History & Systems of Psych Exam 2

Titchener offered his own approach to psychology called _______
structuralism

_______ focused on mental elements or contents and their mechanical linking through the process of association.
Titchener

In Titchener’s view, psychologys fundamental task was to discover the nature of the ____ _____ ______
Elementary conscious experience

Whats elementary conscious experience?
To analyze consciousness into its component parts and thus determine its structure

What stimulated the growth of laboratory work in psychology in the US and influenced a generation of experimental psychologists?
Titcheners Manuals

Who said women were too pure to smoke and did not allow them into his study group?
Titchener

More women got PhD’s with _____ than with any other male psychologists of the day.
Titchener

Who was the first woman to get a PhD in psychology?
Margaret Floy Washburn

Who was the first female psychologists elected to the national academy of sciences?
Margaret Floy Washburn

According to _____ the subject matter of psychology is conscious experience as that experience is dependent on the person who is actually experiencing it
Titchener

Whats stimulus error?
It confuses the mental process with the object we are observing

What happens with the observers focus on the stimulus object instead of on the conscious content?
They fail to distinguish what they have learned in the past about the object from their own direct and immediate experience

All that observers can really know about an apple is its red, shiny and round. When they describe anything other than these color, brightness and spatial characteristics they are ____ the object not _____ it.
Interpreting, observing

How did Titchener define consciousness?
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a given time

How did Titchener define mind?
The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime

Consciousness and mind are similar except that consciousness involves mental processes occurring ___ _____ _____ whereas mind involved the ____ of these processes
at the moment, total

Who said psychology was not in the business of curing sick minds or reforming society?
Titchener

What did Titchener say psychologys only legitimate purpose was?
To discover the facts of the structure of the mind

Introspection is also known as ____ – _____
self observation

Describe Titchener’s form of introspection
It relied on observers who were rigorously trained to describe the elements of their conscious state rather than reporting the observed or experienced stimulus by a familiar name

How did Titchener differ from Wundt?
Titchener was interested in the analysis of complex conscious experience into its component parts not in the synthesis of the elements through apperception Titchener emphasized the parts while Wundt emphasized the whole.

In Titcheners published research reports subjects are called _____
reagents

What 3 essential problems for psychology did Titchener propose?
1. To reduce conscious processes to their simplest components
2. To determine laws by which these elements of consciousness were associated
3. To connect the elements with their physiological conditions

The bulk of Titcheners research was devoted to what?
The first problem for psychology, to discovering the elements of consciousness

What are the 3 elementary states of consciousness that Titchener defined?
Sensations, images, and affective states

_____ are the basic elements of perception and occur in the sounds, sights, smells and other experiences evoked by physical objects in our environment
Sensations

____ are the elements of ideas and they are found in the process that reflects experiences that are not actually present at the moment
Images

____ are the elements of emotion and are found in experiences such as love, hate, and sadness
Affective states or affections

Characteristic that clearly distinguishes each element from every other element
Quality

___ refers to a sensations strength, weakness, loudness or brightness
Intensity

____ is the course of a sensation overtime
duration

____ refers to the role of attention in conscious experience, experience that is the focus of our attention is clearer than experience toward which our attention is not directed
Clearness

Affective states lack clearness, why?
Titchener believed it was impossible to focus attention directly on an element of feeling or emotion

What did Titchener begin to call structural psychology by the 1920’s?
Existential Psychology

What and who changed the focus of psychology from the structure of consciousness to its functions?
Darwin and his notion of evolution

What did Darwin’s notion of evolution change psychology from and to?
From the structure of consciousness to its functions

_____ is concerned with how the mind functions or how its used by an organism to adapt to its environment
Functionalism

What practical question did the functional psychology focus on?
What do mental processes accomplish?

