Human Services and Counseling Exit Exam LWC

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Values
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beliefs and attitudes that provide directions for everyday living
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Ethics
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beliefs we hold about what constitutes right conduct. Moral principles adopted by groups & indiv to provide rules for right conduct.
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Morality
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concerned with right and wrong conduct. Involves and evaluation of actions based on cultural context.
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Aspirational ethics
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highest standards of thinking and conduct professional counselors seek. Requires more than just meeting the letter of the ethics codes.
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Mandatory ethics
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counselors act within minimal standards acknowledging the basic \”must\” and \”must nots\”
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Community Standards
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Also referred to as \”mores.\” Ultimately become the legal criteria for determining whether practitioners are liable for damages. Reasonable behavior.
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Professionalism
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has a relationship with ethical behavior. Possible to practice unprofessionally yet not be unethical.
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Unethical
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infractions whether minor or major.
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Principle ethics
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set of obligations that focus on moral issues. Focus on acts and choices. Ask the question: What shall I do? Is this situation illegal?
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Virtue ethics
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focuses on character traits of the counselor and non obligatory ideals which the professional aspires. Am I doing what is best for my client?
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Four core virtues
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prudence, integrity, respectfulness, and benevolence.
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Autonomy
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freedom of clients to be self-governing within their social and cultural framework.
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Nonmaleficence
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refraining from actions considered harmful to clients
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Beneficense
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doing good to others and promoting the well being of clients. Also, doing good for society.
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Justice
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to be fair giving equally to others and to treat others justly.
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Fidelity
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professionals make realistic commitments and keep these promises. Fulfilling one’s responsibility of trust in a relationship.
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Veracity
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truthfulness. Practitioner’s obligation to deal honestly with clients.
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Self-care
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taking adequate care of ourselves so that we can make good moral decisions.
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Feminist Model for making ethical decisions
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involves maximum involvement of clients in stage. Power should be equalized in the therapeutic relationship
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Social Constructive Model for making decisions
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focuses on the social aspects. Interactive. Involves negotiating, consensualizing, and arbitrating.
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Transcultural Intergrative Model for making decisions
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focuses on the need to include cultural factors
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Reasonable Person Standard
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ask the question what would a professional in your community with 3 years of experience do in this situation
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Informal Peer Monitoring
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watching out for each other as professionals
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Therapeutic Persons
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a willingness on the part of the counselor to practice what he/she preaches.
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Experiential Learning
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a part of counseling programs that provides students with the opportunity to share their values, life experiences and personal concerns with a peer group.
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Countertransference
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projections by the therapists that distort the way they perceive and react to a client
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Transference
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process whereby clients project onto their therapists past feelings and attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives. Origin is in childhood
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Transference
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The \”unreal\” relationship therapy
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stress
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an event or series of events that leads to strain
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empathy fatigue
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a form of stress. themes of loss, grief, traumatic stress. happens when stories mirror their own.
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burnout
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a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, & spiritual depletion. Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.
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therapist decay
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a long process that leads to burnout
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Impairment
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presence of a chronic illness and/or severe psychological depletion.
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Self-care
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is ongoing, preventative activity for mental health workers
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value neutrality
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the idea that therapists can and should keep their values out of therapy
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value imposition
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the counselor directly attempting to influence a client to adopt their values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
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Assessment
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a process of looking at all the potential influences on a client’s problem
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Rational Suicide
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a person has made the decision to end his/her life because of extreme suffering involved with terminal illness.
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Aid-in-dying
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providing a person with the means to die. Person self-administers lethal drug
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Hastened death
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Speeding up the death process by withholding or withdrawing treatment or life support
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Advance directives
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decisions a person makes about the end-of-life care
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Codes of Ethics
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provide general standards/guidelines
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Ethics
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study of right and wrong
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Jean Piaget
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child cognitive development
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Lawrence Kohlberg
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moral development
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Erik Erikson
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psychosocial stages of development
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William G. Perry
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adolescent/young adult cognitive development
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Daniel Levinson
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mid-life crisis
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Sigmund Freud
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psychoanalysis
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Harry Harlow
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Rhesus monkey studies with with wire vs. terry cloth mother
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Konraz Lorenz
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imprinting
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John Bowlby
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attachment & bonding
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Harry Stack Sullivan
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interpersonal theory
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Lev Vygotsky
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social developmental theory of learning
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Gerald Caplan
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mental health consultation model
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Edward Schein
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doctor-patient consultation model
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Carl G. Jung
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analytic psychology
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Alfred Adler
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individual psychology
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Eric Berne
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transactional analysis
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Viktor Frankl
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logotherapy
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Rollo May
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existential
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Carl R. Rogers
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person-centered
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Fritz Perls
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gestalt
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William Glasser
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reality therapy
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Ivan Pavlov
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classical conditioning
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B.F. Skinner
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operant conditioning
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Don Meichenbaum
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stress innoculation
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Aaron Beck
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cognitive therapy
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Albert Ellis
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rational emotive behavioral therapy
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Arnold Lazarus
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multimodal therapy
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Salvador Minuchin
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structural family therapy
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Virginia Satir
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conjoint family therapy
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Jay Haley
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strategic family therapy
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Murray Bowen
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family systems therapy
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Michael White
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constructivist therapy
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John B. Watson
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father of behaviorism
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Abraham Maslow
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hierarchy of needs
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Steve DeShazer
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solution-focused therapy
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Frank Parsons
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father of guidance
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E.G. Williamson
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trait-factor approach/Minnesota viewpoint
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Nathan Ackerman
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psychoanalytic family therapy
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Ann Roe
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career fields & levels
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A.A. Brill
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career – ego defense mechanisms (sublimation)
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John Holland
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career – personality approach (RIASEC)
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Donald Super
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career – developmental approach (life stage structure, developmental tasks, career patterns, career rainbow)
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John O. Crites
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career maturity
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Leon Festinger
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cognitive dissonance
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George Gazda
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formed ASGW Assoc. for Specialists in Group Work (division of ACA) (1970s) group leadership influences members/aggressive leaders= group casualitiesdevelpmtal group counseling to teach basic life skills (1980s)
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definition of a group
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collection of 2 or more individuals meet in face2face interaction interdependent awareness of belonging to group purpose to achieve mutually agreed-on goals
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group work
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to reach their mutual goals, which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work related. The goals of the group may include: the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.
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Purpose of group before 1900s
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primarily to distribute information to immigrants, poor, & those mental challenges
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moral therapy
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philosophy of treatment that emphasized treating mentally ill people with compassion and understanding, rather than shackling them in chains (before 1900s)
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Jane Addams
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social worker and leader in the settlement house movement; she founded Hull House in 1889 (Forerunner to T-groups) which helped improve the lives of poor immigrants in Chicago, used to help them understand selves & environment. Now is known as group social work
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Joseph Pratt
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Boston physician, formed the first formal not education/task but counseling/therapy group 1905-1923; formed group with issues of tuberculosis
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Jesse Davis
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the principal of Grand Rapids High School in Michigan designed 1st children’s group to stress the funtionality of a group as an environment in which students learn life skills, values, & citizenship. 1907
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Army Alpha and Beta intelligence test
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psychological group test (1909-1919) groups were used to treat fatigued soldier
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J. M. Levy
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actually Jacob Moreno published paper on group methods under that name, stressed the psychoanalytic/social psychological perspectives of individuals working together
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collective counseling
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Adler (1920) child guidance group in Vienna, group approach to understand child’s problem were related to family issues
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Jacob Moreno
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WWII produced shortage of counselors in US hence term ‘group therapy’ & ‘group psychotherapy’ (1931), father of psychodrama (1920s), found that individuals involved in theatric productions w/o scripts (role-play) had cathartic reaction (curative): \”act out feelings\” founder, American Society of Group Psychotherapy & Psychodrama (ASGPP) (1940s)
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1930-1939
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Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) formed group guidance & educational publications increased \”guidance hour\” in schools to establish friendly relationships, discover needs & abilities, & develop right attitude toward home, school, & community group work recognized as a specialty
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phyloanalysis
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Trigant Burrow (leader) studied how social forces affect behavior, stressing biological & interactive principles of group behavior (phylo) (1930s) beginning of psychoanalytic group therapy
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Samuel Slavson
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Originally an engineer, but eventually developed group therapy using play therapy. Founder of American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA)
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Kurt Lewin
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Is credited with the term ‘group dynamics’ his approach field theory ( interaction btwn individuals & their environment) interested in what motivated individuals. (1940s) help establish basic skills training group which evolved to T-groups (training groups) applied feedback to group work Gestalt psychologists \”here & now\” group discussions superior to individual instruction for changing people’s ideas & behavior
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Wilfred Bion
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focused on group cohesiveness and group dynamics that promoted the progression of a group. broke away from Freud such as family is basic group characterized emotional patterns as work group \”W\” or basic assumption \”BA\” anti-work group (1940s)
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Rudolph Dreikurs
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Adler’s student, first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice; also introduced Adlerian principals to the treatment of children – parent groups
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John Bell
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treated family as strangers in group therapy open discussion to solve family problem
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Virginia Satir
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was often empathic with the family. She identified five styles of relating with a family. To explore relationships within the family, she used techniques such as family sculpting and taking a family life chronology. (1950s)
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Nathan Ackerman
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The theory of psychodynamic family counseling, was concerned with the internal feelings and thoughts of each individual as well as the dynamics between then. Prior to Ackerman, it was considered inappropriate to include family members in analytic treatment sessions. cure dysfunction (1950s)
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Gregory Bateson
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known for seeing families in similar ways to machines
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encounter groups
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Carl Rogers personal growth groups emphasizes personal development (1970s) also sensitivity group focuses on individual’s awareness of emotions & behavior of others
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total quality group
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work groups in Japan to address quality issues (1950s)
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marathon group
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help individuals to become more honest, real, genuine w/self George Bach & Fred Stoller (1960s)
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Esalen Institute
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Institute established in the 1960s to explore human potential Fritz Perls – Gestalt therapy in group setting
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Eric Berne
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father of Transactional Analysis (TA) – who put Freud in everyday lingo with Parent ego [Superego], filled with shoulds, oughts, and musts to guide morality. (1960s)
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William Schutz
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illustrated through group work those individuals can take care of their interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection through groups and stressed the use of nonverbal communication such as touching or hugging in groups. (1960s)
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Jack Gibb
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studied competitive & cooperative behaviors as contagious in groups; behavior in 1 sparks behavior in others (1960s)
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Yalom 11 Curative Factors (1971)
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-Imparting information -Installation of hope -Universality -Altruism -Corrective reenactment -Development of social interaction techniques -Imitative behaviors -Interpersonal learning -Existential factors -Catharsis -Group cohesion
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groupthink
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Irving Janis created the term to emphasize the detrimental power that groups may exert over member to force them to conform (1971)
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general (group) system theory
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James Durkin (1980s) examines how circular causality (systemically) as opposed to linear causality (cause &effect) can be used in groups
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Decade of Ethics
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1980s Code of Ethics drafted & formed then revised in 1989
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dialectic behavior therapy
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Marsha Linehan (1990s) CBT therapy involves skills training in problem-solving techniques, emotional regulation, and interpersonal skills; relatively new treatment for borderline personality disorder and related conditions involving dysregulation and impulsivity
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cooperative learning groups
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a method of instruction that has students working together in groups, usually with the goal of completing a specific task. (1990s)
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focus groups
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small groups of people (representative sample) brought together to talk about issues or candidates. (1990s) Too small to provide estimates of public opinion, but they are useful for testing the appeal of ads, terms, slogans, ect.
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group leader training
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focus on intentional modeling identifying critical incidents for members examining event & member reaction deriving meaning & self-understanding from events applying new understanding towards personal change
