Is sexual orientation choice or biologically predetermined Essay Example
Is sexual orientation choice or biologically predetermined Essay Example

Is sexual orientation choice or biologically predetermined Essay Example

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  • Pages: 15 (3973 words)
  • Published: August 26, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Sexual orientation has been a subject of considerable discussion in virtually all societies throughout the universe.

Different cultures and races have a common belief that an individual's sexual orientation, whether it be homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual, is a personal choice. Society defines what is considered normal behavior and preferences, and going against these norms is often seen as abnormal and disapproved of. This lack of acceptance has negative consequences, causing many individuals to question the factors that shape their own sexual orientation.

Scientific studies challenge traditional beliefs about homosexuality, which many consider unnatural, cursed, immoral or deserving punishment. Those who identify as homosexual often face marginalization due to their behavior going against societal norms. However, the "exotic becomes titillating" theory suggests that biological factors play a significant role in sexual orientation, challenging common beliefs. Contrary to the b


elief that upbringing determines sexual orientation, research on twins indicates that environment does not determine whether someone will be gay or straight.

The likelihood of both identical twins having a shared attraction to the same sex is higher compared to fraternal twins, where only one twin may be homosexual while the other is heterosexual. This shows that genetics play a significant role in determining an individual's sexual orientation. Homosexual individuals have experienced discrimination, including physical attacks from their own roommates. They often live in constant apprehension of being isolated and rejected, leading them to conceal their sexual orientation.

The oppression of individuals based on their beliefs by the spiritual establishment is an incorrect belief that needs to be acknowledged. To promote harmony and love for all people, several recommendations are presented at the end of this discussion.

Thesis statement

New research suggests that one'

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sexual orientation may not be a choice but rather determined by biology.

Statement of the problem

If left unaddressed, issues related to sexual orientation can create challenging situations within society. The global prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality has been steadily increasing, not limited to just the Western world. However, due to fear of discrimination or social alienation, individuals often conceal their activities.

Throughout history, individuals who identify as homosexual have faced legal consequences for their actions. This dates back to the 14th century when Leonardo da Vinci, rumored to be gay, avoided death by accepting a bribe. Despite the passage of time, many societies still hold on to traditional beliefs about sexual orientation, resulting in limited progress in dispelling these views. In recent years, African countries like Uganda and Malawi openly rejected homosexuals within their borders due to perceived breaches of societal morality. These decisions are primarily based on religious and cultural beliefs held by their populations. Consequently, sexual orientation poses a significant challenge that society must confront; otherwise, it could lead to social unrest.

The LGBTQ+ community encounters rejection and misunderstanding as a result of limited accurate information and biased cultural beliefs. Consequently, society erroneously perceives itself as exclusively heterosexual, disregarding the acknowledgment of homosexuality in religious texts. This lack of understanding poses challenges for LGBTQ+ individuals to live harmoniously, even among educated individuals who often exhibit a lack of empathy towards this marginalized group. As society advances towards greater acceptance and tolerance, it is crucial to grant everyone the freedom to express their preferences without facing discrimination based on sexual orientation.

To combat discrimination against homosexuals and promote acceptance, it is vital to acknowledge that sexual orientation is

determined by genetics rather than choice. This motivation has driven my research into the biological factors affecting sexual orientation. In order to foster a society that embraces individuals regardless of their sexual orientation, it is crucial to increase awareness on this topic. Society must grasp that the selection of a sexual partner is minimally influenced by external factors and primarily shaped by biological ones.

Further research on sexual orientation is necessary to change society's perspective and promote tolerance.

Definition of footings

Sexual orientation

Sexual orientation refers to the emotional or sexual attraction to individuals of the opposite sex, same sex, or both sexes. This attraction can be influenced by environmental factors but primarily relies on hormones and biological factors.


Heterosexuality is characterized as the sexual or emotional attraction to individuals of the opposite gender or sex.


Homosexuality refers to the emotional or sexual attraction directed towards individuals of the same sex.

