Influences on Societies View of Homosexuality Essay Example
Influences on Societies View of Homosexuality Essay Example

Influences on Societies View of Homosexuality Essay Example

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  • Pages: 17 (4480 words)
  • Published: July 19, 2017
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This paper analyzes the influence of spiritual individuals, specifically Christians, and practitioners of science or psychology on societal views towards homosexuality. The Gay Rights Movement has faced considerable resistance from fundamentalist Christian leaders and scientists aiming to label homosexuality as a handicap. As a result, this movement has become a long-lasting and difficult battle for equal rights. Consequently, non-heterosexual individuals often encounter marginalization in society due to religious beliefs continuously reinforcing the notion that homosexuality is sinful.

The Bible, which is the world's best-selling book, clearly denounces homosexuality in Leviticus 18:22. Many Christians interpret this verse literally and condemn individuals who are not heterosexual. The prevalence of homophobia in today's society can be attributed to Christianity being the largest religion with a history spanning two thousand years. Traditionally, religion has been the source of explanat


ions for our existence, while science provides an alternative based on physical evidence and the theory of evolution. Religion involves worshiping a divine entity responsible for creating humanity and life, whereas science explains creation and the development of humanity through scientific interpretation. In general, there is a conflict between religion and science as they constantly attempt to disprove one another.

Despite this, nevertheless, for a long time, there was consensus: homosexuality is negative. Initially, science believed that homosexuality either didn't exist or was a personal choice or treatable as a disorder. However, the scientific community eventually shifted their perspective after years of support. Presently, organizations like the American Psychiatric Association (APA), renowned as global authorities on the human brain, officially affirm that homosexuality is not a disorder, syndrome, or any form of mental illness and cannot be altered by an individual. They strongly

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oppose practices such as anti-gay ministries in which religious groups attempt to 'fix' or 'save' homosexuals. In the early 1600s, science emerged as an alternative belief system to religion.

The Catholic Church frequently marginalized members of the church who were scientists and those who believed in anything other than Creationism. Christianity became focused on tradition while scientific discipline focused on discovering and evolving. A continuous battle emerged between the two to influence society towards one path and reject the other, in order to exert control over society. The majority of the human population adheres to either scientific discipline, faith, or both. Christianity has consistently condemned homosexuality throughout history. This condemnation ultimately led to Christian values becoming deeply ingrained in society, as evidenced by the attitudes of the general public.

The animosity between different Christian denominations stems from the worldwide endorsement of the Christian religion, predominantly by Christian authorities in many industrialized countries. The Holy Roman Catholic church was the original Christian church, but numerous denominations have since emerged from it and other sources, resulting in various interpretations of the Bible and religious ethics. Christianity is currently the most widespread belief system globally, with approximately 1.9 to 2.1 billion followers across different denominations. It originated around 2011 years ago, with religious historians estimating that the New Testament was written shortly after Jesus' crucifixion in approximately 40 AD.

Christianity and Judaism both trace their origins back to the Old Testament, specifically the book of Leviticus. This ancient text, predating Jesus' era, contains a passage in Leviticus 18:22 that condemns sexual relations between men as detestable. Frequently, this verse is used to justify religious homophobia. Nevertheless, it's crucial to recognize that

this particular biblical passage does not explicitly mention homosexual women.

The Pope, currently Benedict XVI, is trusted by many Christians to interpret the Bible and provide guidance on living according to its teachings. He views homosexual behavior as an objective disorder and immoral, while promoting compassion. However, he maintains that homosexuality is a sin and supports sexual relations solely within heterosexual marriage.

Many Christian leaders, including Reverend Albert Mohler Jr., agree that there is currently no conclusive research supporting a biological basis for sexual orientation. However, they also acknowledge that if scientific discipline were to find a correlation or cause with biological factors, Christians would not be surprised. This is because they believe in the destructive effects of the Fall and God's judgment upon sin. If such a discovery were accepted, it would not change God's disapproval of all forms of homosexual behavior nor imply an inherent "identity" for any individual. As I have argued previously, moral responsibility does not necessitate absolute moral choice. For instance, a soldier in war may not have chosen to be in a situation of moral anguish but remains fully responsible for their decisions and actions.