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3 primary contact groups
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group guidance: preventive & growth engendering group counseling: preventive, growth, & remedial group psychotherapy: remedial Gazda states group move on continuum
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TRAC model
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delineates group process & management and types of specialty groups nature of management (x-axis): facilitation to leadership nature of group process (y-axis): task achievement to process enhancement
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TRAC model quadrants
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Contacting: process & catalytic function Acquiring: access & expansion of info and awareness Relating: restructure/rehearsal new behavior Tasking: control, efficiency, achievement
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Johari Window
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A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas.
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Johari Window Quadrants
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I. Open: info known to self & others II. Hidden: info known to self & not others III. Blind: unknown to self & know by others IV. Unknown: unknown to self & others
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psychoeducation groups
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education is treatment & perceptions may change these groups provide education and skill building for growth and prevention, management, and remediation of problems. structured by central theme/particular population used in schools & community and by social services, mental health agencies, and universities,
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counseling groups
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focus on interpersonal process and problem-solving strategies that stress conscious thoughts, feelings, and behavior. remedial, mild, & situational problems outcome: growth & development, self-awareness leader emphasizes \”here & now\” and encourages growth, helps set goals & create plan to obtain
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psychotherapy group
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It is depth-oriented remedial and rehabilitative for more serious problems. It is supportive, reconstructive, involves depth analysis, is analytical, focuses on the unconsious, emphasis on neurotics and serve emotional problems, and is long term. reconstruct personality or character of members lead by a professional with advanced training.
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personal growth group
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sometimes referred to as support groups, aim to help members cope with particular difficulties. developmental issues that arise in transitions less focused on personality of individuals short-term and intensive for personal growth leader technique increase open communication, increase emotional experience and self-awareness
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self-help group
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Leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, voluntary groups of people who share the same problem (overheating, gambling, drug addiction, etc) – Members meet regularly, often with a therapist present to: – Discuss problems – Share solutions – Give and receive support (ex: Alcoholics Anonymous)
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task facilitation group
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focuses on training & consciousness raising help members develop skills to interact effectively w/ others in task-oriented interpersonal settings leader techniques to increase self-awareness as it relates to sensitivity to others improve functioning tasks center around problem-solving & decision making
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closed group
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Shuts its gates after the start of therapy (or after 1-3 sessions). Often these groups are brief therapy groups. Meet weekly for 6 month or less. Long term closed groups mostly in prisons, etc. promotes cohesiveness
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open group
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New members can join after the group begins, allows for more group stability. Disadvantage is groups members that are added late miss some information or experiences.
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ideal length of session
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1.5 hours, even if critical issues being discussed (for adults). Longer than this people lose attention span/fatigue group members. Children’s groups should be shorter and meet more frequently (1hr)
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ideal size of group
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6-8 members, could be less with elementary aged children (3-4)
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group dynamics
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the forces operating in groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one another. the process through which inputs are translated into outputs, influences individual behavior. Lewin thought that many factors contribute to it
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ideal group duration
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6-16 sessions (shorter for children)
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group content
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information within and purpose of the group
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group process
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Refers to interaction (verbal & non-verbal) between the group members. Also includes the different roles that people assume in a group. As the group develops more time is spent on process than content.
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7 types of group processes
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contagion, conflict , anxiety, consensual validation, universality, family reenactment, instillation of hope
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contagion
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an emotional/physical reaction from the group, one member cries other members cry, the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
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conflict
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all groups experience it; depends on how leader handle it makes a difference
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consensual validation
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checking one’s behavior with others; done by questioning, confronting, & affirming individually or with a group
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subgrouping
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two or more members develop a group within a group
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factors in preplanning a group
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• clarifying of purpose: what is the group to accomplish • group setting: an environment that’s quiet, comfortable •time & size: how long & how many •membership: heterogeneous or homogeneous •goals: expected or planned outcomes •commitment: voluntary or mandatory •openness: consideration of new ideas & actions •risk taking: willingness to engage new thoughts & behaviors •attitudes: how members & leaders perceive tasks & others
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content questions
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• What do we have to do? • What do we need to do to accomplish our goals? *warm-up
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process questions
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• Who am I? • Who am I with you? *warm-up • Who are we together? *action
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system terms
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• Differentiating: taking care of their needs by themselves • Integrating: doing things with others members constantly deciding to between the two. leader helps members balance between them.
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group structure
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• refers to both the physical setup of a group as well as the interaction of each group member in relation to the group as a whole physical structure should be practical (circle, chain, wheel, Y, theatre style)
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group exercises
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promote a positive atmosphere, used as a catalyst to activate groups, encourage members to take risk, provide learning to move group, help or shift focus, increase risk taking, increase comfortability timing & instruction are everything
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Theatre of Spontaneity
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1st step into psychodrama
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types of group exercises
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verbal interpersonal activities – introducing oneself to the group and answering questions non-verbal interpersonal – \”changing seats\”—asking select members or an entire group to change seats Intrapersonal activities: an exercise is done alone at first and then shared and explored with others at a later time verbal intrapersonal – draw a picture & share non-verbal intrapersonal – body relaxation techniques
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group interaction
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the way members relate to one another •consists of nonverbal and verbal behaviors and the attitudes that go with them. •The meaning of nonverbal behaviors cannot be assumed • on a continuum, from extremely nondirective to highly directive track who speaks to whom & how often member speaks, observe silence
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member’s role
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• \”a dynamic structure within an individual (based on needs, cognitions, and values), which usually comes to life under the influence of social stimuli or defined positions\” (Munich & Astrachan, 1983, p. 20). manifestation based on that individual’s expectation of self and others and the interaction one has in particular groups and situations roles do not define overall identity of individual; though, they influence how they act
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facilitative/building role
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adds to the functioning of the group in a positive way. initiators in the group
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maintenance role
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relationship building group behavior. Supportive, and constructive interpersonal relationships, helps balance
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blocking role
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behavior that inhibits either team performance or that of individual members; anti group/outsider
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role collision
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conflict between the role and individual plays in the ouside world and the one experienced with the group ex. an active participant
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Role incompatibility
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member is given a role within the group that s/he does not want or is comfortable with
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Role confusion/ambiguity
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member does not know what role to perform; this usually happens in a leaderless group
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Role transition
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member expected to move from one role to another as the group progresses and individual doesn’t feel comfortable doing so
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Irvin Yalom
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the first specialists in group work to delineate positive primary group variables based on research he conducted with others on therapy groups. positive variables = 11 curative factors
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sociometry
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study of group relationships
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Yalom’s negative group variables
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•avoiding conflict: silencing those who disagree w/group •abdicating group responsibilities: takes no responsibility & place all on leader •psychic numbing: anesthetizing to contradictions within the group •becoming narcissistic: encouraging cohesiveness w/ hatred
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ways to learn group dynamics
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• Videotaping • Journaling • Outdoor experiences • Simulation games for team building • Sociometrics • Learning integration
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3 basic styles of group leadership (Lewin)
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authoritarian, democratic, & laissez-faire
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authoritarian leader
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Theory X – leader is the expert, tends to be rigid & conventional in their beliefs, controlling structure: wheel b/c leader centered group emphasis on personality of one giving that person much power & trust (leader-centered) good during crisis or chaos
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democratic leader
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Theory Y – trust members to develop their own potential & others cooperate, collaborate, & share power w/ members self-awareness & develop the guru within (Rogers) good for openness & establishing trust
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laissez-faire leader
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leader does not provide structure or direction for group. group-centered focusing on members & interpersonal processes. slow to establish agenda & set goals used to decrease intimidation, increase like ability usually leads to no accomplishment
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Theory Z leader
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leader that encourage members to participate & trust members to meet individual and collective goals thru interaction
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leaderless group
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group for mutual support, usually end creating some leadership style that is comfortable to the group
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group leader skills different from individual
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facilitating: open up communication protecting: protect member for attack of other members blocking: stop counterproductive behavior
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linking
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intervention used to connect one member to one or more other members. connecting persons with one another by pointing out to them what they share in common.
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diagnosing
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leader identifies certain behaviors & categorizes it. based on leader observation (for example, observation of group blaming instead of productive). leader looks for ways to overcome these behaviors
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reality testing
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member has to make a major decision. other members give input to the member
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modification
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designed to get potentially productive feedback from a group member. member gave negative feedback to the member; leader tries to persuade member to restate feedback constructively
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delegating
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leader gives members task like observing or maybe leading – to share responsibility.
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creativity
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insight, meaning, & synergy occur with it. leaders should be skilled in divergent in ways of thinking & behaving.
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group leader roles
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traffic director: make members aware of behaviors that promote or inhibit communication modeler of appropriate behavior: interactional catalyst: promote interaction w/o saying it (ex. may look at member when needs to respond) communicator facilitator: leader reflect feelings & content
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withdrawal from conflict
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leader distance from conflict & postpones interventions. good for further observation to collect data w/o becoming overly involved. help to avoid taking sides disadv: conflict may escalate & ineffective in dealing with crisis
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suppressing conflict
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down play conflict when issues are minor & unimportant and relationship is more important. disadv: doesn’t resolve issue & feeling may erupt later leader may be seen as weak or insensitive
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integrating conflict
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consensus is the idea; get all members to reexamine a situation & identify points of agreement. (ex. mediation -3rd party hears conflict & render decision) increase group commitment disadv: very timely to implement & resistance of members set aside own goals for the group
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use of compromise to resolve conflict
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giving up a little to avoid conflict. win-win in cooperative behavior & collaborative efforts. good when resources are limited & members are flexible (ex. negotiation) disadv: individuals may inflate wants for larger gain & final outcome may ineffective or less desirable
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use of power to resolve conflict
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imposition of one will over another. power is based on status or personality. position power (immature relationships) personal power (mature relationship) individual uses ability to persuade. good to solve problems quickly (limited time) and save relationships & alleviate resentment & revenge
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co-leadership
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Sharing of leadership between two therapists: needed when there are a lot of group members The goal is to increase observations, knowledge and skills, model effective behaviors works best they have similar philosophy & group style
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advantages of co-leadership
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ease of handling difficult situations use of modeling feedback from different perspective helps avoid burnout shared specialized knowledge pragmatics: ability to cover for one another
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limitations of co-leadership
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lack of coordinated efforts too leader focused competition between leaders collusion: co-leader form alliance w/ group member to address disliked qualities of the other leader
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types of co-leadership
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alternated, shared, apprenticed
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cutting off
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used to stop members from continuing to ramble & help focus \”you seem to be repeating yourself, see if you can make a sentence & let’s hear from someone else.\” making sure that new material is not introduced into the group too late in the session for the group to deal with it adequately
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drawing off
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directly invites members to comment or give input; used to encourage participation or go deeper \”What your thoughts about that\”
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holding focus
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helps members focus on specific topic or person for a length of time. \”Let’s conclude our focus on risk-taking before we move on\”
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Tuckman & Jensen stages (5)
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Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning
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Gazda stages (4)
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exploratory, transition, action, termination
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Trotzer stages (5)
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security, acceptance, responsibility, work, closing
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Yalom stages (4)
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1. orientation 2. conflict 3. cohesion 4. termination
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Corey stages (9)
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formation, orientation/exploration, transition, working, consolidation/termination, follow-up/evaluation
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Gladding stages (9)
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forming/orientation, transition (storming/norming), performing/working, mourning/termination
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steps to forming a group
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Step 1: Developing a Rationale for the Group Step 2: Deciding on a Theoretical Format Step 3: Weighing Practical Considerations Step 4: Publicizing the Group Step 5: Screening and Pre-training and Step 6: Selecting Group Members Step 7. Selecting a Group Leader
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Tasks of beginning a group
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Dealing with apprehension: anxiety Reviewing members’ goals and contracts: individual and/or group; restate purpose & have members state goal Specifying more clearly or reiterating group rules (summarizing): rationale behind each rule Setting limits Promoting a positive interchange among members so they will want to continue (Weiner, 1984
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screening of group members
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essential to screen to determine if the group is right for the individual at the particular time. prescreening for group: identify needs, expectations, & commitment challenge myths & misconceptions convey information
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pre-training
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orienting group members on what to expect of the group before it ever meet
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ideal candidate for group
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individual who has a specific goal, who has lessen the fears of a group, who are comfortable with their role & surroundings, must be willing to contribute, mature (immature, self-centered, hostile, closed individual are not ideal for group)
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heterogeneous vs. homogeneous group
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hetero: best for intensive group therapy with focus on personality change homo: best for support & have focused; task groups
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group leader skills – promoting positive interchange
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be enthusiastic drawing out holding the focus on interesting topics shifting the focus when irrelevant/uninteresting cutting off hostile
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manipulators
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subtle ways or not so use of feelings & behaviors members use to get what they want. angry & unresolved issues of control fix: reframing destructive acts in positive way
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resisters
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angry or frustrated & don’t wan to participate, act as barriers. fix: drawing out and/or confront & interpret in a reflective manner
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monopolizers
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dominates the conversation of the group, not allowing others to participate fix: cutting off
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silent members
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sign of hostility or shyness, nonassertive reflecting or delay in assessing feelings. fix: drawing out, & acceptance by group
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users of sarcasm
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mask of feelings with smart language; help member express anger more directly & get feedback from other members
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opening a group
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known as the critical incident in the life of the group general lead, opening statement with purpose, intro exercise…Q&A
question

