non interact with the people of his or her gender during his early ages this will hold an deduction on their pick of people to whom they will show their feelings and titillating desires.
Biological Determinism and homosexualism
The other theory that seeks to reenforce the fact that sexual orientation is caused by biological factors is the biological determinism and homosexualism ( Spanier, 1995 ) . The theory focuses on one portion of the encephalon known as the hypothalamus. Several surveies conducted indicate that certain cells known as interstitial karyon of the anterior hypothalamus ( INAH-3 ) , have the consequence of finding one ‘s sexual orientation. Their concentration in this portion of the encephalon is what brings the whole difference. It has been found that the adult females have a comparative smaller concentration as compared to the male. However surveies conducted on the homophiles indicate that they have a smaller volume of INAH-3 compared with their heterosexual work forces. They have the same concentration with that of the female and this may explicate the ground why they are attracted to people of the same sex.
From the three theories above, it is clear that the sexual orientation is caused by biological instead than the environment as it is conventionally believed. The undermentioned treatment will seek to lucubrate more on the above three theories, giving statistics and other back uping grounds on the same claim.
Discussion, recommendation and decision
Sexual orientation has been a subject that has received legion contentions particularly amongst the conservative people. It has been linked to familial upsets, aberrant hormonal exposure, harmful household forms, and in many state of affairss particularly amongst the spiritual groups ; it is associated with iniquitous nature of adult male. For those grounds, people of all races and civilizations have different position of sexual orientation.
Seeking to cast visible radiation on sexual orientation, Daryl Bem asserted that the biological factors that determine sexual or titillating penchant among the people are linked to the experiences during the childhood. As the kid grows, they interact with the environment which on the other manus form non merely their cognitive, behavioural and emotional parts but to a larger extent affect their biological traits. There is besides a correlativity between nature and raising. This means that the, biological procedures and the environment in which the kid is exposed are ever impacting the manner the kid grows and the penchants that they make sing their lives. Therefore this account seeks to challenge the fact that sexual orientation is caused by an entirely one factor.
In his theory ‘Exotic becomes titillating, ‘Daryl who was a societal psychologist said that the dispositions that the kid acquires as it grows predisposes them to develop certain likes and disfavors of activities in their life. Dispositions are biological in natures which are passed from coevals to coevals through heritage. They have the power to do the kid take the people they want to interact with and those that they would desire to avoid.
Harmonizing to this theory, those kids who fail to conform to the activities of their genders are at a higher hazard of going homophiles than those who do conform. To lucubrate this statement farther, assume that a male child decides non to interact with other male childs in his early ages of development. He indulges himself in all activities done by the opposite gender. Harmonizing to this theory, as he grows up, he will develop some physiological rousing to the people with whom he ne’er interacted with. Therefore, when he becomes a adolescent, he will be expected to develop certain titillating feelings to the people of the same sex.
The opposite is true harmonizing to this theory. It means that, the straight persons are so because during their early ages they took clip to play with people of their ain sex and hence, during their adolescent age, they felt sexually attracted to the people they ne’er had much interaction with during early ages.
To back up his theory farther, he carried a survey affecting one 1000 tribades and cheery people. Harmonizing to his determination, 63 % of them said that they exhibited non-conformity to the activities of their gender as they were turning up. Merely 15 % of them said that they participated in those activities affecting their sex. Therefore, to a greater extent, his theory can be used to explicate the disagreement in observed in the sexual orientation.
The following table gives a brief summery for the work that was performed by Ben to show the correlativity between gender activities and sexual orientation.
Table 1. Correlation between gender activities and sexual orientation.
Percentage of non-conformity in same gender activities during childhood
Percentage of conformance in same gender functions
Beginning: Bem DJ, Herdt G, McClintock M ( 2000 ) . Alien become Erotic. . Arch Sex Behav 29 ( 6 ) : 531-48.
To further back up the fact that the sexual orientation is inherited instead than acquired in the environment, Bailey and Pillard ( 1978 ) , conducted a survey where they used to theoretical accounts. In one of the theoretical accounts, they hypothesized that homosexualism or heterosexualism is inherited. The other theoretical account they assumed that sexual orientation is learnt from the environment. They carried their survey among monozygotic twins raised together, dizygous twins raised together and work forces with adoptive brothers. The following tabular array summarizes their findings.