The rapid development of applied psychology in the US may be considered the most important legacy of
the functionalist movement

The intellectual climate of the times rendered the idea of evolution not only scientifically respectable but also ____
necessary

Who became the agent to the Zeitgeist that was evolutionary theory?
Darwin

A captain of the HMS Beagle almost would not let Darwin on board… why?
The shape of his nose, said it indicated laziness and thought he could judge character by facial features

Who wrote a letter to Darwin with a paper that gave the idea for the origin of species?
Russel Wallace

The Darwinian theory of evolution says: in nature, a process of natural selection results in what?
Survival of those organisms best suited for their environment and the elimination of those not fit

Darwin’s theory in summary says that species that cannot adapt ___ ____ ____
do not survive

Who was Thomas Malthus?
He was an economist who wrote ‘Essay on the Principle of Population” where he noted that the world’s food supply increases arithmetically whereas the human population tends to increase geometrically

Malthus states that many human beings will live under near starvation conditions and only the most ___, ____, and ___ will survive
forceful, cunning, adaptable

How did Darwin extend the Malthusian principle?
By extending it to all living organisms (not just humans) to develop his concept of natural selection

Who invented the term “weather forecast”?
Robert Fitzroy, captain of the Beagle who regreted letting Darwin on board

What did Darwin’s book “The Descent of man” emphasize?
The similarity between animal and human mental processes

What did Darwin focus on in the expression of the emotions in man and animals
He explained emotional expressions as remnants of movements that once had served some practical function

Darwin argued that facial expressions and so called body language were “____ and ____ manifestations” of internal emotional states
innate, uncontrollable

How did Darwins work influence contemporary psychology?
1. A focus on animal psychology, which formed the basis of comparative psychology
2. An emphasis on the functions rather than the structure of consciousness
3. The acceptance of methodology and data from many fields
4. A focus on the description and measurement of individual differences

What possibility does the theory of evolution raise?
Continuity in mental functioning between humans and the lower animals

What theory brought about a change in psychologys subject matter and goal?
Evolutionary

Darwins ideas influenced psychology by broadening the ____ the new science could legitametly use
methods

What and who brought the spirit of evolution to bear on the new psychology?
Francis Galton and his work on mental inheritance

Who was I of the few early scientists to recognize individual differences in abilities and attitudes?
Spanish Physician, Juan Huarte

Who suggested children be studied early in lfie so their education could be planned individually in accordance with their abilities
Huarte

Who wrote the art of travel?
Francis Galton

Who wrote “Hereditary Genius”?
Galton

Whose hypothesis was that eminent men have eminent sons
Galton

What was the science of eugenics?
“Deals with the questions bearing on good in stock, hereditarily endowed with noble qualities.” Essentially, He wanted more birth of eminent and less of unfit

Who said humans could be improved by artificial selection?
Galton

Galton found ____ men have a higher probability of fathering ___ sons than do average men
eminent

Galton said eminence, or lack of it, was solely a function of ____, not of ____
heredity, opportunity

What does l’homme moyen mean?
The average man

What two numbers did Galton suggest any large set of measurements or values for human characteristics could be meaningfully described by?
Arithmetic mean and standard deviation

Galtons work in stats yielded one of sciences most important measure: the ____
correlation

Galton with help from Quetelet’s statistical knowledge said most inherited characteristics tend to ____ ___ the ____
regress toward the mean

Who coined the term mental tests?
Galton

What two problems in the area of association did Galton work on?
1. The diversity of associations of ideas
2. Reaction time (time required to produce associations)

What and who conducted the first extensive use of the psychological questionnare?
Galton, investigation of mental images

Who said that the evolutionary develop of an improved human race, through eugenics, should be societys goal rather than a place in heaven
Galton

Whose efforts had a significant impact on the direction of the new psychology even through he was not truly a psychologists?
Galton

What was a stimulus for the development of animal psychology?
Darwins theory of evolution

Who formalized and systematized the study of animal intelligence?
George Romanes

Who did Darwin choose to be his successor?
Romanes

What was considered to be the first book on comparative psychology?
Animal intelligence by Romanes

___ is respected for his pioneering efforts in stimulating the development of comparative psychology and preparing the way for the experimental study of animal behavior
Romanes

It was ____ who launched the observational stage of comparative psychology
Romanes

Who recognized the weaknesses of the introspection by analogy?
C. Lloyd Morgan

Who was Romanes successor?
Morgan

Who proposed the law of parsimony?
Morgan

The ___ ____ ____ states that an animals behavior must not be interpreted as the outcome of a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental process
law of parsimony