beginning a group – structure
answer

promotes group cooperation, decreases anxiety, inclusion, but restrict responsibility & freedom question is what degree of structure members look to lead for structure & answers
question

beginning a group – involvement
answer

structured exercises are creative way to do it. discussing info & specific concerns to the group helps
question

beginning a group – group cohesion
answer

we-ness, expressive arts best to help; doesn’t fully manifest until norming. universality helps also.
question

joining
answer

the process by which members connect with one another psychologically and physically – icebreakers
question

clarifying the purpose
answer

Sometimes members unintentionally bring up material that is not appropriate for a beginning session or the overall purpose of the group
question

transition period
answer

after the forming & before the norming stage (2nd or 3rd session)
question

storming
answer

members begin to compete with others to find their place in the group, involves struggles over power & control, can be overt (e.g., arguing) and covert (e.g., withdrawal), Associated with a lot of fears
question

primary tension
answer

awkwardness about being in a strange group
question

secondary tension
answer

intragroup conflict
question

quiet storming
answer

form of avoidance of conflict, may get stuck if conflict is avoid or dwelled on. then conflict become destructive.
question

conflict resolution
answer

views conflict as negative & destructive; focus is to end it
question

conflict management
answer

conflict can be positive, needs to be direct towards a constructive dialogue. helps overcome resistance, release tension, strengthen relationships
question

informational power
answer

those who know more or \”have information\” have power
question

influential power
answer

based on persuasion or manipulation to influence
question

authoritative power
answer

influence based on position
question

resistance
answer

behavior that moves the group away from conflict, discomfort, conflict, or potential growth. leader should not react with resistance & defensiveness
question

intellectualization
answer

use of sophisticated words & thoughts to avoid dealing with personal feelings
question

questioning
answer

using questions to disguise statements \”safety net\” leader can ask members to make \”I\” statements and phrase questions as a statement
question

advice giving
answer

instructing other member on what to do in order to avoid dealing with own issues
question

band-aiding
answer

misuse of support; overly supportive of others to avoid fully expressing own emotional pain
question

dependency
answer

encourages band-aiders & advice-givers, present themselves as helpless & incapable but will not receive feedback
question

attack on the leader
answer

most direct form of resistance, contribute to subgrouping, could be justified. leader should address immediately & determine underlying variables in a non defensive, open manner
question

task processing in storming
answer

regresses during storming, more focus on personal matters
question

scapegoat
answer

project the group’s issues on to one person
question

working thru storming
answer

process observer leveling: draw out silent members & bring understanding to overly active members talk thru as a group feedback (informal – verbal or formal – rounds, logs)
question

conflict management orientations
answer

Competing: dominating Accommodating: appeasing Avoiding: neglecting Collaborating: integrating Compromising: sharing
question

norms
answer

rules or expectations of the group; may be unclear, confusing, ambiguous, restrictive. based on input of everyone
question

relationship in norming
answer

identification here & now experiences: best to help group make progress to deal w/ immediate feelings & interactions hope, cooperation, collaboration, cohesion
question

task processing in norming
answer

goals for members to reach agreement on norms from which the group will operate, also commitment
question

aspects of norming
answer

behaviors & feelings indicate the group is moving toward one another SYMLOG
question

promoting norming
answer

supporting, empathizing, facilitating, self-disclosure results of norming: members feel connected & ready to move on to be productive, have guidelines to operate, feel about themselves & the group
question

working stages
answer

focuses on achievement of goals (individual & group) productivity and movement into unified & productive system 40-60% group time willing to try new behaviors & strategies
question

task processing in working stages
answer

rounds: equal input to express ideas & concerns role-playing: focus on behaviors & consequences ***trust & care vital in role-playing homework: practice outside group setting incorporation: personal awareness & appreciation for the group & accomplishment
question

problem in the working stages
answer

racial & gender issues: conflict result of this group collusion: self-preservation (ex. agrees with the boss to keep from being fired. fix: devil’s advocate procedure
question

culturally encapsuated
answer

individuals who hold cultural stereotypes & hold to them and act based on those
question

signs of working stage
answer

sense of trust & cohesion, work in the present, take risks self-disclosing, deal with conflict, open & honest communication & feedback w/o fear, accept responsibility for their role
question

assisting in working stage
answer

modeling by leader, exercises group observing group: fishbowl procedure brainstorming, nominal-group technique (NGT): comes with individual ideas then create system to choose collective idea synectics: excursion – members take a break to engage in fantasy, present ideal situation to group group processing, teach skills
question

outcome of working stages
answer

achieved goals, combined group vision, learning & sharing of ideas & info among members. humor is helpful in the working stages
question

corrective emotional experience
answer

another benefit of the working stage. member takes risk to express strong emotion, group helps member recognize inappropriateness of certain feelings & behavior or avoidance of it.
question

primary activities of termination
answer

reflect on their past experiences evaluate what has been learned process memories, acknowledge ambivalent feelings engage in cognitive decision making (Wagenheim & Gemmill, 1994) practice how you want to say \”good-bye\” you get to have a choice about how you want to say \”goodbye\”
question

proper termination
answer

Proper preparation for ending a group begins in the planning stage. Termination occurs on two levels in groups: at the end of each session, and at the end of a certain number of group sessions
question