Table 2. Familial heritage and sexual orientation
Monozygotic ( indistinguishable twins )
Rate of homosexualism
Beginning: Bailey & A ; Pillard, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48:1089-1096 )
Harmonizing to the consequences obtained in the tabular array above, there is a higher likeliness that the indistinguishable twins who have been brought up in the same environment will go homophiles more than the fraternal twins. The greatest inquiry that the two research workers grappled with was why there was the presence of this disagreement. In order to explicate their findings, the asserted that sexual orientation is as a consequence of familial heritage instead than environmental as many people would wish to believe.
Monozygotic twins have the same familial do up as they originate from the same egg cell and therefore they will be expected to exhibit the same capablenesss and the behaviour in general. Other surveies have found that even if the two had non been raised in the same environment, there is a greater inclination for them to show same behaviour, gustatory sensations and penchants wherever they are. Therefore, this seeks to reenforce farther the fact that biological factors have to a greater grade affected the sexual orientation.
The other factors that serve to challenge the factor that sexual orientation is the affair of the environment is the fact that the 3rd interstitial karyon of the anterior hypothalamus ( INAH-3 ) , of the straight persons and the homophiles is different ( Zucker, 1999 ) . Hypothalamus is that portion of the encephalon which is so of import in commanding the organic structure temperature, hungriness, thirst and besides affairs associating to sexual rousing. In general, the females have a smaller INAH-3 as compared to their male opposite numbers. However, there has been observed disagreements besides between the homosexual work forces and the heterosexual 1s with the former holding smaller capacity. Different theoreticians tend to assume that the difference in that capacity could besides be the cause of homosexualism. This is because they appear to hold the same penchant as that of the female with whom they have comparatively the same volume of INAH-3.
On the same biological findings, there is a morphological difference between the homosexual work forces in the visual aspect of their phalluss ( Laumann1994 ) . It is said that the homophiles tend to hold longer and thicker phalluss as compared to that of the heterosexual males. This nevertheless does non intend that whenever there is a difference in size and thickness it means that the individual is a homosexual. The other findings indicate that most homophiles tend to be left-handed people.
The above therefore serves to unclutter the impression that many people particularly the spiritual groups and some civilizations that such sexual orientation behaviours are a mark of insanity and abnormalcy. Homosexuality for case is non a thing that has merely appeared on this planet as many people would desire to province. It has been there since the creative activity of the Earth. In the sanctum bible Bibles, in the book of Genesis, it is said that certain work forces demanded that Abraham give them the work forces who had come to pay him see so that they could hold sex with them. Leonardo da Vinci one of the greatest gifted work forces on this planet is besides said to hold been a homosexual and that was back in fourteenth century.
The homosexual people have non been able to hold their issues addressed for fright of being discriminated against or being lynched ( LeVay 1996 ) . For case, a cheery twosome in Kenya ( a state in East Africa ) , escaped decease narrowly as they prepared to denote their matrimony in public. They were rescued by the constabulary when a group of conservative group attacked them in what they referred to as ‘the violation of the social norms. ‘
One of the most of import things that the society should cognize is that there are more homophiles and tribades than they presume. Amongst these groups are the straight persons who are sexually attracted to people of both sexes. The ground why sexual orientation appears unusual to certain groups of people is because it has been suppressed. Peoples particularly in the African continent seldom discuss issues associating to sex. It is ‘common cognition that a adult male should get married a adult female, ‘ and hence anything that seeks to go against this societal belief is met with a batch of opposition and penalty.
In more broad states such as the United States, the homophiles have the freedom to show their fondnesss even in public ( Bogaert 2004 ) . The Anglican churches have even allowed the matrimony amongst these groups of people who have been marginalized for many decennaries. However, such an act has resulted to trip argument among other spiritual groups and to some extent ; other trusters have alienated themselves from such denominations.
Having looked at sexual orientation and the perceptual experience that people have over the whole issue, it would be of import to supply some recommendations on how people can alter their position. Whether the homosexuals and the tribades will be accepted in the society or non will depend on how people think about them. For this ground, it is of import to see the followers recommendations which are aimed at assisting people treat each other good irrespective of their sexual orientation.