R. Albert Mohler Jr. asserts that individuals, regardless of their biological profile or sexual orientation, are fully accountable for engaging in homosexual acts. Whether their sexual attraction is innate or a deliberate choice, those who opt to partake in same-sex acts must take responsibility for their decision to commit an act that the Bible denounces. Mohler expressed this viewpoint on a well-known online newspaper where he frequently contributes, underscoring that individuals cannot evade accountability for the choices they make.

Homophiles have varying views on sexual orientation. Some argue

that while orientation is unchangeable, the actions resulting from it are considered immoral. Regrettably, this perspective has led to mistreatment of individuals who identify as homosexual. Conversely, others believe that homosexuality itself cannot be changed and only the behaviors linked to it can be adjusted. Certain religious institutions support the concept that therapy can effectively modify one's sexual orientation.

The therapy provided includes various methods, such as seminars promoting discrimination against gay individuals and intervention strategies, some of which involve gang-rape. In addition, certain programs offer seminars on changing one's sexual orientation and providing intervention strategies. The goal of these approaches is to convince individuals that being heterosexual is advantageous because it is considered holy and leads to heaven. Furthermore, these seminars highlight the drawbacks of homosexuality, such as the inability for same-sex couples to have children, and cite religious texts like the bible as reasons to embrace heterosexuality. Some participants who have undergone these programs assert that they have successfully changed their sexual orientation and now identify as heterosexual. Despite the fact that a majority of religious communities strongly condemn homosexuality, there are Christians with differing views.

The book Homosexuality and the Christian Faith, written by various curates and church members, argues that efforts to change one's sexual orientation are frequently ineffective. It suggests that just as heterosexual individuals can decide whether or not to engage in homosexual behavior, those attracted to the same sex can also opt for abstinence. However, a recent analysis of studies on interventions aimed at altering sexual orientation concludes that there is no supporting evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions.

Many Christian ex-gay organizations have recently faced challenges and are now

either defunct or abandoned by their founders. Their written materials reveal that many "ex-gays" openly acknowledge struggling with homosexual desires (Wink 68). In Chapter 7 of his book on Accepting What Can Not Be Changed, social psychologist David G Myers expresses a similar viewpoint. It is crucial to note that not all Christians possess homophobia, as there are numerous individuals who disagree with the teachings promoted by institutions like the Holy Roman Catholic Church.

The United Church of Christ (UCC), among other denominations, is often referred to as "the gay ministry" because of its progressive beliefs. In a significant achievement for the UCC, an openly gay curate was appointed, alongside the first female curate and black minister. Nevertheless, despite Christianity's extensive membership of 2.1 billion adherents, it generally does not accept homosexuality and wields substantial societal influence. In contrast, science diligently examines empirical evidence to draw logical conclusions about life and its diverse aspects.

Studying consciousness and existence has multiple justifications within science, which covers a diverse range of topics from insects to the human brain. Throughout history, the human brain has intrigued many individuals, resulting in a long-lasting fascination with psychology. Despite its imprecision, efforts have been made to comprehend this field. Esteemed psychologists like Sigmund Freud have formulated numerous theories regarding mental disorders, including homosexuality.

Around 1867, a scientist named Karl Heinrich Ulrichs began publishing his research on homosexuality and the human brain. Ulrichs was the first pioneer in the scientific field of homosexuality. According to his theory, homosexuals and lesbians were formed during the incubation period, where the external gender differed from the internal gender (e.g., internal female, external male or vice versa). Ulrichs

also introduced his own terms for homosexuals. An 'urning' referred to a gay man, an 'urningin' referred to a lesbian, a 'dioning' referred to a heterosexual individual, and an 'urano-dioning' referred to a bisexual individual.

'Urning' referred to a follower or descendant of Uranus, while 'urningin' indicated a heavenly Aphrodite girl of Uranus. On the other hand, 'dioning' described a common Aphrodite girl of Zeus and mortal Dione. Furthermore, urano-dioning denoted a combination of these concepts. Uranus, or Ouranus, was the Grecian God of the sky, who married Gaia, the Earth God. Their children were known as the Titans, who castrated Uranus for Gaia's sake. Consequently, they were imprisoned by their own offspring who became the Grecian Gods Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades. Ulrichs proposed that urnings and urningins constituted the 'third sex'. Additionally, he believed in a spectrum of homosexuality. Homosexuals could be categorized as either a 'wiebling' or a 'mannling'. Wieblings assumed a feminine role during sex and displayed femininity in all aspects. On the other hand, mannlings played a masculine role during sex and exhibited masculinity in all other aspects.