Who is the \”expert\” in the client’s life?
answer

The client is the expert.
question

Support Self-Efficacy
answer

Elicit and support hope, optimism, possibility of change. Look for strengths in client and bring to forefront. Believe that your client is capable of change. Talk about similar situations that changed their behavior Clients need to believe that their long-term success starts with a single step forward. Education can increase self-efficacy Assist client in enhancing their self-efficacy by allowing them to see baby steps.
question

Affirming Statements
answer

Help promote self-efficacy. \”That must have been very difficult for you.\” \”That’s a good suggestion\”
question

Denying
answer

the client uses blame, excuses, or pessimism to express unwillingness to recognize problems, cooperate, or accept responsibility.
question

Arguing
answer

the client starts contesting the accuracy, expertise, or integrity of the clinician.
question

Ignoring
answer

the client shows evidence of ignoring or not following th clinician by being inattentive, not answering, or sidetracking.
question

Resistance
answer

Can occur when clients experience a conflict between their view of the \”problem\” or the \”solution\” and the counselors.
question

Principals of motivational interviewing
answer

Express Empathy – seeing the world through the clients eyes. Develop Discrepancy – help clients see where they are and where they might want to be. Avoid Argument and Direct Confrontation – convincing clients that they have a problem may cause resistance. Roll with Resistance – there will be times of resistance, be prepared. Support Self-Efficacy – clients belief that change is possible and that they can make those changes even in difficult situations.
question

Autonomy and what holds control
answer

Having a self-directing freedom; moral independence. It is what happens when clients makes their own choices. The client holds control.
question

Spirit of motivational interviewing
answer

It is not a technique. Collaborative, Evocative, Honors Autonomy
question

Ambivalence
answer

Clients have motivation and they also have doubt. Ambivilance was once thought to be a sign of resistance. Ambivilance is a \”natural state\”. When a client shows ambivilance giving advice is the last thing a counselor should do., instead meet them where they are and respect their freedom.
question

Eliciting change talk
answer

Counselor must learn to elicit change talk because it doesn’t always happen. For example: \”If you were going to change your heroin use, why would you do it?\” \”How important would you say changing your smoking is right now?\”
question

Ambivilance
answer

Having \”mixed\” feeling about someone or something; being unable to chose between the two (usually opposing) courses of action. \”I want to lose weight but I’m not sure if I want to give up sweets\”
question

Most important tool as a counselor
answer

ME, MYSELF AND I..I am the most important tool!
question

Biorhythms
answer

Refers to an individuals sleep, menstral and hunger cycle
question

What things impact an individuals drug use physiologically?
answer

Receptors in the brain. Homeostasis, Rebound and Withdrawal, Age, Gender
question

What is the tendency to movre towards equilibrium?
answer

Our systems striving to maintain homeostasis.
question

What occurs when a drug has receptor affinity without efficacy?
answer

Allows the drug to occupy the receptor and block neuro-transmission.
question

What are catecholamines
answer

A group of neurotransmitters with similar chemical composition.
question

What group of neurotransmitters have similar chemical compositions?
answer

Catecholamines
question

Which neurotransmitters are known as naturally occuring morphine like compounds?
answer

Endorphins
question

Which neurotransmitter is probably the most widely distributed neurotransmitter?
answer

Acetylcholine
question

Which neurotransmitter is also referred to as 5-hydroxytriptamine?
answer

Serotonin
question

What is the term for the amount of time required to matabolize and excrete 1/2 dose?
answer

Half-life
question

Which organ matabolizes drugs and alcohol?
answer

The liver
question

What is the difference between intra-muscular injections, inhalation, intra-venus injection & oral ingestion?
answer

Muscular injections is rapid due to the greater blood supply in muscles. Inhalation, drugs move from lungs to bloodstream through capilary walls Intravenous involves putting drug directly into the bloodstream. Oral ingestion, drugs from GI tract travel through veins first to the liver, where they may be metabolized.
question

What are two physiological processes of the drug user?
answer

Pharmacokinetics – body’s obsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug. Pharmacodynamics – the neurological functioning of the user.
question

What is effective dose?
answer

The dose required to produce a particualr effect in a certain proportion of the population.
question

What is lethal dose?
answer

The dose required to kill a particular proportion of the recipients.
question

What is the difference between efficacy and affinity?
answer

Efficacy is the stimulatory power of the drug on the receptor. Affinity is the drug’s ability to attach itself to , or bind with a receptor, or site of action.
question

What is determined by the efficacy and affinity of a drug?
answer

Whether or not the drug will have an effect on the user.
question

What is the term used to describe the desired affect of a drug or the reason it is used?
answer

Therapeutic Effect
question

What are some factors that affect a drugs effects?
answer

Characteristics of the drug. Physiological functioning of the user. Psychological state of the user. Sociocultural environment in which the drug is used.
question

What do we call short term treatment centers that are designed to oversee the clients safe withdrawal?
answer

Detoxification Center
question

What two broad catagories are discussed in your text and slides that counselors might work with clients with chemical dependent issues?
answer

General Community Settings and Specialized Substance Abuse Settings
question

What ways might counselors have to advocate on behalf of their clients?
answer

Negotiating service systems Helping clients gain access to resources Identifying barriers to clients’ well being Developing and carrying out action plans for change Working to influence public policy
question

Which two conditions leads to which when talking about addiction?
answer

Substance abuse can lead to addiction (and not the other way around).
question

What four theories emphasize the importance of the social context and clients?
answer

1. Social control theory 2. Behavioral choice theory 3. Social leaning theory 4. Stress and coping theory
question

Social Control Theory
answer

emphasizes the degree to which \”strong bonds with family, school, work, religion, and other aspects of traditional society motivate individuals to engage in responsible behaviors and refrain from substance abuse.
question

Behavioral Choice Theory
answer

Sees substance abuse as less likely to occur when the individual’s environment provides reinforcements that serve as alternatives to the reinforcing effects of substance use.
question

Social Learning Theory
answer

Emphasizes that the modeling effects of drug-related attitudes and behaviors are prevalent in teh individual’s environment.
question

Stress and Coping Theory
answer

Explains that stressors in the social environment can lead to substance abuse in teh absence of healthier coping skills.
question

What can often determine an individuals character traits?
answer

Situation and context
question

What skews the ways in which people explain human behaviors?
answer

Human beings overestimate the importance of fundamental character traits and underestimate the importance of situations and context when they try to interpret other people’s behaviors.
question

Does one particular treatment work for everyone?
answer

NO
question

What is the definition of Substance Abuse?
answer

A condition in which an individual exhibits one or more of the following behaviors over a 12 month period.
question

What kind of process is it that helps the clients progress towards mutually approved treament goals?
answer

A collaborative process
question

The Multiaxial System of Diagnosis
answer

Axis I – Clinical (anything listed in the DSM – excl. Axis II category) Axis II – Personality and Mental Retardation Axis III – Medical Diagnosis (may influence a psychiatric condition) Axis IV – Psychosocial and Environmental considerations Axis V – GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning)
question

Panic Disorder – Diagnosis
answer

Both (1) and (2) (1) recurrent unexpected Panic Attacks (2) at least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following: (a) persistent concern about having additional attacks (b) worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack, \”going crazy\”) (c) a significant change in behavior related to the attacks ALSO: The Panic Attacks are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism). ALSO: The Panic Attacks are not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia (e.g., occurring on exposure to feared social situations), Specific Phobia (e.g., on exposure to a specific phobic situation), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (e.g., on exposure to dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (e.g., in response to stimuli associated with a severe stressor), or Separation Anxiety Disorder (e.g., in response to being away from home or close relatives).
question

Panic Disorder – Symptoms
answer

A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes: 1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate 2) sweating 3) trembling or shaking 4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering 5) feeling of choking 6) chest pain or discomfort 7) nausea or abdominal distress 8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint 9) derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself) 10) fear of losing control or going crazy 11) fear of dying 12) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations) 13) chills or hot flushes
question

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – Diagnosis
answer

DSM-IV Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder A. The person has been exposed to a traumatic event in which both of the following have been present: (1) the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others (2) the person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Note: In children, this may be expressed instead by disorganized or agitated behavior. B. The traumatic event is persistently reexperienced in one (or more) of the following ways: (1) recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, including images, thoughts, or perceptions. Note: In young children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed. (2) recurrent distressing dreams of the event. Note: In children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content. (3) acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a sense of reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociative flashback episodes, including those that occur upon awakening or when intoxicated). Note: In young children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur. (4) intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event. (5) physiological reactivity on exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event. C. Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness (not present before the trauma), as indicated by three (or more) of the following: (1) efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with the trauma (2) efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma (3) inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma (4) markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities (5) feeling of detachment or estrangement from others (6) restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings) (7) sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span) D. Persistent symptoms of increased arousal (not present before the trauma), as indicated by two (or more) of the following: (1) difficulty falling or staying asleep (2) irritability or outbursts of anger (3) difficulty concentrating (4) hypervigilance (5) exaggerated startle response E. Duration of the disturbance (symptoms in Criteria B, C, and D) is more than one month. F. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Specify if: Acute: if duration of symptoms is less than 3 months Chronic: if duration of symptoms is 3 months or more Specify if: With Delayed Onset: if onset of symptoms is at least 6 months after the stressor
question

