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H&W – Exam 2

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stress
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a person’s collective psychobiological response to challenging situations, such as those which are tiring, threatening, exciting, or new.
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stressor
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situation, event, or factor that causes a stress response. disrupt homeostasis
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distress
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negative stress, depletes energy and results in impaired performance
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eustress
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positive stress, motivates and improves performance
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general adaptation system
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body’s response to stress is in 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
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fight-or-flight response
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acute stres response in which the autonomic nervous system(and neuroendocrine and voluntary nervous systems help) triggers a set of physiological changes that ready the body for action. (alarm stage)
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transactional model of stress and coping
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stress is a transactional (person-environment) phenomenon dependent of the meaning of the strssor to the perceiver. impacto f external strssor is first mediated by the person’s appraisal of the strssor and then by the social and cultural resources at his/her disposal
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type A behavior
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excessive competitiveness, time-urgency, hostility
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hostility
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primary trait that puts people at risk for development of heart disease and other stress-related diseases
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status syndrome
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effectof social position on a person’s quality of life and longevity beyond that accountedfor by education and income. Risk for stress-related health problems are mediated through the opportunity for or lack of individual autonomy and social participation
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tend-and-befriend response
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behavior patter of protecting and caring for offspring and seeking social support exhibited by humans when under threat
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time management
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prioritization, scheduling, andexecution of responsibilities to one’s personal satisfaction
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locus of control
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psychological concept referringto a person’s beliefs about the underlying causes of events in his or her life
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internal control
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outcomes are contingent on their actions, in control of their own life
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external control
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outcomes are determined by events or forces outside of personal control- fate, luck, etc
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mental health
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successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activities
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psychosomatic
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influence of the mind on the way the body functions
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motivation
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state of being energized to perform a task
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self-concept
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stable set of beliefs about one’s qualities and attributes
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self-esteem
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how one feels, good or bad, about one’s qualities and attributes
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anorexia nervosa
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eating disorder characterized by self-starvation, excessive thinness, and a distorted body image
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bulimia nervosa
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eating disorder characterized by binge eating and compensatory methods to rid the body of food
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binge eating disorder
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characterized by excessive overeating
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anxiety
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excessive worry and concern
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generalized anxiety disorder
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constant and uncontrollable worry or concern about everything
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posttraumatic stress disorder
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occurs after experiencing a frightening event in which physical harm may have occurred
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panic disorder
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sudden, overwhelming attacks of fear
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phobia
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fear of specific object or event
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obessive-compulsive disorder
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repetition of an act over and over again as a response to unwanted thoughts
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depression
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characterized by feelings of worthlessness, indecisiveness, guilt, sadness, and apprehension
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mania
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characterized by an extremely elevated mood and subsequent hyperactive behaviors
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dysthymia
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form of depression that has long-term but less severe effects than major depression
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bipolar disorder
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swings between mania and depression
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seasonal affective disorder
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when symptoms of depression are experienced during a specific season of the year
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paranoid personality disorder
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characterized by excesisve distrust and suspicion of others
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schizophrenia
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severe mental disorder thatinvolves distortedthoughts and perceptions, atypical communications, inappropriate emotion, and abnormal motor behavior. (paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual)
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social readjustment rating scale
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tool used to quantify the amount of stress a person is experiencing and the corresponding incresed risk forstress related illness, developed by Rahe and Holmes
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narcolepsy
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daytime sleep attacks
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transactional model of stress and coping
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model in which stressful experiences are seen as person environment interactions
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resistance
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stage when body mobilizes energy, body is vulnerable, attempt to adapt to stressor and regain homeostasis
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exhaustion
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stage when stressor overcomes body’s capacity to adapt, leads to illness, exhaustion, and even death.
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alarm
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stage when stress hormones are released
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behavior
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how someone acts
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assertiveness
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being very open and honest about declaring your rights
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aggressiveness
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forceful behavior with intention to dominate
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sensitivity group
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group therapy technique that uses strategies to promote self-awareness and build trust in others
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feminist psychotherapy
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focuses on roles of society and discrimination in daily life
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gestalt therapy
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therapy that employs role-playing and confrontation
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person-centered therapy
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warm supportive environment in which people feel accepted and can reveal their true feelings
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schizotypal disorder
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socially isolated, exhibits bizarre behavior and beliefs about the world, and is suspicious of others
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psychodrama
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psychotherapy in which role playing stategies, including role reversal
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psychodynamic therapy
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freudian “insight” therapy that involves free association and dream analysis and can be focused on the unconscious and past experiences
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existential
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psychotherapy that emphasized free will and using it to develop insight and self understanding
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biofeedback
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psychotherapy technique that involves monitoring body functions to provide information to the client
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implosive therapy
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psychotherapy technique encourages clients to imagin and deal with their worst fears in a safe environment with a therapist
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ego
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conscious state of how we perceive ourselves
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schizotypal
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social isolation, suspicious of others, and bizarre behavior and beliefs about the world
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humanistic therapy
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type of psychotherapy that focuses on conscious thoughts and the present time as opposed to unconscious thoughts and past experiences
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schizoid personality disorder
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extreme detachment from social situations and limited emotions in interpersonal relations
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simple behavior paradigm
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theorizes that people display a behavior to meet a need, if the behavior achieves the goal then you get relief
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aversive conditioning
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client experiences unpleasant stimuli after behaving undesirably
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behavior therapy
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principles of social leraning are used to assist people in forming accurate perceptions of their feelings and themselves
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cognititve therapy
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client is taught ot understand the irrationality of his or her thoughts or behaviors
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encounter groups
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confrontational strategies are used to allow members to express true feelings
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existential therapy
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emphasis is placed on free will and using the freee will to develop insight and self-understanding
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family therapy
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group therapy directed at families
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feminist hterapy
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focuses on role of society and thae role of discrimination in daily life
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flooding therapy
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client is placed in a real situation that he or she fears, normally accompanied by a therapist
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modeling
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client watchs another person perform the feared behavior and copies the behavior
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person-centered therapy
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warm, supportive environment created where a person feels acepted and can reveal true feelings
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psychodrama
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role playing strategies are used including role-reversal
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self-help groups
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support groups that assist peopel in displaying behaviors to reduce risk of recitivism to a previous problem behavior
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sensitivity groups
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strategies are used to promote self-awareness and trust of others
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systematic desensitization
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principles of relaxation and visualization are used
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token economy
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tokens are given as rewards for behavior in an effort to shape the behavior
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ex of psychosomatic illness
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back/chest pain, insomnia, weight loss
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electroconvulsive therapy
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procedure in which electrodes administer shocks to the patient, who experiencesa a seizure and then lapses into unconsciousness