Introduction to Management – Chapter 2: The History of Management

Scientific Management
thoroughly studying and testing different work methods and identifying the best, most efficient was to complete a job
Father of Scientific Management
-Frederick W. Taylor
-Developed four principles of scientific management
-Introduced the time study
Time Study
time taken by good workers to complete each part of their jobs
Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management
1. Develop a science for each element of a man’s word, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past, he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.
Motion Studies
-Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
-Employed motion study to simplify work and improve productivity
Motion Study
breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive
Gantt Chart
-Developed Gantt chart
-Indicates what tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project
Bureaucratic Management
-Max Weber
-Proposed the idea of bureaucracy
exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
Characterized Elements of Bureaucracies:
-Qualification based hiring and merit-based promotion
-Chain of command and division of labor
-Impartial application of rules and procedures
-Records in writing
-Managers separate from owners
Principles of Management by Henri Fayol
-Division of work
Authority and responsibility
-Unity of command
-Unity of direction
-Subordinate of individual interests to the general interests
-Centralization, scalar chain
-Order, equity
-Stability of tenure of personnel
-Esprit de corps
Humans Relation Management
-Mary Parker Follett
-Developed the approach of integrative conflict resolution
Integrative Conflict Resolution
approach to deal with conflict in which both parties indicate their preferences and find an alternative that meets the needs of both parties
Humans Relations Management – Elton Mayo
played a significant role in Hawthorne Studies
Humans Relations Management – Chester Barnard
proposed a comprehensive theory of cooperation in formal organizations
system of consciously coordinated activities or forces created by two or more people
Operations Management
-Eli Whitney
-Introduced the concept of manufacturing using standardized, interchangeable parts
Operations Management- Gaspard Monge
explained techniques for drawing three-dimensional objects on paper
Operations Management- Oldsmobile Motor Work
invented just in-time inventory systems
Information Management
-Paper and printing press revolutionized the business use of information
-Typewriters and personal computers enabled easier and faster production of business correspondence
-Telegraph, telephone, fax, and Internet increased access to timely information
Systems Management- System
set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole
smaller systems that operate within the context of a larger system
occurs when subsystems can produce more together than they can working apart
Types of Systems
-Closed systems sustain themselves without interacting with their environments
-Open systems sustain themselves only by interacting with their environments
Contingency Management- Contingency Approach
-Holds that there are no universal management theories
-Effective management theory depends on the kinds of problems that managers are facing at a particular time and place

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