One of the recommendations that will see a alteration in the perceptual experience that people have against homophobic would be to beef up communicating spreads ( Billy 2000 ) .Several surveies that have been conducted demonstrate fortune of information amongst the people sing the homophiles and the tribades. The biggest hindrance to the information airing is the issues of civilization which are form the cloth of any group of people. As we saw earlier, sexual subjects are non discussed particularly in conservative African civilizations and certain spiritual associations. Such information is considered ‘private ‘ and hence should non be discussed. However, one of the causes of the negative attitudes that people have is because they have no information on what causes homosexualism.
Even those holding the information, they might non go through it for fright of favoritism. Those purporting to assist the society understand these affairs provide biased information which non merely serves to escalate the chasm and duality against such groups but besides calls for their riddance. I propose that a course of study on sexual orientation should be published so that as people grow up, they understand that homosexualism is non a affair of pick, but what has been predetermined by the familial make-up.
The 2nd recommendation is that there should be a twenty-four hours set to put to observe sexual diverseness ( Wellings 2004 ) . The lone manner to turn out that so we respect diverseness is by holding a twenty-four hours where this minority group of people is given clip to show themselves in the society. This will non merely serve to do them experience portion and package of the society but will besides move as a manner to better their ego regard and assurance in the society. On the other manus, the heterosexual society will develop tolerance towards this group of people and larn to accept them as they are. Peoples will besides develop a sense of empathy and avoid any judgmental comments against this group.
The 3rd recommendation will be to avoid favoritism at all costs. As we have observed in the treatment above, homosexualism is non abnormality or a expletive. These are people who have same anatomical characteristics like any other human being, with the lone difference being found in their sexual spouse penchants. Homosexuals have been prejudiced and discriminated against doing them appear like societal castawaies. They are alienated from certain societal issues for the claims that they are ‘different ‘ and ‘unclean ‘ like the remainder of the population.
To debar any opportunities of ageless favoritism, the authorities should explicate policies that seek to protect such people in the society, and besides taking the lead in the battle against such colored beliefs. The debut of the Equality Act in 2006 was a large measure frontward in the battle against societal bias and subsequent favoritism. The act called for the equality in the entree for goods, services and any other installations. This includes working in any societal place without any fright of being labeled a societal castaway or a devil.
The spiritual groups should besides follow the suit in guaranting love prevails amongst all the groups of the people irrespective of their sexual orientation. To a greater extent, the spiritual groups have been said to be the people behind the difficult feelings between the straight persons and the homophiles. This is because of the religion that is held in this of import societal establishment. Religion can non be disputed when it comes to the affairs impacting the society. It is viewed as the lone establishment that provides the society with moral principles. Therefore, whatever the leaders say to their members is sacredly followed and any other information that is contrary to theirs is nullified. Therefore, the battle against favoritism amongst the homophiles will merely be successful if spiritual leaders develop a sense of empathy and tolerance towards this group of people and larn to accept them as they are.
In decision, it is evident from assorted scientific researches that so sexual orientation transcends the societal beliefs that it is strictly environmental. To a greater extent, the biological factors dictate whether the individual will go a homosexual or heterosexual. The dispositions which are as a consequence of the familial heritage are strong in finding which activities one chooses to accept during childhood. Those who choose to interact more with people of the opposite sex will probably go homophiles due to physiological rousing that develops towards the people one had no opportunity to play with.
The society should be cognizant that homophiles are non unnatural people in the society, neither are they societal castawaies. They are really normal people like the remainder with the lone difference being in their sexual orientations. They should therefore non be discriminated against or be made to decease merely because they are moving out of what the society has recommended.
The spiritual establishments and the authorities should be in the head to guarantee that the homophiles are protected and accorded with the regard that they deserve. Any one found demoing disdain to anyone on the footing of their sexual orientation should be charged and disciplinary actions taken against them for such flagitious Acts of the Apostless. This is because as indicated above, homosexualism is non a affair of pick but biological factors.
All in all every one should develop a sense of empathy so that we can digest each other regardless of one ‘s sexual orientation. It is true that it is as a consequence of one ‘s biological make-up instead than the environment on which 1 is brought up. Finally, kit is good to observe that even therapy might non work to in an attempt to alter a homosexual to go heterosexual.