Ulrichs was the original researcher of homosexualism and advocated for homosexual rights throughout his career. Magnus Hirschfeld was the second pioneer in this field, but his theories were widely debated due to inconsistencies and his tendency to contradict himself. He was the first scientist to oppose gay marriage, theorizing that homosexuality was a natural mechanism to prevent the production of abnormal offspring. He initially claimed that homosexual individuals were the result of perverted families and would produce disabled children, but later rejected this theory when he realized he himself was homosexual and couldn't find any

faults in his own family to justify it.

Despite this, Hirschfeld persisted in his conviction that the environment had a profound impact on homosexuality. He conceptualized masculinity and femininity as abstract ideas and hypothesized that sexual orientation was intrinsically linked to both psychological and physical aspects of gender identity. As a result, individuals displaying characteristics of both genders were more prone to being homosexual. Hirschfeld even went so far as to suggest theories about the presence of sperm in women's vaginal secretions and menstrual blood in men's urine. In the field that followed, Steinach spearheaded surgical interventions with the goal of treating homosexuality.

In an attempt to alter the sexual orientation of homosexual males, testis grafts were performed by transferring the testicles from heterosexual adult males. Unfortunately, this procedure failed in changing the recipients' sexual orientation and instead caused health problems like hair loss and erectile dysfunction. Subsequently, Sigmund Freud, renowned for his theories in depth psychology, conducted extensive research on homosexual men. However, during that period, there was a lack of studies focusing on lesbians.

The author primarily focused on the sexual drive area of the brain known as the Libido. According to him, one of the main reasons for men being homosexual is due to their early childhood experiences, which they later forget. These experiences involve a strong sexual attachment to a female figure, usually their mother, encouraged and fostered by the excessive affection of the mother herself. Additionally, the lack of involvement by the father further contributes to this attachment. At a later stage, the male child suppresses his love for his mother by assuming her role, identifying himself with her and selecting new love

interests based on his own likeness. In summary, Freud believed that having an overbearing mother and an absent father leads to a homosexual man. Another psychologist called Ovesey further expanded on Freud's theories. According to Ovesey, homosexual men often fear female genitals as they remind them of the threat of castration.

According to LeVay, many homosexual men redirect their sexual desire towards other men instead of adult females, suppressing their attractiveness to women. This redirection of libido serves as a substitute path for sexual fulfillment. LeVay also discusses Freud's theories on lesbians, suggesting that Freud believed they felt unsatisfied with having only a clitoris and envied male genitalia. However, Freud argued that this should not be used as a reason to deny their rights. In 1915, Freud stated that psychoanalytic research opposes separating homosexuals from society as a distinct group.

According to several psychological science associations, homosexualism was considered a disorder attributed to Freud. However, in 1957, The American Psychiatric Association decided to remove homosexualism from its list of disorders, stating that it was not a treatable issue in the brain. Further research conducted in the 1900s focused on genetics, with some speculating about the existence of a "gay gene," although this theory has since been disproven. While major scientific journals reported advancements in genetics, they also expressed concerns regarding the potential implications of this information.

One significant outcome of the Human Genome Project was the identification of the 'gay gene' (Harrub and Thompson 1). Many individuals anticipated that this project would provide scientific evidence supporting homosexuality. Despite the absence of such evidence, some continued to argue for a genetic basis. Science has always existed, but its thorough

exploration began after the establishment of Christianity. Notably, Galileo Galilei, an early Christian scientist, discovered the heliocentric nature of the solar system and faced ostracism from the Catholic Church due to this revelation.

Science and faith are based on different foundations, with science relying on logic and empirical evidence while faith is rooted in religion. This has led to a convergence of the two, as some Christians embrace scientific principles alongside their religious beliefs. However, there are still many Christians who view homosexuality as a disorder, despite the American Psychological Association declaring otherwise. As a result, ex-gay ministries continue to exist based on the belief that homosexuality can be changed, despite psychologists overwhelmingly agreeing that these practices are harmful and lack any psychological basis. The influence of science on society is immense, not only because it is accepted by some religious individuals but also by those who do not adhere to any faith and are generally open to scientific findings.