< p >
< h2 > Androgyny

The concept of Androgyny refers to being attracted to both genders, either sexually or emotionally.
< h2 > INAH-3:

INAH-3, also known as the interstitial karyon of the anterior hypothalamus, is a group of cells in the brain that affects sexual orientation. People who are homosexual or adult women generally have a smaller size of INAH-3 compared to heterosexual individuals.
< h2 > Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain responsible for regulating various functions like body temperature, hunger, and thirst.
< /p>

It also impacts sexual arousal and sexual orientation to a certain extent.

Monozygotic twins

These are twins that are genetically identical, resulting from the division of one fertilized ovum into two embryos.

Dizygotic twins

These are twins formed when two

fertilized eggs are simultaneously implanted in the walls of the womb.

Study limitations

One of the main challenges for the success of this study is that it has some bias in its findings, which may not be applicable to specific individuals.

The studies conducted in the western world have predominantly been performed by individuals of the same race and cultures, posing a challenge. Different countries perceive the western world in a specific way, and many may view these studies as an attempt to justify practices they deem immoral. Additionally, several countries have not yet embraced or sanctioned any behaviors associated with sexual orientation, indicating their disapproval of anything they consider unnatural. It is crucial to acknowledge that the samples collected do not accurately represent the views of the entire population. In some instances, studies relied on data from fewer than 100 individuals but asserted it portrayed the entire populace.

Scholars in the same field are currently examining and scrutinizing the collected data. Some studies were subjective, rather than objective, and focused on gathering information about the behaviors of homosexual individuals during their youth. These researchers compared this data with their own preconceived notions, which may have led to biased conclusions. It is important to note that not all individuals who deviate from gender norms necessarily identify as homosexual, as we will soon explore more deeply.

Understanding that the perception of truth can differ among cultures is vital. Thus, it is important to involve individuals from diverse racial backgrounds in this study. Furthermore, a limitation of this research is its assertion that people have no control over their sexual orientation, suggesting that one cannot be influenced to become homosexual or lesbian.

However, other studies have contradicted these findings by recognizing the environment as a significant factor in shaping sexual orientation. Additionally, external factors like religious groups impede the progress of this study.

According to research, people's life decisions are largely influenced by their belief systems rather than factual evidence. The majority of individuals adhere to religious teachings that distinguish between good and evil. Consequently, convincing these individuals to modify their perspectives is exceedingly challenging for researchers. Additionally, scholars have not adequately disseminated this crucial information to the public. As a result, scientific discoveries remain limited to books while people persist in holding onto baseless beliefs.

The objective of the research workers is to inform individuals about the realities of life, while also challenging their belief systems. This approach is essential for the success of this controversial study.

Theoretical model

Controversy and debates surrounding sexual orientation have led to various scientific theories that question the popular belief that homosexuality, androgyny, and heterosexuality are choices. Instead, these theories propose that biological factors significantly influence one's sexual orientation. One such theory is 'exotic becomes titillating', which suggests that individuals who do not interact with same-sex peers during early stages may develop erotic feelings towards those individuals later in life whom they initially avoided.

Based on a scientific survey, it has been found that one's dispositions play a role in determining the gender they will interact with as they grow up. This, in turn, significantly impacts their sexual orientation.

Literature review and American Psychological Task Force

Various studies have explored different perspectives on sexual orientation. Some of this information can be found in the 'Report on American Psychological Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation'

(APA, 2007). The primary objective of this report was to challenge the perception that homosexuality is abnormal. The task force unanimously agrees that therapy should be utilized to address this matter and assist individuals in leading a normal life. However, they also acknowledge that biological factors beyond an individual's control influence sexual orientation (APA, 2007).

The text highlights the significance of tackling discrimination and fostering empathy to ensure the inclusion of all individuals, regardless of their sexual orientation, in national activities. Furthermore, it mentions that an individual's environment can impact their sexual orientation based on the theory of 'the alien becomes titillating'. This theory proposes that a person's sexual preference is shaped by their gender interactions during their upbringing.