What did Morgan believe about animal behavior?
Most animal behavior resulted from learning or association based on sensory experience

___ was the first scientist to conduct large scale experimental studies in animal psychology
Morgan

Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed is called what
stimulus error

Tests of motor skills and sensory capacities; intelligence test use more complex measures of metal abilities
Mental tests

Anecdotal method
The use of observational reports about animal behavior

A technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the observer’s mind also occur in the animal’s mind
Introspection by analogy

The notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower metal process
Law of parsimony

Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt’s system, including:
a. apperception.
b. his focus on consciousness.
c. introspection.
d. elements of consciousness.
e. none of the choices are correct; Titchener retained virtually all of Wundt’s system.
A. Apperception

One of Titchener’s most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:
a. Principles of Physiological Psychology (1873, 1874).
b. Principles of Psychology (1890).
c. An Outline of Psychology (1896).
d. Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).
e. Primer of Psychology (1898).
D. Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice

Who scolded Titchener for still practicing “a very old fashioned standpoint” in excluding women from psychology meetings?
a. Washburn
b. Friedline
c. Comte
d. Dallenbach
e. Ladd-Franklin
E. Ladd-Franklin

Who was Titchener’s first doctoral student?
a. Washburn
b. Comte
c. Friedline
d. Dallenbach
e. Ladd-Franklin
A. Washburn

Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener’s psychology?
a. All the choices are correct.
b. The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness.
c. None of the answers are correct.
d. To identify the physiological correlates of the elements.
e. The reduction of conscious processes.
A. all the choices are correct

By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.
a. behaviorism
b. voluntarism
c. introspection
d. existential
e. functionalism
D. Existential

Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:
a. began when Titchener started using it as a method of study.
b. were unknown before the work of Titchener.
c. existed long before Titchener used the method.
d. None of the choices are correct.
e. began when Titchener started using it as a method of study and were unknown before the work of Titchener.
C. Existed long before Titchener used the method

Ordinary words such as “table” were not to be used by Titchener’s introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:
a. use inspection rather than introspection.
b. develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.
c. less carefully control external experimental conditions.
d. specify the use of obscure terms.
e. use languages other than English as a control measure.
B. Develop a working vocabulary free of meaning

Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:
a. error.
b. inspection.
c. delusion.
d. illusion.
e. retrospection.
E. Retrospection

The two most important contributions of Titchener’s system to modern psychology are:
a. his experimental method and a strong position to protest.
b. the delineation of a single dimension of affect and the identification of three (not two) elements of consciousness.
c. his version of introspection and the experimental method.
d. facilitating the transition from a focus on self-report to a focus on the objective observation of behavior, and insisting on pure research.
e. the insistence on pure research and the focus on normal individuals as subjects.
A. his experimental method and a strong position to protest

The Titchener experimentalists would admit women to their meetings on the condition that they could smoke an entire cigar. T or F
False

Titchener could be regarded as somewhat open-minded in his attitudes toward the rights of women. T or F
True

Titchener distinguished consciousness, which is momentary, from mind, which is a lifelong accumulation of experiences. T or F
True

Titchener’s system was marked by mechanism. T or F
True

The criticisms directed at the method of introspection were more relevant to Titchener’s method of observation than they were to Wundt’s method. T or F
True

The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were:
a. Quetelet’s and Galton’s work in statistics.
b. the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.
c. the comparative research of physiologists and Darwin’s work.
d. Weber’s and Fechner’s work in psychophysics.
e. Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems.
b. the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research

Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah’s ark?
a. Galton’s work in statistics showed that it was mathematically impossible.
b. No inland body of water would hold such a vessel.
c. There were too many identified species to fit two by two into a boat.
d. Because the attitude of positivism allowed for no supernatural explanations.
e. The giraffe’s neck had become too long after generations of having to reach for higher and higher branches to find food.
c. there were too many identified species to fit two by two into a boat