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – Symptoms
answer

Re-experiencing symptoms include ways in which the person persistently re-experiences the traumatic event. These symptoms may include the following: – Intrusive memories of the traumatic event – Recurrent, distressing dreams about the traumatic event – Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event is reoccurring -Mental and physical discomfort when reminded of the traumatic event (e.g., on the anniversary of the traumatic event) Avoidant symptoms are ways in which the person tries to avoid anything associated with the traumatic event. These symptoms may also include a \”numbing\” effect, where the person’s general response to people and events is deadened. Avoidant symptoms include the following: – Avoiding thoughts or feelings, people or situations (anything that could stir up memories) associated with the traumatic event – Not being able to recall an important aspect of the traumatic event – Reduced interest or participation in significant activities – Feeling disconnected from others – Showing a limited range of emotion – Having a sense of a shortened future (e.g., not expecting to have a normal life span, marriage or career) Symptoms of increased arousal may be similar to symptoms of anxiety or panic attacks. Increased arousal symptoms include the following: – Difficulty concentrating – Exaggerated watchfulness and wariness – Irritability or outbursts of anger – Difficulty falling or staying asleep – Being easily startled
question

Agorophobia Diagnosis
answer

A) anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or in which help may not be available in the event of having an unexpected or situationally predisposed Panic Attack or panic-like symptoms. Agoraphobic fears typically involve characteristic clusters of situations that include being outside the home alone; being in a crowd, or standing in a line; being on a bridge; and traveling in a bus, train, or automobile. B) The situations are avoided (e.g., travel is restricted) or else are endured with marked distress or with anxiety about having a Panic Attack or panic-like symptoms, or require the presence of a companion. C) The anxiety or phobic avoidance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia (e.g., avoidance limited to social situations because of fear of embarrassment), Specific Phobia (e.g., avoidance limited to a single situation like elevators), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (e.g., avoidance of dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (e.g., avoidance of stimuli associated with a severe stressor), or Separation Anxiety Disorder (e.g., avoidance of leaving home or relatives).
question

Euphoria
answer

the predominant affect during manic episodes
question

Dysthymic Disorder
answer

The main symptom of dysthymia is a low, dark, or sad mood on most days for at least 2 years. In children and adolescents, the mood can be irritable instead of depressed and may last for at least 1 year. In addition, two or more of the following symptoms will be present almost all of the time that the person has dysthymia: Feelings of hopelessness Too little or too much sleep Low energy or fatigue Low self-esteem Poor appetite or overeating Poor concentration
question

CMHC Community Mental Health Centers
answer

Kentucky has 15 CMHC’s
question

Criteria for Abnormal Behavior
answer

1. Unusualness 2. Social Deviance 3. Faulty Perceptions or faulty interpretations of reality 4. Significant personal distress 5. Maladaptive or self-defeating behavior 6. Dangerousness
question

GOAL of Abnormal Psychology
answer

To describe, predict and explain behavior.
question

Psychological Disorder:
answer

Abnormal behavior pattern that involves a disturbance of psychological functioning or behavior.
question

Abnormal Psychology
answer

The branch of psychology that deals with the description, causes and treatment of abnormal behavior patterns.
question

Medical Model
answer

A biological perspective in which abnormal behavior is viewed as symptomatic of underlying illness.
question

US Surgeon General on Mental Health
answer

MH reflects the complex interaction of brain functioning and environmental illness. Treatments exist for most MH disorders including psychotherapy, counseling and psychopharmacologic or drug therapies. (Treatment is most effective when both are combined). 15% of American adults receive some form of help each year, many who need help do not receive it. Mental Health is best understood when we take a broad view and consider the social and cultural contexts in which they occur.
question

The Demonological Model
answer

1. Historically, abnormal behavior was thought to be caused by the inhalation of evil spirits. 2. Treatment: TREPHINATION – drilling the skull to provide an outlet for the spirits. 3. This idea remained until the Enlightenment era.
question

Origins of the Medical Model: ill humor
answer

(Hippocrates and Galen) 1. Illness was caused by natural causes. (not possession) 2. Health depended on the balance of body fluids. (humors) 3. Imbalance caused abnormal behavior. (very important in today’s understanding chemical imbalances).
question

Medieval Times
answer

1. increase in supernatural beliefs as a cause of abnormal behavior. 2. Possession by evil spirits or the devil (Roman Catholic Church) 3. Treatment was exorcism, prayer, incantations, waiving a cross at the victim, beating, flogging, starvation and torture (rack).
question

Witchcraft
answer

1. Amounted to the massive persecution of women. 2. Church officials believed witches made pacts with the devil, practiced satanic rituals, ate babies, and poisoned crops. 3. In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII decreed that withches be executed. 4. Manual for Witch Hunting \”Malleus Maleficarum\” (The Witches Hammer). 5. The Water-float Test: damned if you do, damned if you don’t.
question

Asylums:
answer

Bedlam: 18th century. The patients at St. Mary’s of Bethlehem Hospital in London were a source of entertainment. The public could buy tickets to watch. The conditions were appalling, patients were chained to the beds, and were forced to lie in their own waste.
question

Reform Movement
answer

(Jean-Baptiste Pussin and Philippe Pinel). 1. Wanted Humane Treatment. 2. Moral Therapy – to restore functioning. 3. Similar reforms were beginning to be practiced in England (William Tuke) and in the US (Dorothea Dix). 4. Benjamin Rush – the father of American Psychiatry. He recommended bloodletting, purging and ice-cold baths.
question

The Community Mental Health Movement
answer

1. 1963 congress enacted a nationwide system to offer alternatives to custodial care. 2. DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION 3. Phenothiazines (antipsychotic drugs) reduced the need for indefinite hospital stays, increased independent living. 4. Some MH hospitals were closed as a result.
question

Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
answer

a) Biological: Wilhelm Gresinger + Emil Kraeplin. Biological defects. Focus on treatment, not punishment. b) Psychological: Martin Charcot. Organic factors alone do not explain all abnormal behavior. (used hypnosis + influenced Freud). c) Freud reasoned that if hypnosis works, then abnormal origins must be psychological…..(outside conscious awareness). Developed the Psychodynamic model. (Personality)
question

The Sociocultural Perspecitive
answer

1. The causes of abnormal behavior may be found in the failures of society rather than the person. 2. Unemployment, poverty, family breakdown, injustice, ignorance and lack of opportunity, gender, social class, ethnicity and lifestyle. 3. Former practices are concerned with labeling and alienation.
question

The Biopsychosocial Approach
answer

1. Abnormal behavior is best understood by taking into account multiple causes representing the biological, psychological and sociocultural domains.
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Ellis (ABC Model)
answer

A = Activating Event B = Belief C = Consequences A cognitive approach. Interpretation of events determine the emotional state. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck believe that distorted thinking patterns can lead to maladaptive behavior.
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Diathesis Stress Model
answer

Abnormal behavior problems involve the interaction of a vulnerability or predisposition and stressful life events and experiences. Inherited predisposition (Diathesis) + Environmental stressors (Stress) = Psychological Disorder (development)
question

The Nervous System
answer

….is made up of neurons (nerve cells that transmit messages). 1. Every neuron has dendrites that receive messages from adjoining neurons. 2. Every neuron has an axon – which can extend several feet.
question

Neurotransmitters
answer

are the chemical substances that transmit messages from one neuron to another
question

Synapse
answer

is the junction between one neuron and another through which, nerve impulses pass.
question

Central Nervous System: (CNS)
answer

The brain and spinal cord (Master Control Unit)
question

Peripheral Nervous System: (PNS)
answer

The somatic and automatic nervous system
question

Acetylchloline (ACh)
answer

controls muscle contractions and formation of memories. There are reduced levels of ACh found in patients with Alzheimer Disease.
question

Dopamine
answer

regulation of muscle contractions and mental processes involving learning, memory and emotions. Overutilization of dopamine in the brain may be involved in the development of Scizophrenia.
question

Norepinephrine
answer

mental process involved in learning and memory. Irregularities of norepinephrine are linked with mood disorders such as depression.
question

Serotonin
answer

regulation of mood states and sleep. Irregularities are implicated in depression and eating disorders.
question

Major Defense Mechanisms in Psychodynamic Theory
answer

1. Repression – expulsion from awareness of unacceptable ideas or motives. (a person is unaware of harboring hateful or destructive impulses toward others). 2. Regression – the return of behavior that is typical of earlier stages of development. (eg, suddenly becomes totally dependent on others). 3. Displacement – transferring unacceptable impulses away from their original objects onto safer or less-threatening objects. (slamming the door after an argument….is not angry with the door!) 4. Denial – refusal to recognize a threatening impulse or desire. (refusing to acknowledge an addiction, or, a person who nearly chokes someone and acts like it is no big deal). 5. Reaction Formation – behaving in a way that is the opposite of one’s true wishes to keep them repressed. (a sexually frustrated person goes on a personal crusade to stamp out pornography). 6. Rationalization – the use of self-justifications to explain away unacceptable behavior. (cancer doesn’t run in my family – to justify smoking) 7. Projection – imposing one’s own impulses or wishes onto another person. 8. Sublimation – channeling unacceptable impulses into socially constructive pursuits.
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Freud – Id, Ego, and Superego
answer