Society is a intricate and multi-layered place, intertwined with various cultures and lifestyles, making it challenging to examine and draw widespread conclusions. However, there are numerous similarities and shared elements among different cultures. Homosexuality, for instance, has existed for over 26 centuries.Before 600 BC, there are historical grounds that are questionable in truth. However, everything listed below is what happened after that time:

- 600 BC: The Island of Lesbos inspired the word tribade.
- 27 BC: The first recorded same-sex marriages took place.
- 244-249 AD: Emperor Phillip the Arab attempted to criminalize homosexual harlotry but failed.
- 342: The first law against same-sex marriage was promulgated by Christian Emperors.
- 390: Homosexuality was declared illegal by Christian emperors, and the

penalty was public burning alive.
- 484: Christian emperors continued to collect taxes on male prostitutes.
- 529: Homosexuals were blamed by Christian emperors for disasters like flooding and storms.
- 1102: The Council of London ensured that the English public knew homosexuality was sinful.
- 1260: France established venereal mutilation as a penalty for homosexuality.
- 1321: Dante's Inferno placed sodomites in the seventh circle of hell.
- 1476: Leonardo Da Vinci was charged with buggery, but there was no verdict.
- 1532: The Holy Roman Empire made sodomy a capital punishment.
- 1533: King Henry VIII made male homosexuality a capital punishment.
- 1553: Mary Tudor repealed King Henry VIII's laws.
- 1558: Elizabeth I reinstated Henry VIII's laws.
- 1620: Prussia made buggery punishable by death.
- 1649: The first known conviction for lesbianism (USA).
- 1721: Execution for female buggery took place in Germany.
- 1791: France decriminalized homosexuality.
- 1794: Prussia abolished the death penalty for buggery.
- 1811: The Netherlands and Indonesia decriminalized homosexuality.
- 1828: The phrase "offense against nature" was first used in the criminal code in the United States.
- 1830: Brazil decriminalized homosexuality.
- 1832: Russia criminalized homosexuality.
- 1835: Russia forced Poland to criminalize homosexuality.
- 1836: The last execution for homosexuality occurred in Great Britain.
- 1852: Portugal decriminalized homosexuality.
- 1858: The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) decriminalized sodomy.Timor-Leste legalizes homosexuality, while in 1865 San Marino decriminalizes buggery. In 1867, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs speaks out for homosexual rights in Munich. In 1871, the German Empire criminalizes homosexuality, while Guatemala and Mexico decriminalize it. The Empire of Japan follows suit in 1880 and decriminalizes homosexuality. In 1886, England decriminalizes homosexualism among men in workforces but not females; Argentina and Portugal also decriminalize it. Italy joins this movement

in 1889. In 1895, Earl Lind establishes the first political party advocating for gay rights in its policy agenda. New York takes its first steps towards accepting homosexuality in 1903 by conducting a trial on buggery charges involving a homosexual bathing machine and twelve individuals. Emma Goldman fights for homosexual rights in 1910. In 1913, the word "faggot" is used in literature for the first time in France. Russia revokes its previous ruling on homosexuality in 1917. In 1920, the term "homosexual" is used for the first time to refer to homophiles. In 1921, England attempts to make lesbianism illegal but fails. The first homosexual rights organization is established in the USA in 1924, while Panama, Paraguay, and Peru legalize homosexuality. Denmark decriminalizes homosexuality in 1933, but the National Socialist German Workers Party bans homophiles and sends them to Nazi concentration camps. Uruguay also decriminalizes homosexuality in 1934.The text highlights the criminalization and decriminalization of homosexuality in various countries during different time periods. These events include:

- The USSR criminalizing homosexuality in its armed forces
- The use of the Pink Triangle to identify gay men in the Nazi party in 1937
- Iceland and Switzerland decriminalizing homosexuality in 1940 and 1942 respectively
- Sweden decriminalizing homosexuality in 1944, while Suriname legalizes it
- Homosexual prisoners still being required to serve their full term even after the liberation of concentration camps by Allies in 1945
- 190 US government employees being dismissed for their homosexuality in 1950
- Christine Jorgenson becoming the first known transgender person (Male to Female) in 1952
- Alan Turing, who was given the choice between prison or hormone treatment, committing

