How a Bill becomes law AP Gov

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Bill
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is a proposed law that is enforced the executive branch. However, not all laws are criminal statures. “be it enacted”
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Resolution
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a declartion of congress, like war
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1. Bill to law step one-Proposal
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Anyone can propose a bill. Most legislation is proposed by members of congress or executive branch. Lobbyists & special intersts groups propose bills as well. All revenue and appropriation bills MUST start in the house.
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2. Step two- Introduction or “sponsorship”
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A member of Congress has to introduce the bill in either house. On average about 1000 bills become law. This introduction is called the “first reading” but only the title and Bill # are read outloud.
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2a. Introduction in the House of Reps
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A bill must be physically given to the clerk of the house, called “dropping it in the hopper”
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2b. Introduction in the Senate
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Bills are introduced during “morning hour”. This is between 12 and 2pm. Also the senator must introduce the bill to the senate clerk verbally.
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3. Standing Committee
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Committee is supposed to make congress more efficient. Bill goes to Committee who can do the following: 1) Refer the bill to the appropriate committee 2) Public hearings 3) Mark up sessions (analyzation of bill) 4) Committee action
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3a. goes to rule committee who “acts as the traffic cop”
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They screen out unspported/inessential bills.This determines how a bill will be elected in the house. They make two decisions: 1) can decide which calender a bill is placed on (can kill it) 2) Decide rules that apply for debate such as either “closed rule” or “open rule”
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3b. Definition of open/closed rule + calenders
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Open rule- anyone can add amendments on the floor closed rule- only members of sponsoring commitee can edit bill 4 types of calenders: 1. Union- revenue/appropriations 2. house- all other public bills 3. Private- bypasses the rule committee, so its the fast track. aimed at private individuals. 4. Consent- bills that require little debate
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How to bypass the rules committee
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suspension of rules- need 2/3 of those present and needs to be recognized by speaker Calender weds- Try skip the rules committee Discharge petition- demands that a bill be released by rules committee (almost never happens)
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4. Floor debate (for the house)
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Every measure on union and house calender is seen by the Committee of the Whole (entire house). There is equal time between minority and majority leaders, who pick who will debate for their party. The speaker often designates a senior member who is familiar with the bill to be the presiding officer. This allows for a faster and open debate, which is the purpose of the Committee of the Whole.
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4b.Senate Debate
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No time limit on debate…allows fora filibuster which means the speaker stalls the vote through endless talking. To invoke the cloture rule and end a filibuster, 3/5 of the senate must agree on it. The number used to be 2/3.
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5. Vote
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Three kinds of vote: Voice vote- all those in favor ay…there’s no paper trail Rising vote- Stand if in favor … again no paper trail Recorded Vote- name and vote are recorded
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6. Goes to conference committee
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Irons out any differences between the bill that was approved on one house and the bill approved in the other
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7. Presidential options
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1-Can choose to make it law by signing it 2- can do nothing and it will become law in 10 working days 3- can formally veto it and must state why *2/3 of congress vote needed to override veto (rare) 4- Pocket veto if congress has adjourned before 10 days, he doesnt have to say why he vetoed the bill

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