The survey promotes the use of therapeutic exercises over individuals following their natural inclinations. Therapies have been proven effective in addressing psychological conflicts. A person's behavior is mainly influenced by their unconscious mind. Therefore, therapy aims to make the unconscious conscious so that people can confront irrational behaviors and live true to themselves. However, the study acknowledges that biological factors contribute to sexual orientation. It argues that it is possible for individuals to change from homosexuality, which society sees as unnatural, to heterosexuality, which is widely considered normal.

The survey fails to sufficiently tackle the problem of discrimination and bias. By suggesting that individuals with non-traditional sexual orientations seek therapy, they are essentially categorizing them as unnatural. While this intention may be to assist those considered "ill," it could actually perpetuate society's prejudice and discrimination towards individuals with diverse sexual orientations. This contradicts the principle of allowing individuals to freely exercise their own preferences and choices.

The study assumes that

all individuals in the population can afford curative procedures. However, it concludes that biological processes determine sexual orientation.

Alien Becomes Erotic Theory

Bem (1996) also contributed to explaining that biological processes are the primary causes of sexual orientation. Bem developed the theory of 'exotic becomes titillating,' where 'exotic' refers to someone different from those with whom a child interacts while growing up, and 'erotic' refers to emotional or sexual arousal towards people of the same, different, or both sexes (Bem, 1996).

The text suggests that familial experiences influence a person's sexual orientation. It argues that a person's potential to be heterosexual or homosexual is determined early in development. The lack of interaction with individuals of the same gender during childhood will impact their choice of partners and expressions of feelings and desires.

There is another theory, known as biological determinism and homosexuality (Spanier, 1995), which supports the idea that biological factors determine sexual orientation. This theory focuses on the hypothalamus, specifically the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3). Studies have shown that these cells play a role in determining an individual's sexual orientation.

Both males and females have different concentrations of INAH-3 in the brain, with females having a lower concentration compared to males. Homosexual individuals possess a lower amount of INAH-3 than heterosexual men but have a similar level as females. This similarity in INAH-3 levels could be the reason for their attraction towards individuals of the same sex. These theories challenge traditional beliefs by suggesting that biology plays a larger part in sexual orientation than the environment. The upcoming discussion will explore these theories more deeply, offering supporting evidence and statistics.

Discussion, Recommendation, and Decision

The subject of sexual

orientation has long been a contentious topic, especially among conservative individuals. It has been linked to family disputes, abnormal hormonal exposure, strained family dynamics, and often associated with sinful conduct within religious communities. As a result, people from different races and cultures hold varying perspectives on sexual orientation. Daryl Bem sought to bring clarity to this matter by suggesting that an individual's childhood experiences are intertwined with the biological factors that shape their sexual or erotic inclinations.

As the child develops, their interaction with the environment shapes not only their cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects, but also influences their biological traits to a great extent. Moreover, there is a connection between nature and nurture. This implies that the biological processes and the child's surrounding environment constantly impact their growth and their choices pertaining to their lives. Hence, this explanation aims to refute the notion that sexual orientation is solely determined by a single factor.

According to sociologist Daryl, in his theory titled 'Exotic becomes titillating,' the personality traits that a child acquires as they grow influence their preferences and aversions towards certain activities in their life. These traits have a biological nature and are inherited from one generation to another. They play a role in shaping the child's choices of social interactions, both those they desire and those they wish to avoid. Daryl's theory suggests that children who do not conform to traditional gender roles are more likely to become homosexual compared to those who do conform.

To further elaborate on this statement, let's consider a scenario where a boy chooses not to engage with other boys during his early stage of development. Instead, he immerses himself in

activities traditionally associated with the opposite gender. According to this theory, as he matures, he will experience physiological arousal towards individuals with whom he never interacted before. Consequently, when he reaches adolescence, it is anticipated that he will develop sexual attraction towards individuals of the same sex.