Id: the unconscious psychic structure, present at birth, contains primitive instincts and is regulated by the pleasure principle. (Unconscious) Ego: the psychic structure, that corresponds to the concept of the self, governed by the reality principle, and characterized by the ability to tolerate frustration. (Preconscious) Superego: the psychic structure that incorporates the values of the parents and important others and functions as a moral conscience. (Unconscious) –> Freud believed the unconscious is the repository of our basic biological impulses or drives (instincts). They are primarily sexual and aggressive instincts.
question

Pleasure Principle (ID)
answer

…..the governing principle of the id, involving demands for immediate gratification of needs.
question

Reality Principle (EGO)
answer

…..the governing principle of the ego, which involves considerations of social acceptability and practicality.
question

Defense Mechanisms (EGO)
answer

….the reality-distorting strategies used by the ego to shield the self from awareness from anxiety-provoking materials.
question

Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development
answer

1. Oral – first year of life. (sucking and biting is a source of both sexual gratification and nourishment). 2. Anal – second year. (sexual gratification is experienced through contraction and relaxation of the sphincter muscles). 3. Phallic – around 3rd year. (unconscious incestous wishes for the parent of the opposite gender/ rival same-sex parent) Oedipus + Electra complex. 4. Latency – (6 – 12 yrs) (sexual impulses are in a latent state, interests directed towards school and play activities. 5. Genital – (begins at puberty) – sexual gratification through intercourse.
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Fixation:
answer

….. in Freudian Theory, a constellation of personality traits associated with a particular stage of psychosocial development, resulting from either too much or too little gratification at the stage results in fixation.
question

Archetypes:
answer

….primitive images or concepts that reside in the collective unconscious.
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Ego Psychology
answer

….modern psychodynamic approach that focuses more on the conscious striving of the ego than on the hypothesized unconscious functions of the id.
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Learning Models
answer

1. Behaviorism 2. Social Cognitive Theory 3. Humanistic
question

Behaviorism
answer

B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson – focused on studying behavior that was observable. Abnormal behavior is learned maladaptive behaviors. (Pavlov’s dogs, Classical Conditioning; Operant conditioning,)
question

Social Cognitive Theory
answer

Bandura, Rotter, Mischel, Rogers Learning is obtained through observing and immitating. (Modelling)
question

Humanistic
answer

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs = Self Actualization Rogers believed that people hurt one another or become antisocial in their behavior only when they are frustrated in their endeavors to reach their unique potentials > self discovery > self acceptance
question

DSM-IV-TR
answer

1. relies on the medical model 2. recognizes that causes can be social/psychological as well as biological in nature. 3. Mental state is assessed according to the five axes
question

Axis I: CLINICAL DISORDERS
answer

MENTAL DISORDERS: syndromes, includes anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (anything in the DSM excl. axis II)
question

Axis II: PERSONALITY DISORDERS AND MENTAL RETARDATION
answer

….maladaptive ways of relating to others and adjusting to external demands. (antisocial, paranoid, narcissistic, borderline personality disorders and pervasive intellectual impairment)
question

Axis III: GENERAL MEDICAL CONDITIONS
answer

All medical conditions and diseases that may be important to the understanding and treatment of an individuals mental disorder. (Some medical complaints can contribute to mental health decline, depression….)
question

Axis IV: PSYCHOSOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
answer

consider the social, environmental situation. Housing, income, employment……
question

Axis V: GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONING (GAF)
answer

…..is a rating scale of client’s current level of functioning. Higher score = higher level of functioning.
question

Adjustment Disorder:
answer

a maladaptive reaction to an identified stressor, characterized by impaired functioning or emotional distress that exceeds what would normally be expected.
question

Endocrine System
answer

the system of ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
question

Hormones
answer

substances secreted by endocrine glands that regulate bodily functions and promote growth and development.
question

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
answer

The body’s 3-stage response to the states of prolonged or intense stress. 1. Alarm Reaction: heigtened sympathetic activity (fight or flight) 2. Resistance Stage: the body’s attempt to withstand the stress 3. Exhaustion Stage: lowered resistence, increased parasympathetic activity
question

Type A Behavior Pattern: (TABP)
answer

…is characterized by a sense of time urgency, competitiveness and hostility.
question

Ego Syntonic
answer

refers to behaviors or feelings that are perceived to be natural parts of the self. (I’m just bad).
question

Ego Dystonic
answer

refers to behaviors or feelings that are perceived to be alien to ones self identity
question

Impulse Control Disorders: Coded on Axis I
answer

includes….. Pathalogical gambling Kleptomania Intermittend Explosive d/o Pyromania Trichotillomania >>>Schizophrenia is also coded on Axis I because it does have an organic cause……it is NOT a personality disorder.
question

Personality Disorders: Clusters
answer

Cluster A: (odd, eccentric) 1. Paranoid Personality d/o – unusual beliefs, suspicious of others. 2. Schizoid Personality d/o – no interest in personal relationships. 3. Schizotypal Personality d/o – wider range of odd beliefs. Cluster B: (dramatic, emotional, erratic) 1. Antisocial Personality d/o – (psychopath/sociopath) violates the rights of others, breaks society’s norms, large proportion are in prisons. Lack of guilt/remorse. Predominately men. 2. Borderline Personality d/o – instability in relationships,alternates between personal identity extremes, fear of abandonment. (all is either great, or awful). Usually women. 3. Histrionic Personality d/o – excessive emotionality, needs to be the center of attention. Usually women. 4. Narcissistic Personality d/o – \”self love\”, lack of empathy for others. Usually men. Cluster C: (anxious, fearful) 1. Avoidant Personality d/o – fear of rejection, unwilling to enter relationships. 2. Dependent Personality d/o – overly submissive, common with victims of abuse, feelings of inadequacy. 3. Obsessive Compulsive Personality d/o – DIFFERENT FROM OCD! orderliness, meticulousness, preoccupied with perfection, difficult to express feelings. Is more common in men.
question

Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD’s)
answer

Aspergers Syndrome (does not have the language or cognitive delays associated with autism) Autism Spectrum – is the fastest growing disability in the US. No single cause or cure. Downs Syndrome (IQ of less than 70 to be diagnosed, life expectancy = 49) Klinefelters Syndrome Turner Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome Phenylketutonina (PTK)
question

Learning Disorders
answer

Mathematics disorder Disorder of written expression Reading Disorders (dyslexia)
question

Communication Disorders
answer

Expressive Language disorder Phonological disorder Stuttering Mixed receptive/expressive language disorder
question

Attention Defecit and Disruptive Behaviors
answer

ADHD Conduct d/o Oppositional defiant d/o
question

Childhood Anxiety and Depression
answer

separation anxiety childhood depression (girls are twice as likely as boys) suicide in children and adolescents – 3rd most common cause of death in 15 – 24 year olds.
question

Elimination Disorders
answer

Enuresis – failure to control urination after one has reached the expected age for attaining such control Encopresis – lack of control over bowel movements that is not caused by an organic problem in a child at least 4 years old.
question

Etiology
answer

…….Cause
question

The diagnosis of bipolar disorder would be listed on which axis?
answer

Axis I
question

Impairment in daily living skills and need for supervision would be listed on which axis?
answer

Axis IV
question

The DSM-IV-TR is bades on a ___________ ?
answer

Medical Model
question

The Decision Trees are found in Appendix _____ of the DSM?
answer

A
question

The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is used to……?
answer

evaluate and individual’s overall psychological, social and occupational functioning.
question

As the GAF score increases, the severity of symptoms……….?
answer

decreases.
question

If a condition had an \”insidious onset\”, this means that….?
answer

the condition came on slowly.
question

Acute is used to describe symptoms that are…..?
answer

relatively short in duration, usually under six months.
question

Risk Factors for Childhood Disorders
answer

genetic susceptibility environmental stressors inconsistent/harsh discipline neglect physical/sexual abuse verbal abuse Boys are at a greater risk for developing many childhood disorders, ranging from autism to hyperactivity to elimination disorders and difficulty forming peer relationships/attachments.
question

Paranoid Personality Disorder\”
answer

Pervasive suspiciousness/excessive mistrust Tendency to interpret other people’s behavior as deliberately threatening or demeaning. Reluctance to confide in others. Overly sensitive to criticism. Anger easily. Hold grudges when they think they have been mistreated. Have few friends/intimate relationships. Hypervigilant. Deny Blame and may launch lawsuits Argumentative. DOES NOT HAVE DELUSIONS – SCHIZOPHRENIA
question

Types of Anxiety Disorders
answer

Panic d/o Generalized anxiety d/o Specific phobia Social phobia Agorophobia without panic d/o Obsessive compulsive d/o Acute stress d/o Post-Traumatic Stress d/o
question

Treating Anxiety Disorders
answer

Psychoanalysis: puts awareness on how clients fears symbolyze their inner conflicts, so the ego can be freed from expending its energy on repression. (little documentation for usefulness). Learning Approaches: Systematic Desensitization: (Joseph Wolpe, 1958). This is a gradual process in which clients learn to handle progressively more disturbing stimuli while remain relaxed. Is based on the assumption that phobias are learned, therefore they can be unlearned. Gradual Exposure: gradually approaching the object/situation they fear.
question

task-focused case-work
answer

a method of helping a person with a problem by focusing on the immediate priorities of the client and the small steps involved in realizing, or seeking to realize, the ultimate goal.
question

permanency planning
answer

an attempt to create, in a timely fashion, a plan for a child that will return him or her safely to the family of origin or legally free the child to be adopted.
question

family preservation
answer

a commitment to provide the resources and supports that can hold together or reunite a family unit, especially to provide stability to the children.
question

referral file
answer

an updated list of all available resources in a human service area, with notations about the special characteristics or qualifications of each.
question

preparatory empathy
answer

an attempt to put oneself in the shoes of another person, to feel or think of a problem from another perspective, even before encountering a client, to sensitize the worker.
question

objective data
answer

data based on unbiased facts, not affected by personal feelings or prejudice.
question

subjective data
answer

personal opinions about the client’s attitude, situation, and behavior that may or may not be objectively true.
question

referral statement
answer

an initial verbal or written statement that explains the reasons a client is being sent to or has chosen a specific resource, person, or agency.
question

intake interview
answer

an interview (form) that solicits relevant information before the delivery of a service begins.
question

linkage technology
answer

the acts involved in referring a client to another agency, worker, or resource.
question

health maintenance organization (HMO)
answer

a healthcare institution or an association of doctors that contracts with its members to collect a fixed sum of money monthly or yearly in exchange for doctor visits, tests, medications, hospital care, and preventive services, as needed.
question

fee for service
answer

a prearranged amount of money that will be paid to a health care provider each time he or she delivers a specific service to a plan member in accordance with the plan’s criteria for that service.
question

gatekeeper
answer

a person in a health plan organization who decides whether a prescribed medical service will be paid for, based on its set of criteria for care.
question

