Intro to Sociology – Chapter 19

anxiety disorders
feelings of worry and fearfulness that last for months at a time

commodification
the changing of something not generally thought of as a commodity into something that can be bought and sold in a marketplace

contested illnesses
illnesses that are questioned or considered questionable by some medical professionals

demedicalization
the social process that normalizes “sick” behavior

disability
a reduction in one’s ability to perform everyday tasks; the World Health Organization notes that this is a social limitation

impairment
the physical limitations a less-able person faces

individual mandate
a government rule that requires everyone to have insurance coverage or pay a penalty

legitimation
when a physician certifies that an illness is genuine

medical sociology
the systematic study of how humans manage issues of health and illness, disease and disorders, and health care for both the sick and the healthy

medicalization of deviance
the process that changes “bad” behavior into “sick” behavior

medicalization
the process by which aspects of life that were considered bad or deviant are redefined as sickness and needing medical attention to remedy

mood disorders
long-term, debilitating illnesses like depression and bipolar disorder

personality disorders
disorders that cause people to behave in ways that are seen as abnormal to society but seem normal to them

private health care
health insurance that a person buys from a private company; private health care can either be employer-sponsored or direct-purchase

public health care
health insurance that is funded or provided by the government

sick role
the pattern of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them

social epidemiology
the study of the causes and distribution of diseases

socialized medicine
when the government owns and runs the entire health care system

stereotype interchangeability
when stereotypes don’t change, they get recycled for application to a new subordinate group

stigmatization of illness
are those that are discriminated against and whose sufferers are looked down upon or even shunned by society

stigmatization
when someone’s identity is spoiled; they are labeled as different, discriminated against, and sometimes even shunned due to an illness or disability

underinsured
those who spend at least 10 percent of their income on health care costs that are not covered by insurance

universal health care
a system that guarantees health care coverage for everyone

Who determines which illnesses are stigmatized?
society

Chronic fatigue syndrome is an example of _______________.
a contested illness

The Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) is an example of ________________
a social construction of health

What is social epidemiology?
The study of the causes and distribution of diseases

Many deaths in high-income nations are linked to __________________
obesity

According to the World Health Organization, what was the most frequent cause of death for children under five in low income countries?
Pneumonia and diarrheal diseases

Core nations are also known as __________________
high-income nations

Which of the following statements is not true?
Blacks have lower cancer rates than whites.

The process by which aspects of life that were considered bad or deviant are redefined as sickness and needing medical attention to remedy is called:
medicalization

What are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders in the United States?
anxiety disorders

Sidewalk ramps and Braille signs are examples of _______________.
accommodations required by the Americans with Disabilities Act; forms of accessibility for people with disabilities (both b and c)

The high unemployment rate among the disabled may be a result of ____________.
stigmatization

Which public health care system offers insurance primarily to people over 65?
Medicare

Which program is an example of socialized medicine?
The United States’ Veterans Health Administration

What will the individual mandate provision of the 2010 U.S. health care reform do?
Require everyone to have insurance or pay a penalty

Great Britain’s health care system is an example of ______________
socialized medicine

What group created the Millennium Development Goals?
The World Health Organization

Which of the following is not part of the rights and responsibilities of a sick person under the functionalist perspective?
The sick person can take as long as she wants to get better.

The class, race, and gender inequalities in our healthcare system support the _____________ perspective.
conflict

The removal of homosexuality from the DSM is an example of ____________.
demedicalization

Medical sociology is the systematic study of:
How humans manage issues of health and illness, disease and disorders, and health care for both the sick and the healthy

Obesity is rising at the fastest rate in which of the following countries?
High income

What is one of the largest contributors to health problems in low-income countries?
Clean water access

Which of the following best defines Medicare?
A publicly funded health care program which provides health services to people over 65 years old as well as people who meet other standards for disability

Which of the following would a social epidemiologist be likely to study:
The high cancer rates surrounding a large manufacturing plant in New Mexico

The US healthcare system consists of:
Public and private insurance coverage

Taylor works as a legal assistant. His insurance doesn’t cover treatment for depression, and he spends 15% of his income each month to receive care. This is an example of:
Under-insurance

What sociologist pioneered the concept of “the Sick Role”?
Talcott Parsons

Which of the following is an example of legitimation?
Marley’s doctor diagnosing him with bronchitis

Which of the following best defines the concept of the “The Sick Role”?
The pattern of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them