According to this theory, the opposite is actually true. This means that heterosexual individuals are heterosexual because when they were young, they spent time playing with people of the same gender. As a result, during their teenage years, they felt sexually attracted to people with whom they did not interact much during their early years. To further support this theory, a study was conducted involving one thousand lesbians and gay people. The findings revealed that 63% of them reported exhibiting non-conformity to gender-related activities while growing up. Only 15% of them stated that they participated in activities associated with their own gender.

This passage discusses how a particular theory can help explain the disagreement observed in sexual orientation. Ben conducted work that demonstrated a correlation between gender activities and sexual orientation. Bailey and Pillard also conducted a survey to support the notion that sexual orientation is inherited rather than acquired from the environment. They proposed two models, one suggesting that homosexuality or heterosexuality is inherited, and the other suggesting that sexual orientation is learned from the environment.

They conducted a survey among monozygotic twins raised together, dizygotic twins raised together, and individuals with adoptive brothers. The table below summarizes their findings. According to the results obtained in the table above, there is a higher likelihood that identical twins who have been brought up in the same environment will become more similar

in terms of their preferences than fraternal twins. The main question that the two researchers struggled with was why there was this discrepancy.

The researchers stated that sexual orientation is influenced more by familial heritage rather than environmental factors, contrary to popular belief. They explained that monozygotic twins, who come from the same egg cell, share the same genetic makeup and therefore are likely to exhibit similar capabilities and behavior. Other studies have also shown that even if these twins were raised in different environments, they still tend to display similar behaviors, preferences, and tastes. This further strengthens the argument that biological factors have a significant impact on sexual orientation. Another factor that challenges the idea that sexual orientation is influenced by the environment is the difference in the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3) between heterosexual individuals and homosexuals (Zucker, 1999). The hypothalamus is a crucial part of the brain responsible for controlling body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual arousal.

Overall, females generally have a smaller INAH-3 compared to males. However, there are also differences observed between homosexual and heterosexual men, with the former having a smaller capacity. Some theorists believe that this difference in capacity may be the cause of homosexuality, as homosexual men exhibit similar tendencies and have a comparable volume of INAH-3 as females.

According to Laumann (1994), there are morphological differences in the appearance of the genitals between homosexual and heterosexual males. Homosexual males are said to generally have longer and thicker phalluses compared to heterosexual males. It should be noted, however, that size and thickness alone do not determine one's sexual orientation. Other research suggests that a majority of homosexual

individuals are left-handed.

The above paragraph aims to challenge the belief held by some people and societies that consider homosexuality to be a sign of mental illness or abnormality. The text highlights that homosexuality is not a recent occurrence, but has existed since the creation of the Earth. This is evident in ancient religious texts such as the Bible, where there are accounts of men requesting to have sexual encounters with other men. It is also mentioned that Leonardo da Vinci, a renowned figure from the 14th century, was believed to be homosexual. Despite their presence throughout history, homosexual individuals have often faced discrimination and violence due to fear of societal backlash (LeVay, 1996).

In Kenya, a couple narrowly escaped death as they prepared to publicly announce their marriage. The police rescued them from a conservative group who attacked them, claiming it to be a violation of social norms. It is important for society to acknowledge that there are more homosexuals and lesbians than commonly believed. Additionally, there are heterosexual individuals who are sexually attracted to both sexes.

The reason why sexual orientation appears unusual to certain groups of people is because it has been suppressed. Peoples, particularly in the African continent, rarely discuss issues related to sex. It is commonly believed that a man should marry a woman, and therefore anything that opposes this societal belief is met with opposition and punishment. In more liberal countries like the United States, homosexuals have the freedom to openly express their affections even in public (Bogaert 2004). The Anglican churches have even permitted marriage among these marginalized groups who have been excluded for many decades.

However, this action has caused disagreement

among other spiritual groups and, to some extent, individuals who have distanced themselves from these denominations.


