Human Anatomy and Physiology – Final Exam Study Guide

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Physiology refers to the:
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nature of human function.
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Metabolism is the:
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sum total of all physical and chemical reactions occurring in the body.
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Beginning with the smallest level, the levels of organization of the body are:
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chemical, organelle, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
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Blood production is a function of which system?
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skeletal
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In the anatomical position the subject is:
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standing with the arms at the side and palms facing forward.
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The axial portion of the body consists of:
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head, neck, and torso.
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A saggital section would divide the body into:
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right and left sides.
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A frontal section would divide the body into:
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front and back portions.
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The lungs lie ___ to the heart.
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lateral
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The elbow lies ___ to the forearm.
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proximal
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A transverse plane divides the body into ___ sections.
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upper and lower
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Homeostasis can be defined as the:
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relatively constant state maintained by the body.
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Negative feedback control systems:
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oppose a change.
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A tissue is:
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a group of similar cells that perform a common function.
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The nonliving intercellular material that surrounds tissues is called:
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matrix.
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Which tissue lines body cavities and protects body surfaces?
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epithelial
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Which of the following is NOT a function of membranous epithelium? -secretion -protection -absorption -none of these choices
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secretion
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Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is found in the:
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epidermis.
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Which of the following is NOT an example of connective tissue? -transitional -reticular -blood -bone
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transitional
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The mature cells of bones are called:
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osteocytes.
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The most prevalent type of cartilage is:
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hyaline cartilage.
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Malignant tumors that arise from connective tissues are generally called ___.
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sarcoma
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A cancer specialist is an ___.
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oncologist
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In which area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum?
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sole of the foot
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In which layer of the skin do cells divide by mitosis to replace cells lost from the outermost surface of the body?
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stratum basale
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The basic determinant of skin color is the quantity of:
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melanin.
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Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin? -sensation -excretion -immunity -none of these choices
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none of these choices
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Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by the skin? -vitamin A -vitamin B -vitamin C -vitamin D
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vitamin D
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Langerhans cells are the mechanism of action of which function of skin?
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immunity
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The \”rule of palms\” assumes that the palm size of a burn victim equals about ___% of total body surface area.
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1
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Blisters, severe pain, and generalized swelling are characteristic of which type of burn?
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second-degree
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Another name for first- and second-degree burns is:
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partial-thickness burn.
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The developing fetus is covered by an extremely fine, soft hair coat called:
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lanugo.
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Which of the following is associated with hair? -sebaceous glands -ceruminous glands -eccrine glands -none of these choices
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sebaceous glands
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The most numerous, important, and wide-spread sweat glands in the body are:
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eccrine.
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Which structure compares actual body temperature with set point temperature and then sends out appropriate correction signals to effectors?
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hypothalamus
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The skull bone that articulates with the first cervical vertebrae is the:
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occipital.
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A meatus can be described as:
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a tubelike opening or channel.
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Which of the following is NOT part of the shoulder girdle? -clavicle -sternum -scapula -none of these choices
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sternum
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The arm socket is the:
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glenoid cavity.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the bones of the pelvic girdle? -ilium -acetabulum -ischium -pubis
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acetabulum
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The greater trochanter is a bony landmark of the:
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femur.
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All of the following are clinical signs and symptoms of a fracture EXCEPT: -soft tissue edema -realignment of the bone -loss of function -pain
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realignment of the bone.
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An entire skeletal muscle is covered by a coarse sheath called:
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epimysium.
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An aponeurosis is:
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broad and flat.
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Antagonists are muscles that:
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oppose prime movers.
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A fixed point about which a rod moves is called a:
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fulcrum.
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All of the following are rotator cuff muscles EXCEPT: -deltoid -infraspinatus -supraspinatus -teres minor
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deltoid.
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The muscle that shrugs the shoulders is the:
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trapezius.
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The posterior arm muscle that extends the forearm is the:
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triceps brachii.
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The muscles of the quadriceps femoris include all of the following EXCEPT: -vastus intermedius -vastus medialis -vastus lateralis -vastus femoris
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vastus femoris.
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The muscles of the hamstrings include all of the following EXCEPT the: -iliopsoas -semitendosus -semimembranosus -biceps femoris
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iliopsoas.
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Neurotransmitters are released in a synapse and bind to:
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receptors on the postsynaptic terminal.
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Compared with the inside of the cell, the outside of most cell membranes is:
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positive.
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Which of the following structures is NOT a component of a chemical synapse? -neurotransmitter -synaptic cleft -plasma membrane of postsynaptic neuron -synaptic knob
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neurotransmitter
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Which sequence best represents the course of an impulse over a reflex arc?
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receptor, sensory neuron, synapse, motor neuron, effector
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Which of the following is true of spatial summation? -neurotransmitters released simultaneously from several presynaptic knobs converge on one postsynaptic neuron -speed of impulse transmission is increased when several neurotransmitters are released -impulses are fired in a rapid succession by the same neuron -simultaneous stimulation of more than one postsynaptic neuron occur
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neurotransmitters released simultaneously from several presynaptic knobs converge on one postsynaptic neuron
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Small, distinct regions of gray matter within the CNS are usually called:
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nuclei.
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Which of the following are classified as nerve fibers? -dendrites -axons -dendrites and axons -none of these choices
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dendrites and axons
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A neuron’s resting membrane potential is:
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-70mV.
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A neuron with one axon and several dendrites is a:
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multipolar neuron.
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The difference in electrical charge across a plasma membrane is called:
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membrane potential.
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Voltage-gated channels are:
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membrane channels that open in response to voltage fluctuations.
