IB History: WW1 Causes

Flashcard maker : Linda Lynch
Long Term Causes (LTC)
Bismarck’s Web of Alliances, New Course and Weltpolitik, Imperialism, The Alliance System, The Naval Race, The situation in Balkans
Bismarck’s Web of Alliances (LTC)
-The Three Emperor’s League; Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary (1873) – To keep France isolated.
-The Dual Alliance; Austia-Hungary, Russia (1879) – To limit the possibility of war.
-The Three Emperor’s Alliance; Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary (1881) – To resolve Austro-Russian dispute in the Balkans.
-The Triple Alliance; Germany, Austria-Hungary (1882) – If one was attacked, the other would lend assistance.
-The Reinsurance Treaty; Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary (1887) – To avoid risks of war on two fronts
New Course and Weltpolitik (LTC)
-New chancellor and Kaiser took German policy on a ‘new course’ against Bismarck’s web of alliances
-To gain colonies in Africa
-Weltpolitik: to divert from social and political problems
-France became free from isolation
Imperialism (LTC)
– European domination in several African countries
– Germany to spread influence outside of Europe
– Germany to get into conflict with the more established (UK)
The Alliance system: Triple Entente (LTC)
-Triple Entente; France, Britain, Russia: Had moral obligation to support each other
The Alliance system: Triple Alliance (LTC)
– Triple Alliance; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy: Provide military support to one another in case of a war
The Naval Race (LTC)
-UK produced HMS Dreadnought, it ‘feared nothing’
-Germany threatening UK to gain naval superiority
The Situation in Balkans: Turkey (LTC)
-Serbs, Greeks and Bulgars had revolted, creating their own nation
-Struggled to maintain remaining Balkan territories
The Situation in Balkans: Austria-Hungary (LTC)
– Austrians losing their multi-ethnic empire
– Serbia seen as a threat
The Situation in Balkans: Russia (LTC)
– Saw itself as the leader of the Slavs
– Balkans important because of the Constantinople strait
Short-Term Causes (STC)
The Moroccan Crisis, The Bosnian Crisis, The Second Moroccan Crisis, First Balkan War, The Second Balkan War, Other developments
The Moroccan Crisis – 1905 (STC)
-Germany to break the entente up by attacking France in Morocco
-Morocco not controlled by European powers
-Germans assisted Moroccan Sultan to independence
-British backed France up
-Germans lacked support, thus, was defeated
The Bosnian Crisis – 1908 (STC)
-Internal crisis within the Ottoman Empire
-Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina; caused tensions in Serbia
-Germany stood ‘shoulder-to-shoulder’ with its ally
-Russia weakened by the Japanese War
-Austria-Hungary recognized
The Second Moroccan Crisis – 1911 (STC)
– France sent troops into Fez, Morocco to support a revolt
-Germans saw this as a threat, thus, sent a gunboat in
-Lloyd George warned the Germans off in his ‘Mansion House Speech’
-Franco-German Crisis turned into an Anglo-German confrontation
The First Balkan War – 1912 (STC)
-Balkan states from an alliance (by Russian encouragement)
-Objective; to force Turkey out and to take and divide Macadomia up between themselves
-Austria called for war
-UK anxious to end the war
-Turkish land divided amongst themselves
-Austria-Hungary succeeded in containing Serbia
The Second Balkan War – 1913 (STC)
-Bulgaria went to war with Serbia and Greece over an occupied Serbian territory
-Too many Bulgarians in Serbian and Greek territories
-Austria-Hungary seeked German aid
-Serbs, Greeks and Turks defeated Bulgaria
Other developments (STC)
-Militarism:Conscription introduced, increased in spending on armaments
-War Plans: Schlieffen Plan
Immediate Causes (IC)
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand:
-Serbian black hand movement
-To unify Slavs from Austro-Hungarians
-Germany supported Austria by issuing a ‘blank cheque’ – unconditional support’
-Third Balkan War on the 30th July

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