In considering sexual orientation and the perspectives people hold on this issue, it is important to provide recommendations on how individuals can change their mindset. Whether society will accept homosexuals and lesbians or not depends on people's attitudes towards them. Therefore, it is crucial to consider the following recommendations aimed at promoting good treatment of all individuals, regardless of their sexual orientation. One recommendation that can alter people's perception of homophobia is to improve communication barriers (Billy, 2000). Numerous studies have shown a lack of accurate information among people regarding homosexuals and lesbians.

The primary obstacle to the dissemination of information is the cultural barriers within a society. For instance, in conservative African cultures and certain religious groups, topics related to sexuality, particularly homosexuality, are considered taboo and private. Consequently, they are not openly discussed. This lack of discussion contributes to the prevalence of negative attitudes towards homosexuality as people are uninformed about its causes.

Even individuals who possess the information may choose not to acknowledge it out of fear of discrimination. Those claiming to assist society in understanding these matters provide biased information that not only exacerbates the divide and prejudice against these groups, but also calls for their eradication. I propose the publication of a curriculum on sexual orientation, so that individuals can grow up understanding that homosexuality is not a matter of choice, but rather predetermined by genetic makeup. A second recommendation is to establish a designated day to celebrate sexual diversity (Wellings 2004). The only way to truly show respect for diversity is by dedicating a day where

this minority group can express themselves openly in society. This will not only help them feel included and accepted in society, but also enhance their self-esteem and confidence.

On the other hand, the heterosexual society will develop tolerance towards this group of people and learn to accept them as they are. People will also develop a sense of empathy and avoid any judgmental comments against this group. The third recommendation will be to avoid discrimination at all costs. As we have observed in the discussion above, homosexuality is not abnormality or a curse. These are people who have same anatomical characteristics like any other human being, with the only difference being found in their sexual partner preferences. Homosexuals have been prejudiced and discriminated against, making them appear like social outcasts.

They are marginalized from certain societal issues due to their perceived differences and uncleanliness compared to the rest of the population. To prevent any ongoing discrimination, the government should clarify policies that aim to protect these individuals in society and take the lead in combating such prejudiced beliefs. The introduction of the Equality Act in 2006 was a significant step forward in addressing societal prejudice and subsequent discrimination. The act called for equal access to goods, services, and facilities, including the ability to work in any social setting without fear of being labeled an outcast or a reject.

To ensure love is promoted among all groups of people regardless of their sexual orientation, spiritual groups should also participate. The spiritual groups have often been blamed for creating tension between heterosexual individuals and those who identify as homosexual. This is primarily due to the influence of religion within this

significant social institution. Religion is considered an unquestionable aspect when it comes to societal matters and is seen as the sole provider of moral values for society. As a result, the teachings and beliefs of religious leaders are followed devoutly, while any contradictory information is disregarded.

Therefore, the battle against favoritism amongst the homophiles will only be successful if spiritual leaders develop a sense of empathy and tolerance towards this group of people and learn to accept them as they are.


In conclusion, it is evident from various scientific researches that sexual orientation goes beyond societal beliefs that it is strictly environmental. To a greater extent, biological factors determine whether an individual becomes homosexual or heterosexual. The tendencies that result from familial heritage play a significant role in determining the activities one chooses to embrace during childhood.

The society should be aware that those who choose to interact more with people of the opposite sex may develop attraction towards them due to physiological arousal. It is important to recognize that homophiles are not abnormal or castaways in society. They are just like everyone else, the only difference being their sexual orientations. Therefore, they should not face discrimination or be treated unfairly simply because they are not conforming to societal norms.

The spiritual establishments and authorities must prioritize the protection and respect of homophiles. Anyone displaying disrespect towards someone based on their sexual orientation should be charged and face disciplinary actions for such wicked actions. This is because, as previously mentioned, homosexuality is not a matter of choice but rather biological factors. Ultimately, we should all cultivate empathy to accept each other regardless of sexual orientation. It is true

that one's biological makeup, not upbringing or environment, determines homosexuality. Lastly, it should be noted that even therapy may not succeed in changing a homosexual individual to become heterosexual.

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