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What is true concerning the sodium-potassium pump?
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Three sodium ions are pumped out of the neuron for every two potassium ions pumped into the neuron.
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Which type of neuron lies entirely within the CNS?
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interneuron.
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During a relative refractory period:
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an action potential is possible only in response to a very strong stimuli.
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Gray matter in the CNS consists of:
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cell bodies.
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A complete nerve, consisting of numerous fascicles and their blood supply, is held together by a fibrous coat called the:
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epineurium.
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A synaptic knob is located on the:
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axon.
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The main chemical classes of neurotransmitters include all of the following EXCEPT:
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norepinephrine.
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Most nerves in the human nervous system are:
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mixed nerves.
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Which of the following conduct impulses to the cell body? -Nissl bodies -dendrites -axons -none of these choices
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dendrites
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True or false? Epithelium is rich with blood supply.
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false
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True or false? Exocrine glands discharge their products directly to the blood.
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false
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True or false? The terms osteon and haversian system are synonymous.
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true
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True or false? Cartilage is perhaps the most vascular tissue in the body.
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false
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True or false? Parietal membranes cover the surface of organs.
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false
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True or false? Most of the body is covered by thick skin.
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false
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True or false? Both benign moles and malignant melanomas are outlined by a distinct border.
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false
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True or false? Subcutaneous layer and hypodermis are synonymous terms.
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true
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True or false? According to the \”rule of nines,\” the body is divided into nine areas of 9%.
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false
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True or false? The hair follicle is an extension of the epidermis into the dermis, forming a small tube.
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true
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True or false? One of the factors associated with male pattern baldness is testosterone.
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true
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True or false? The sphenoid is a bone of the face.
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false
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True or false? An immovable joint of the skull is called a fontanel.
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false
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True or false? The hyoid is one of several bones that articulate with four other bones.
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false
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True or false? The two bones that form the framework of the forearm are the radius and ulna.
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true
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True or false? The most distal portion of the fibula is composed of a bony landmark called the medial malleolus.
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false
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True or false? Each toe contains three phalanges.
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false
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True or false? Normal curvature of the spine is convex posteriorly through the thoracic region and concave posteriorly through the cervical and lumbar regions.
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true
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True or false? The insertion of a muscle is the point of attachment that moves when the muscle contracts.
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true
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True or false? Tipping the head back, as in looking up at the sky, is an example of a third-class lever.
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false
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True or false? The rectus abdominus extends the trunk.
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false
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True or false? The levator ani closes the anal canal.
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false
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True or false? The external intercostals function to elevate ribs.
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true
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True or false? The deltoid is a good example of a single-function muscle.
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false
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True or false? The pectoralis major flexes the upper arm.
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true
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True or false? The Achilles tendon is common to both the gastronemius and soleus.
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true
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True or false? The vastus intermedius originates on the posterior surface of the femur.
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false
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True or false? There are no differences between the CNS and PNS concerning the repair of damaged fivers.
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false
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True or false? A membrane that exhibits a membrane potential is said to be polarized.
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true
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True or false? The action potential is an all-or-none response.
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true
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True or false? Action potential and nerve impulse are synonymous.
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true
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True or false? Ca++ ions cause the release of neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft.
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true
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Study of disease.
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pathology
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Study of factors involved in causing a disease.
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etiology
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Pattern of a disease’s development.
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pathogenesis
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Single layer of cube-shaped cells.
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simple cuboidal
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Multiple layers of cells with flat cells at the outer surface.
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stratified squamous
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Single layer of flat, scalelike cells.
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simple squamous
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Cylindrical, striated, voluntary cells.
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skeletal muscle
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Striated, branching, involuntary cells with intercalated disks.
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cardiac muscle
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Supportive cells.
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neuroglia
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The conducting cells of the nervous system.
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neuron
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Process by which white blood cells engulf and destroy bacteria.
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phagocytosis
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Growth of new tissue.
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regeneration
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The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in intercellular tissue spaces.
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edema
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Tinea
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ringworm
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Warts
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papilloma
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Boils
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furuncle
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Scleroderma
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hard skin
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First seven pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum.
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true ribs
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Eleventh and twelfth ribs, which have no attachment to the sternum.
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floating ribs
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The five pairs of ribs that do not attach directly to the sternum.
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false ribs
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Smiling
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buccinator
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Flexing the head
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sternocleidomastoid
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Closing the eyes
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orbicularis oculi
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Composed of nerves arising from the brain and spinal cord.
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peripheral nervous system
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Subdivision of efferent division that transmits information to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
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autonomic division
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Produces the \”fight or flight\” response.
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sympathetic division
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Subdivision that carries information from the CNS to skeletal muscle.
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somatic nervous system
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Coordinates the body’s normal resting activities.
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parasympathetic division
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PNS subdivision that transmits incoming information from the sensory organs to CNS.
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afferent division
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Consists of the brain and spinal cord.
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central nervous system
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Consists of all outgoing motor pathways.
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efferent division
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The cranial and spinal cavities are divisions of the ___ cavity.
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dorsal
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The thoracic and abdomiopelvic cavities are divisions of the ___ cavity.
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ventral
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An organism that lives in or on another organism to obtain its nutrients is called a ___.
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parasite
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___ literally means self-immunity.
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autoimmunity
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___ is the term associated with an unusually high body temperature.
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fever
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Local damage caused by extremely low temperatures is referred to as ___.
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frostbite
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___ ___ is a disorder of the nervous system that involves the glia rather than neurons.
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multiple sclerosis

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