suicide in 1954 due to his homosexuality
- Thailand decriminalizing homosexuality in 1956
- The American Psychiatric Association removing homosexuality as a disorder from its handbook in 1957
- The US Supreme Court having its first case involving homosexual rights in 1958
- Czechoslovakia and Hungary legalizing buggery (sodomy) in 1961
- The Vatican declaring homosexuals banned from the Catholic church in the same year
- Illinois becoming the first US state to legalize buggery
- Israel de facto legalizing buggery between men in 1963
- The first homosexual rights demonstration taking place in Canada in 1965
- Chad decriminalizing homosexuality in 1967.England and Wales decriminalize homosexuality between men in 1968. East Germany also decriminalizes homosexuality in the same year. Canada follows suit in 1969. In 1971, Austria, Costa Rica, Finland, Colorado, Oregon, and Idaho repeal sodomy laws, but Idaho reinstates them due to religious outrage. In 1972, Sweden allows legal sex changes, Hawaii legalizes homosexuality, and the cities of East Lansing (MI), Ann Arbor (MC), and San Francisco (CA) pass the first homosexual rights regulations. Malta legalizes homosexuality in 1973. In 1974, Kathy Kozachenko becomes the first openly gay American elected to public office. California legalizes homosexuality in 1975, and South Australia becomes the first state in Australia to do so. Panama allows legal sex changes in the same year. The anti-gay group Christian Voice is founded in 1976. Harvey Milk becomes the third openly gay elected official in 1977, and Quebec prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation. Croatia, Montenegro, and Slovenia decriminalize homosexuality in the same year. Harvey Milk is assassinated in 1978, and the rainbow flag is first used as a symbol of

gay pride. Spain and Cuba decriminalize homosexuality in 1979. Scotland decriminalizes homosexuality in 1980. Northern Ireland, Victoria (Australia), and Colombia do so in 1981. California appoints its first homosexual city manager in 1982.AIDS is given many homophobic names. In 1983, Portugal re-legalizes homosexuality. In 1985, France prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation. Haiti decriminalizes homosexuality in 1986. The Homomonument, a memorial to persecuted homosexuals, is founded in Amsterdam in 1987. In 1988, Belize and Israel (De Jure) legalize buggery and sex between men. Western Australia decriminalizes homosexuality between men in 1989, and Liechtenstein also legalizes homosexuality. In 1990, the UK Crown Dependency of Jersey and Queensland decriminalize homosexuality, and Justin Fashanu becomes the first openly gay football player. The Bahamas, Hong Kong, and Ukraine decriminalize homosexuality in 1991. Estonia and Latvia decriminalize homosexuality in 1992, while the World Health Organization declares that homosexuality is not a disease. Australia allows homosexuals to serve in the armed forces, but Nicaragua recriminalizes homosexuality. Norfolk Island in Australia abolishes sodomy laws in 1993. Belarus, Gibraltar (UK Crown Dependency), Iceland, Lithuania, and Russia decriminalize homosexuality. The USA introduces the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy, and New Zealand allows homosexuals to serve in the armed forces. In 1994, Bermuda, Germany, Isle of Man (UK Crown Dependency), Serbia, and South Africa decriminalize homosexuality.Canada offers sanctuary to individuals who identify as gay and fear persecution. In 1995, Canada establishes anti-discrimination laws that protect individuals based on their sexual orientation. The following year, Romania and Macedonia decriminalize homosexuality. In 1997, Ecuador and Tasmania also decriminalize homosexuality, while Fiji and South Africa pass laws against discrimination based on sexual orientation. In 1998, several countries including

Bosnia, Herzegovina, Chile, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Southern Cyprus, and Tajikistan decriminalize homosexuality. This year is also marked by the brutal murder of Matthew Shepard and the passing of anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation in Ecuador, Ireland, and Alberta. In 2000, Azerbaijan, Gabon, and Georgia follow suit in decriminalizing homosexuality. The UK allows homosexuals to serve in the armed forces and the Nazis issue an official apology for the harm and persecution inflicted on homosexuals and lesbians until 1969. The year 2001 sees UK Territories also decriminalizing homosexuality, along with Rhode Island and Maryland passing anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation. Additionally, the Netherlands legalizes same-sex marriage. In 2002, China and Mongolia decriminalize homosexuality and there are repeals of sodomy laws in Romania, Costa Rica, and Arkansas. Alaska and New York also pass anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation during this time. Iraq decriminalizes homosexuality in 2003. Belgium, Ontario, and British Columbia legalize same-sex marriage, while Bulgaria, the UK, Arizona, Kentucky, Michigan, New Mexico, and Pennsylvania pass anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation. Finally, Armenia and the USA repeal sodomy laws.Belize has made homosexualism illegal again, while in 2004 Cape Verde and the Marshall Islands decriminalized it. Additionally, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon, and Massachusetts allowed same-sex matrimony. On the other hand, Australia, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia, and Wisconsin banned same-sex matrimony. Portugal, Indiana, Louisiana, and Maine passed anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation.

