Honors Chemistry Unit 1 (Matter and Classification) Study Guide

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element
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is the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical properties also has one kind of \”atom\” and cannot be broken down into a simpler type
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substance
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a kind of matter whose composition is fixed
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molecule
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an independent structure consisting of two or more atoms chemically bound together
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compound
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type of matter composed of two or more different elements that are chemically bound together
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mixture
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a group of two or more substances that are physically intermingled ( ͡͡ ° ͜ ʖ ͡ °)
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homogenous mixture
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has no visible boundaries due to components are mixed as individual atoms, ions, and molecules i.e: water you can see through it
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solution
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a homogeneous mixture: think of liquid composed of one phase
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aqueous solutions
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a solution in water
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heterogenous mixture
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has one or more visible boundaries between the components i.e: a rock
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texture
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smoothness (physical property)
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hardness
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scratch test, 2 objects against on each other (physical property)
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viscosity
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flow/drip/pour more viscous=honey (physical property)
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Color
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reflective color (Physical property)
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Electrical conductivity
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allow electrons to move (physical property)
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Heat (thermal) conductivity
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allow transfer of heat (physical property)
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Taste / Smell
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2 human senses to help us describe (chemical property)
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Ductility
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ability to pull into wires (physical property)
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Density
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amount of substance per volume of substance (physical property)
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Luster
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shine vs dull (physical property)
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Conducts sound
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ability of sound to travel through (physical property)
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Magnetism
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attraction to magnet (chemical property)
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Malleability
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able to be hammered into shapes (physical property)
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Brittle
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breaks or shatters (physical property)
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Solubility
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ability to dissolve in another substance (chemical property)
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Reactivity
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ability to react with other substances (chemical property)
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Flash point
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temperature at which can catch fire (physical property)
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Flammability
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ease of catching on fire (physical property)
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Melting point
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temperature at which it melts/ freezes (chemical property)
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Boiling point
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temperature at which it boils / condenses (chemical property)
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Refractive index
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measure of transparency (physical property)
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Compressive strength
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ability to support weight (physical property)
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Textile/tensile strength
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pull apart with out breaking (physical property)
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Organizational structure
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how it breaks/fissures (physical property)
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Toxicity
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ability to cause bodily harm (chemical property)
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Absorption
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(moisture or light) (physical property)
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Elasticity
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ability to stretch and return (physical property)
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Volatility
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ability to vaporize /form gas (physical property)
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Chemical Change
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change of substance/composition of a chemical
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Physical Change
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has no change in substance/composition, but changes in physical features
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Gas to Liquid
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Condensation
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Liquid to Gas
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Vaporization
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Solid to Gas
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Sublimation
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Gas to Solid
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Deposition
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Liquid to Solid
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Freezing
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Solid to Liquid
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Melting
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3 Basics of Matter
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Solid Liquid Gas
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Scientific Method
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A method of procedure goes like this: 1) Observation 2) Research 3) Hypothesis 4) Experiment 5) Collect Data 6) Analysis 7) Conclusion
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Scientific Theory
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Well in-depth explanation of natural worlds that provide data, info, experiments (similar to scientific method)
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Scientific Law
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a generalization of how some aspect of natural worlds using statements and facts
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Gigs (G)
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10^9
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Mega (M)
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10^6
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Kilo (K)
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10^3
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Deci (D)
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10^-1
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Centi (C)
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10^-2
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Milli (ml)
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10^-3
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Micro (μι)
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10^-6
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Nano (n)
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10^-9
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Pico (p)
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10^-12
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Femto (f)
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10^-15

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