Elizabethan Poor Law
answer

The Act of Relief of the Poor (1601), also known as the Elizabethan Poor Law. It created a national poor law system in England and Wales. To pay for this, taxes were raised to support the system. If an individual’s family were unable to care for the individual, then the government would get involved in their care. 1. The impotent poor (people who cannot work) were to be cared for in almshouses, or poor houses. 2. The able bodied poor were sent to work in a \”House of Industry\” 3. The Idle Poor were sent to a \”House of Correction\”, or prisons. 4. Pauper children would become \”apprentices\”
question

Increase in Human Service Field
answer

1. developed from an increasing number of problems in the world. Transitional Increased dependence on drugs and substance abuse An aging population Isolation and Alienation Rising stress levels
question

Self Sufficiency
answer

is a goal of the human service worker. 1. Provide enough care and support to lead the client to be financially independent. 2. Client empowerment. 3. Permit the client to assume responsibility for themselves. 4. Encourage the client to believe in themself. Hopelessness = Helplessness! Negative believes about the self is difficult to overcome.
question

Social Care
answer

helping those unable to meet social needs.
question

Social Control
answer

People can meet their needs but did so in a way that violates social norms. (Judicial System)
question

Rehabilitation
answer

restoring someone to a former level of functioning
question

Interdisciplinary Approach
answer

Psychology: Study of mind and behavior. Looks at the client as an individual. Sociology: Looks at society, culture and how it affects individuals. Assesses a relationship between the two. Anthropology: Looks at how problems are changing and the frequency of problems over time. Pays attention to cultural, physical and social development and variations over time.
question

Autonomy
answer

Independence and Self Determination
question

Nonmaleficence
answer

Do No Harm
question

Beneficence
answer

Promote good or wellness
question

Justice
answer

Commitment to fairness
question

Fidelity
answer

make honest promises and not deceive or exploit clients
question

Common Ethical Dilemmas
answer

1. Multiple role relationships (conflict of interest) 2. Informed Consent 3. Confidentiality and Privileged Communication.
question

Limits to Confidentiality
answer

1. Client request for release of information 2. Court orders for release of information 3. Danger to self 4. Danger to others
question

Holistic Care
answer

assisting the whole person requires the Human Service worker to obtain detailed information including; Case history Current level of functioning/ skills/ knowledge Finances Physical Health Education Capability Environment/support system/ family Mental/Emotional health Beliefs/Values
question

Management Principles
answer

The Human Services worker is part of a larger network and may be involved with personnel from other professsions. Welfare to work, community outreach, child care, rehabilitation, housing, legal aid, education, substance abuse, mental health and criminal justice.
question

Networking
answer

Service Providers working together to achieve a common goal
question

Non-Professionals
answer

Volunteers and Self-Help groups. Not thoroughly trained in the profession
question

Paraprofessionals
answer

Some education, is working in the field, but is not licensed to practice.
question

Professionals
answer

Belongs to a profession, is licensed to practice
question

Responsibility for Mental Illness
answer

Prior to the 1500’s the church was responsible for the mentally ill, thereafter responsibility went to the government.
question

4 Principles of the Poor Law in the United States
answer

1. Poor relief was a public responsibility 2. Began to look at residence – assistance was at the public local level. 3. Public Aid was denied to those who had a family. 4. Children were assigned as apprentices, (orphans in employment, so they won’t be dependent forever).
question

Almshouses
answer

….were places for orphans to live. The first Almshouse was in Mass. 1662. By the 1800’s an entire system of almshouses were developed. Franklin developed the first institution in Pennsylvania for Mental Illness but did not look at it from a medical perspective/ or try to treat.
question

Three Social Philosophies
answer

Individualism: Hard work = success! Individual is blamed for failure and poverty is a sign of spiritual weakness. Laissez-Faire: \”to leave alone\” Less government is more desirable. Nothing should be done to help the less fortunate. Social Darwinism: to create a society of the fittest people, nothing should be done to help the less fortunate.
question

William Booth
answer

Salvation Army. The first to support ex-con’s in society.
question

Dr. Benjamin Rush
answer

Father of American Psychiatry began to integrate occupational therapy and regular excercise
question

Dorothea Dix
answer

Launched an investigation into the treatment of the mentally ill. Moral reformer Pushed for national government responsibility 1843 – 1853 studied 9 state hospitals 1854 got the states to accept financial responsibility for the mentally ill
question

Jane Adams
answer

Community driven services, advocating reform. Hull House
question

Mid 20th Century
answer

The focus of serving those in need emphasized the governments commitment to treating mental health. Kennedy called for a national plan to investigate the causes of mental health problems and to training professionals.
question

Community Mental Health Centers Act 1963
answer

1. Grants were made available for staffing and educational facilities. 2. Inpatients, outpatients and emergency services were established. 3. Services for the mental health of children. By 1975, Congress had authorized 609 multi service centers.
question

Scheuer Subprofessional Career Act of 1966
answer

Personnel shortage had led to this act. Allowed for poor people and minorities to provide mental health services. Training was mostly in-service. After Kennedy’s assassination, Johnson followed the same philosophy.
question

1965 State of the Union Address
answer

Johnson declared a \”war on poverty\”. Many schemes were introduced; Head Start College Work Study The aim was to provide ways for the poor to improve their own economic conditions.
question

Managed Care
answer

Is a move to spend less to get the same results. 1. External Reviews (to ensure efficiency of services) 2. Authorize services (must be approved by insurance companies) 3. Approve the quality of services (checks the credentials of the professional and the establishment). Insurance companies influence the \”Standards of Practice\” by defining the \”best practice\”.
question

Level of Care
answer

1. Must be the least restrictive environment for the client. 2. Not more treatment is given than is needed.
question

Trends in the Human Service Field
answer

1. By 2030 the aging population will double 2. Services will address physical, social, mental and emotional decline. 3. Other issues will include; housing, depression, confronting death and dying.
question

Human Services in Rural Areas
answer

1. Losing population 2. More likely to be elderly population 3. More likely to be members of disadvantaged minority groups 4. Lack of services to Human Service professionals
question

Barriers to receiving services
answer

1. Stigma of being labelled with a disorder 2. Income 3. Insurance
question

Technology
answer

…..has changed the way we network. 1. More information, faster. (email, listservs, teleconferencing, cell phones, pagers). 2. Improved resources, internet research, blogs, infosites. 3. Electronic records management = sharing info (challenges confidentiality) 4. Client management (goals/progress checks) = maintaining communication. 5. Provide online counseling services. 6. Some agencies use technology to provide services (skype, teleconference).
question

Defining a Problem
answer

1. It is difficult to predict what an individual will experience as a problem. 2. The individuals perspective is part of the problem definition. 3. Individuals often lack the resources/skills to solve problems. There are no guarantees that an individual will seek help.
question

Ways of Getting Help
answer

1. Referral – self referral or by other professionals 2. Involuntary Placement – adolescents/judicial system (court mandated services) 3. Inadvertant Services – neighborhood watch/redevelopment
question

Barriers to seeking help
answer

1. Financial/ practical 2. Preconceived notions/stigmas 3. Lack of information about services 4. Fear/ feel threatened 5. Counselor/ helper is a stranger 6. Culture / shame in the family 7. Prior bad experiences 8. Client expectations/ may want to be overly dependent
question

Friends as Helper
answer

1. Not trained 2. Emotional involvement 3. Biases 4. Confidentiality issues 5. May not have best interests served 6. No ethical responsibility 7. Oversimplified expectations
question

Stages in the Helping Process PECIT
answer

1. P – Preparation (review all available info) 2. C – Client arrives – ice breaking skills 3. E – explore the problem (locate source, assess severity) 4. I – Intervention (set goals) 5. T – Termination (services have been provided, goals are met, client has learned new skills)
question

Nonverbal Messages
answer

1. Counts for more than 65% of any communication 2. Communicates thoughts and feelings 3. Can be misinterpreted
question

Verbal Messages
answer

1. Actual spoken or written words 2. Cognitive and affective aspect 3. Connotation and denotation
question

Listening and Responding
answer

…..is the main role of the helping professional 1. active listening 2. response is always purposeful 3. Paraphrase or rephrase 4. ask questions to get more information, create new insight in client 5. appropriate questions (interview/intake, request specific info, to clarify, to elicit examples of specific behavior, OPEN QUESTIONS WORK BETTER!
question

SOLER
answer

1. S – squared (face the client) 2. O – Open 3. L – Lean forward 4. E – eye contact 5. R – relaxed
question

Erikson’s Stages
answer

1. Trust v mistrust: Virtue = hope (0 – 1 years) 2. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt: virtue = will (2 – 3 years) 3. Initative v guilt: virtue = purpose (4 – 6 years) 4. Industry v inferiority: virtue = competence (7 – 12 years) 5. Identity v role confusion: (who am i?) ( 13 – 19 years) 6. Intimacy v isolation: (20 – 34) 7. Generativity v Stagnation: Virtue = Care ( 35 – 65) 8. Ego Integrity v Despair: Virtue = wisdom (65+)
question