In 2005, Canada and Spain legalized same-sex matrimony. However, Latvia, Uganda, Kansas, and Texas banned same-sex matrimony. Illinois enacted anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation and Puerto Rico repealed

sodomy laws.

In 2006, South Africa permitted same-sex matrimony. Nevertheless, Tennessee, Alabama, Colorado, Idaho, South Carolina, South Dakota, Virginia, and Wisconsin prohibited it. The Faroe Islands, Germany, New Zealand, Illinois, New Jersey, and Washington DC passed anti-discrimination laws based on sexual orientation. However, Kentucky invalidated its anti-discrimination laws.

In 2007, Nepal and New Zealand districts decriminalized homosexualism. The UK as well as Colorado, Iowa, Kansas Michigan Ohio Oregon and Vermont implemented anti-discrimination legislation.

In 2008 Nicaragua and Panama decriminalized homosexualism while Connecticut allowed same-sex matrimony. Arizona California and Florida banned it.

Finally in 2009 India decriminalized homosexualism.Argentina, Philippines, and Uruguay have lifted the ban on homosexuals serving in the armed forces. The Matthew Shepard Act, which prohibits discrimination, has been implemented in Serbia, Delaware, and the USA. Iceland has made history by having the first openly gay head of government. In 2010, Fiji decriminalized homosexuality and Australia allowed transgender individuals to serve in the military. Serbia also permitted homosexuals to join their armed forces and Australia recognized non-gender specific individuals. The USA repealed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. Portugal, Iceland, Argentina, Mexico City, New Hampshire, and DC have all passed laws allowing same-sex marriage. This demonstrates that religious persecution has existed since the beginning of the millennium.

Faith has long been the primary resistance against accepting diverse individuals, as indicated by Christianity's centuries-old endeavor to deem homosexuality illegal and subject to execution. It is highly likely that laws prohibiting same-sex marriage or criminalizing homosexual activity are rooted in religious beliefs. Moreover, science is not infallible either.

Despite later changing their initial diagnosis of the 'homosexual disorder', they made a mistake by labeling it in the first place. When the belief

was spread that homosexuality was a disorder, there was almost no reason to support this claim. Additionally, the evidence to support this claim was questionable due to the lack of technology available to accurately assess the provided testimonies. The assumption that homosexuality was based on a societal norm, where being new or different meant that there was something wrong with the 'affected individual'.

The motion for homosexual rights has been the longest struggle for rights in history. It has not had any particular leaders, but rather a mixture of individuals who share similar views. This has resulted in both progress and setbacks. In ancient societies like the Greek or Roman Empires, homosexuality was widely accepted. However, with the rise of Christianity, it became seen as abnormal and was heavily condemned, with severe punishments such as death being imposed.

Throughout the universe and over many centuries, there was a continued belief that homosexuality was bad. Science, in its early stages, did not improve upon this belief but instead provided a new explanation by labeling it as a disorder.

Annotated Bibliography

  • Unknown author. "Timeline of LGBT history." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, Web. hypertext transfer protocol: //

This source lacks a distinct author as it was a collaborative effort by members of Wikipedia. Wikipedia is a large online encyclopedia that allows anyone to make edits, so the reliability of this information is questionable but not entirely invalid. It does carry credibility due to the accuracy of the sources cited on the reference page, and the sheer number of contributions suggests support from multiple sources. The information derived from this source primarily consists of an extensive timeline spanning from

the 10th millennium BC to 2011 AD, with data collected from 600 BC to 2011 AD. The timeline covers global events, encompassing both political and religious actions in favor or against homosexuality.

This is a valuable introduction because it presented a balanced view of both sides of the issues and included information that was favorable or unfavorable depending on one's perspective. I consider this introduction valid because it has a large number of subscribers, which helps minimize the spread of false information and inaccuracies. It was particularly useful as it provided a significant amount of information on the universe and the entire history of the LGBT community. It offers an extensive timeframe and a wealth of facts that I may not have discovered otherwise.

  • Brad, Harrub, Thompson Bert, and Miller Dave. "Science vs. the "Gay Gene"" - The True.Origin Archive -. 2003. Web. 09 Mar.

2011. hypertex

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