International Business Ch. 13

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Large firms generally tend to be _____ about seeking opportunities for profitable exporting, whereas medium-sized and small firms are:
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proactive; reactive.
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Which of the following statements about medium and small-sized firms is true?
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They consider exporting only after domestic markets are saturated
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Why are small and medium-sized firms not proactive in seeking export opportunities?
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They are intimidated by the complexities and mechanics of exporting to countries.
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The combination of _____ and _____ explains why exporters still account for only a tiny percentage of U.S. firms.
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unfamiliarity; intimidation
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The great promise of _____ is that large revenue and profit opportunities are to be found in foreign markets for most firms in many industries.
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exporting
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Common pitfalls for neophyte exporters include all of the following EXCEPT:
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intimidating the foreign customers
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Novice exporters tend to underestimate the _____ involved in cultivating business in foreign countries.
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time and expertise
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What should novice exporters determine before considering exporting?
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Time and expertise required to cultivate business opportunities in foreign countries
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Which of these countries is considered as one of the world’s most successful exporting nations?
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Germany
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Great trading houses in Japan are called:
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sogo shosha.
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The _____ have offices all over the world, and they proactively, continuously seek export opportunities for their affiliated companies.
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sogo shosha
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For U.S. firms, the most comprehensive source of export opportunities information is the:
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U.S. Department of Commerce.
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Which of the following institutions within the U.S. Department of Commerce is dedicated to providing businesses with intelligence and assistance for attacking foreign markets?
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The International Trade Administration
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A _____ gives the names and addresses of potential distributors in foreign markets along with businesses they are in, the products they handle, and the contact person.
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best prospects list
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How does the U.S. Department of Commerce help potential exporters
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It has assembled a “comparison shopping service” for 14 countries that are major markets for U.S. exports.
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The U.S. Department of Commerce agencies provide the potential exporter with all of these services except:
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letter of credit
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A program in which department representatives accompany groups of U.S. businesspeople abroad to meet with qualified agents, distributors, and customers is called:
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the matchmaker program
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Which organization is affiliated with the Service Corps of Retired Executives?
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Small Business Administration
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Trade commissions provide all of the following EXCEPT:
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management personnel
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A company of export specialists that acts as an export marketing department for client firms is called a(n):
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export management company
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A good EMC has all of the following qualities EXCEPT
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English-speaking employees only
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What is a drawback of relying on an EMC?
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The exporting company can fail to develop its own capabilities
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3M has built its export success on all of the following principles EXCEPT:
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get into a market first and learn about the country
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A firm can increase the probability of exporting successfully by taking which of these steps?
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Recognize time and managerial commitment.
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Which of the following is NOT recommended as a way to increase success of exporting?
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Invest significantly large capital in a foreign market
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Lack of trust is a major issue for firms engaged in international trade for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
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parties are easy to track.
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In international trade, due to _____ between two parties, each has his/her own preferences as to how the transaction should be configured.
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the lack of trust
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Lack of trust between two parties engaged in international trade is accentuated by:
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the problems of using an underdeveloped international legal system to enforce contractual obligations.
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Title to products is given to a bank in the form of a document called:
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bill of lading.
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Which of the following stands at the center of international commercial transactions?
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Letter of credit
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The letter of credit is issued by a bank at the request of a(n):
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importer
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Which of the following would NOT occur when using a bank in exporting arrangements?
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Importer pays to the exporter directly
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The great advantage of the _____ system is that two parties are likely to trust reputable banks, even if they do not trust each other.
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letter of credit
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What is the drawback for the importer in using a letter of credit?
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It may reduce his/her ability to borrow funds for other purposes
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Why does a letter of credit reduce an importer’s ability to borrow funds
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It is a financial liability against the importer
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A draft is sometimes referred to as a:
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bill of exchange.
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A _____ is simply an order written by an exporter instructing an importer to pay a specified amount of money at a specified time.
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draft
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How does the international practice of settling trade transactions differ from domestic practice?
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In international business, a formal promise to pay is required before obtaining the merchandise.
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A party initiating a draft is known as the _____, while the party to whom the draft is presented is known as the:
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maker; drawee.
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The two categories of drafts are:
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sight drafts and time drafts
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Which of the following is payable on presentation to the drawee?