Maslow’s Hierarchy
answer

1. Psysiologica/ biological needs (food, shelter, water) 2. Safety Needs (protection, security) 3. Social Needs (acceptance, love) 4. Esteem Needs (recognition, independence) 5. Self-Actualization
question

Counselor Values
answer

Acceptance – be receptive to the client Tolerance – be patient, not judging Individuality – do not stereotype, accept differences Self-determination – allow client to make up their own mind Confidentiality – assure that information is secure
question

Stages of Problem Solving ICECAE
answer

1. I – Identify the problem 2. C – Clarify Goals 3. E – Examine alternatives 4. C – Choose the alternative 5. A – Act (move to the course of action/goal) 6. E – Evaluate and re-act (how well did it go, alterations needed?)
question

The focus of assessment in rehabilitation
answer

is to gather relevant data to assist in making useful recommendations for service planning
question

Assessment is defined broadly as
answer

\”any systematic method of obtaining information from tests and other sources, used to draw inferences about people, objects, or programs\”
question

Test is defined broadly as
answer

\”an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior\”
question

Measurement is defined as
answer

\”the assignment of numbers to attributes of persons according to rule stated explicitly\”
question

Vocational assessment involves
answer

exploring a person’s strengths, weaknesses, and preferences and discovering how the individual’s potential for vocational adjustment can be enhanced.
question

Assessment procedures can include
answer

interviews, standardized tests, inventories, observations, job tryouts, simulated tasks, and medical examinations.
question

The intake interview generates
answer

a social-vocational history
question

The focus of intake interviews should be placed on the following:
answer

(1) determining the person’s reason for rehabilitation services, (2) providing the individual with necessary information about the role and function of the agency, (3) developing adequate rapport, (4) initiating the diagnostic process, and (5) informing the consumer of any medical, vocational, or psychological evaluations that must be completed and the purposes of such evaluations.
question

Medical Evaluation is used to
answer

(a) establish the presence and extent of the disability, (b) provide information on the physical functioning of the consumer, (c) determine the types of activities precluded by the disability, and (d) identify any additional medical evaluation necessary for achieving the first three purposes.
question

The medical examination provides information
answer

a) clarifying the consumer’s general health at present; (b) describing of the extent, stability, and prognosis of the present disability as well as any recommended treatment; (c) assessing present and future implications of the disability and its potential affects on performance of essential job functions; and (d) reporting the presence of any residual medical conditions that could impact the individual during the rehabilitation process
question

Psychological assessments yield information regarding consumer’s
answer

intelligence, aptitudes, achievement, personality, interests, and adjustment related to vocational functioning.
question

Psychological assessment results help to determine
answer

(a) the appropriateness of long-term vocational training, (b) the need for adjustment services, and (c) the need to confront the consumer regarding unrealistic vocational choices
question

Vocational evaluations provide reliable and valid data to
answer

(a) generate information about the consumer’s current vocationally relevant levels of social, educational, psychological and physiological functioning; (b) estimate the consumer’s potential for behavior change and skill acquisition; (c) determine the consumer’s most effective learning style; (d) identify possible jobs the consumer can perform without additional vocational services; (e) identify education or special training programs that might increase vocational potential; (f) identify potentially feasible jobs for the consumer with further vocational services; and (g) identify the community support services that might augment job retention following successful consumer placement
question

Scales of Measurement
answer

quantifiable data or numbers.
question

Nominal:
answer

Classifies, assigns numerals but does not distinguish size, amount (e.g., any categorical variable, such as ethnicity or gender).
question

Ordinal:
answer

Indication of ordering, but no indication of distances between objects on the scale (e.g., placing first, second, and third).
question

Interval:
answer

Equal intervals on the scale (e.g., Celsius temperature scale).
question

Ratio:
answer

Possesses a non-arbitrary zero point (e.g., measures of weight).
question

Validity can be understood as
answer

the extent to which meaningful and appropriate inferences can be made from the instrument (Does the test measure what it says it measures?).
question

Face validity:
answer

appraisal of test’s content made on the \”face\” of the test by anyone.
question

Content validity:
answer

evaluation by subject matter experts of test items representativeness of the construct being measured.
question

Criterion or predictive validity:
answer

Comparison of the test with another outcome measure.
question

Construct validity:
answer

Extent to which the measure actually measures the theoretical construct.
question

Reliability
answer

is a measure of consistency (Is the test consistent, dependable, and precise?).
question

Test-retest reliability:
answer

A measure of consistency over time.
question

Split-half reliability:
answer

A measure of internal consistency.
question

Parallel forms reliability:
answer

A parallel form correlation indicates consistency of scores of individuals within the same group on two alternate but equivalent forms of the same test taken at the same time.
question

Cronbach’s alpha:
answer

An internal consistency statistic calculated from the pairwise correlations between items.
question

A standard score based on the normal distribution curve with a mean equal to 0 and a standard deviation equal to 1 (M = 0, SD = 1) is a:
answer

z-score
question

According to the CRCC Code of Ethics regarding evaluation, assessment, and interpretation:
answer

Prior to assessment, rehabilitation counselors are expected to explain the nature and purposes of assessment in the language and/or at the developmental level of the consumer, unless explicit exception has been agreed upon in advance.
question

E-S-F-P (Extroversion, Sensing, Feeling, Perception) is a possible score summary of a personality type on this well-known personality test based on the works of Jung:
answer

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
question

Jacob Moreno
answer

Coined term \”group therapy\” in 1931, father of psychodrama
question

Pratt
answer

First counseling groups in 1905 on tuberculosis
question

Davis
answer

Introduced groups into schools in 1907
question

Slavson
answer

Used groups with children, started American Group Psychotherapy Association in 1942
question

Alcoholics Anonymous
answer

First self-help group, 1930s
question

Lewin
answer

Started training groups (T-groups) in 1960s, referred to group cohesiveness as \”positive valence\”
question

Reality Distortion
answer

Environment of group is different than the outside world
question

Role Differentiation
answer

Process where members adopt different roles within group
question

Johari Window
answer

Used to explain self-disclosure – there are 4 quadrants of information depending on whether it’s known/unknown to self and known/unknown to others
question

Gatekeeping
answer

Occurs when leader and members insist on sticking to group norms
question

Blocking
answer

Resisting behavior by member that slows group progress – often seen as silence or non-participation
question

Informing
answer

When a member talks about another member outside of group
question

Sociogram
answer

Graphical representations of group member interaction patterns, shows the star, cluster and isolate members
question

Forming Stage
answer

Stage that includes discussion of norms and rules
question

Transition Stage
answer

Stage that includes testing boundaries and power structures, members compete for rank, form alliances, test the leader – also called \”storming\” stage
question

Working Stage
answer

Stage where committed members work to achieve goals
question

Termination Stage
answer

Stage that includes closure of the group and summarization
question

Process Evaluation
answer

Assessment of group dynamics
question

Outcome Evaluation
answer

Assessment of how members are different because of group work
question

Hill Interaction Matrix
answer

Instrument used to measure screening and selection
question

Primary Group
answer

Preventative group that tries to ward off problems – ex. family planning group
question

Secondary Group
answer

Group that tries to reduce the severity of a problem – ex. grief or shyness group
question

Tertiary Group
answer

Group that deals the more serious and longstanding individual problems
question

Norms
answer

Rules governing expected behavior of group members
question

Risky Shift Phenomenon
answer

Group’s decision will be less conservative than the average members’ individual decision; ex. group of teens wilder than an individual teen
question

T-group
answer

Training group, often used in business to address relationships between employees
question

Role Conflict
answer

Discrepancy between way a member is supposed to behave and how they actually behave
question

Horizontal Intervention
answer

Strategy that works with whole group – also called interpersonal because it focuses on interactions
question

Vertical Intervention
answer

Strategy that works with individuals within the group – also called intrapersonal
question

8-10
answer

What is best number of members for an adult group?
question

Democratic
answer

Which kind of group leader facilitates interaction and guides members to make decisions?
question

Telling leader
answer

Leader with high task behaviors and low relationship behaviors
question

Selling leader
answer

Leader with high task and high relationship behaviors
question

Participating leader
answer

Leader with low task and high relationship behaviors
question

Delegating leader
answer

Leader with low task and low relationship behaviors
question

Trust
answer

What is the most important trait in a group?
question

Psychodrama
answer

Moreno – technique where you act out situations in group – roles include director (therapist), protagonist (member who’s re-enacting), auxiliary egos (members who assist)
question

I
answer

Which quadrant of the Johari Window includes information known to others and self such as gender or what you’re wearing?
question

II
answer

Which quadrant of the Johari Window includes information unknown to others but known to yourself such as fear of failure, inadequacy?
question

III
answer

Which quadrant of the Johari Window includes information known to others but unknown to yourself such as facial expressions?
question

IV
answer

Which quadrant of the Johari Window includes information unknown to others or self such as family of origin issues?
question

Planned
answer

What kind of group is restricted to people with a demonstrated need in a themed area, such as parenting skills, addiction group for teens?
question

Spontaneous
answer

What kind of group has no planned content and is more for personal growth and support?
question

6-8
answer

What is the best number of members for a teen group?
question

2-4
answer

What is the best number of members for a kids group (ages 3-9)?
question

Closed
answer

What kind of group allows no new members once the group begins?
question

Authoritarian
answer

What kind of group leader takes control of the group and sets the agenda and rules?
question

Laissez-faire
answer

Which kind of group leader assumes little leadership and lacks structure or directiveness?
question

Sociogram
answer

What group therapy tool includes stars, clusters, and isolates?

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