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Sight draft
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Which of the following allows for a delay in payment?
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Time draft
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When a time draft is drawn on and accepted by a business firm, it is called a(n):
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trade acceptance
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Time drafts
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are negotiable instruments
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An importer calls an exporter to present the bank with a time draft requiring payment 120 days after presentation. Which instrument is the importer using for the transaction?
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A negotiable instrument
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As a _____, a bill of lading specifies that the carrier is obligated to provide a transportation service in return for a certain charge.
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contract
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A bill of lading serves all of the following purposes EXCEPT:
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letter of credit
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As a collateral, the bill of lading:
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can be used to advance funds to the exporter by its local bank before or during shipment.
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As a _____, a bill of lading can be used to obtain payment or written promise of payment before the merchandise is released to the importer.
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document of title
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In the U.S., export credit insurance is provided by the:
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FCIA.
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The _____ guarantees repayment of medium and long-term loans U.S. commercial banks make to foreign borrowers for purchasing U.S. exports.
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Ex-Im Bank
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The mission of the _____ is to provide financing aid that will facilitate exports, imports, and the exchange of commodities between the United States and other countries.
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Ex-Im Bank
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Exporters clearly prefer to get a _____ from importers.
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letter of credit
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When does an exporter have to forgo a letter of credit?
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When the importer is in a strong bargaining position.
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The _____ provides coverage against commercial risks and political risks.
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Foreign Credit Insurance Association
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In the United States, export credit insurance is provided by the:
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Foreign Credit Insurance Association.
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When should an exporter get export credit insurance?
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When the exporter is facing a situation where the importer may default on payment.
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What is the advantage of export credit insurance?
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countertrade
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When do firms engage in countertrade?
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When the exporter may not be paid in his/her home currency.
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Sudi Arabia agreed to buy 10 747 jets from Boeing with payment in crude oil, discounted at 10 percent below posted world oil prices. This is an example of:
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countertrade.
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The principle of a _____ is to trade goods and services when they cannot be traded for money.
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countertrade
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In the modern era, countertrade arose in the 1960s as a way for _____ to purchase imports.
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the Soviet Union
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Which of the following is NOT a distinct countertrade arrangement?
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Merger
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The direct exchange of goods and/or services between two parties without a cash transaction refers to:
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bartering
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The most restrictive countertrade arrangement is:
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barter
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Why is barter is not a common arrangement?
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Firms run the risk of having to accept goods they do not want.
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Albania offered such items as spring water, tomato juice, and chrome ore in exchange for a $60 million fertilizer and methanol complex. Which type of countertrade is this?
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Barter
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When a firm agrees to purchase a certain amount of materials back from a country to which a sale is made, it is called:
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counterpurchase
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A U.S. firm sells some products to China. China pays the U.S. firm in dollars, but in exchange, the U.S. firm agrees to spend some of its proceeds from the sale on textiles produced by China. Which type of countertrade is this?
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Counterpurchase
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A(n) _____ is similar to a counterpurchase, although one party can fulfill the obligation with any firm in the country to which the sale is being made.
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offset
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When a specialized third-party trading house is used in a countertrade arrangement, it is called:
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switch trading.
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When a firm builds a plant in a country and agrees to take a certain percentage of the plant’s output as partial payment for the contract, it is called:
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a buyback
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What is the main attraction of countertrade?
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A firm can finance an export deal when other means are not available.
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Occidental Petroleum negotiated a deal with Russia under which Occidental would build several ammonia plants in Russia and as partial payment receive ammonia over a 20-year period. This is an example of:
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a buyback.
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_____ agreement may be required by the government of a country that has a problem in paying for imports.
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Countertrade
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Countertrade is most attractive to:
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large multinational enterprises.
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What is a drawback of countertrade?
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It requires the firm to invest in an in-house trading department dedicated to arranging and managing deals.
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One U.S. firm got burned when 50 percent of the television sets it received in a(n) _____ agreement with Hungary were defective and could not be sold.
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countertrade
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The _____ are masters of countertrade that use their vast networks of affiliated companies to profitably dispose of goods acquired through countertrade agreements.
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sogo shosha
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Why should small and medium-sized firms avoid countertrade deals?
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They lack the worldwide network of operations that may be required to profitably utilize goods.

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