The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the:
a. normal distribution of traits in a population.
b. process of natural selection.
c. heritability of variations.
d. tenet of survival of the fittest.
e. fact of variation among members of the species.
e. fact of variation among members of the species

In the study of finches’ beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that:
a. when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished.
b. under drought conditions, more thick- than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced.
c. All of the choices are correct.
d. Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection.
e. in only one generation, natural selection produced a better-adapted species.
c. all of the choices are correct

The influence of Darwin’s work can be seen most directly in:
a. comparative psychology.
b. cognitive psychology.
c. clinical psychology.
d. behaviorism.
e. industrial psychology.
a. comparative psychology

The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of:
a. artificial selection.
b. eugenics.
c. Darwin’s theory of evolution.
d. natural selection.
e. product-moment correlations.
b. eugenics

Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
a. Galton
b. Quetelet
c. Pearson
d. Huarte
e. Cattell
a. Galton

Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of:
a. empiricism as purported by Locke and Mill.
b. Ebbinghaus’s decay theory of memory.
c. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult.
d. rationalism as purported by Berkeley, Kant, and Descartes.
e. Müller’s interference theory of memory.
c. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult

According to ________, animals have no soul and thus are automata.
a. Descartes
b. Darwin
c. Galton
d. Romanes
e. Morgan
a. Descartes

Despite Romanes’s deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his:
a. reliance on experimentation.
b. subjective interpretations.
c. phenomenological psychology.
d. stimulation of the development of comparative psychology.
e. critical thinking regarding the inner workings of the animal mind.
d. stimulation of the development of comparative psychology

Structuralism asked, “What does the mind do?” whereas functionalism asked, “How does it do it?” T or F
False

The intellectual Zeitgeist of the 19th century was ready for Darwin’s theory, although the social Zeitgeist was not. T or F
False

A “missing link” fossil was recently found: a fish with primitive limbs for walking. T or F
False

Galton gave us the correlational coefficient measure. T or F
False

The quality of Galton’s research is verified by its reliability, as assessed as recently as 1985. T or F
False

Who referred to himself as “our philosopher”?
Charles Darwin

Who profoundly influenced the direction of the new American psychology
Herbert Spencer

Whats the notion of evolution and the survival of the fittest called?
Darwinism

The philosophy that brought Herbert Spencer recognition and acclaim was ____
Darwinism

What was the main difference in Darwin and Spencers Darwinism/evolution theories?
Spencer said the developement of ALL aspects of the universe is evolutionary including human character and social institutions in accordance with “survival of the fittest”

Who coined the term “survival of the fittest”?
Herbert Spencer

What’s “Social Dawrinism”?
Applying the theory of evolution to human nature and society

In Spencers utopian view, if the principle of survival of the fittest were allowed to operate freely, what would occur?
Only the best would survive

Spencers idea was that by ensuring only the best survived, society could eventually ___ ___
achieve perfection

In the late 19th century, the US was a living ____ of Spencers ideas
embodiment

Why was the US more accepting than other nations of evolutionary theory?
The people of US were oriented toward the practical, useful, and functional in its pioneering stages, American psychology mirrored these qualities

American psychology became a ____ psychology because evolution and the functional spirit were in keeping with Americans basic temperament.
functional

What is Spencers system “synthetic philosophy”?
Knowledge and experience can eb explained in terms of evolutionary principles. “Synthetic” mean in the sense of synthesizing or combining (not something artificial)

To whom did Dawrin call “a dozen times my superior”?
Spencer

Spencer, in synthetic philosophy, emphasized the adaptive nature of ___ and _____ processes
nervous, mental

Who extended the theory of evolution to machines?
Samuel Butler

Butler proposed that mechanical evolution was occurring through the same processes that guided human evolution, which was what?
Natural selection and the struggle for existence

Who was Henry Hollerith?
An engineer who developed a new and improved way of processing info. He made punched cards.

Who did John B. WAtson say was the “most brilliant psychologists the world has ever known”?
William James

Who coined the term “neurasthenia”?
American neurologists, George Beard

What is “neurasthenia”?
A peculiary American nervousness, included is symptoms of insomnia, hypochondria, headache, skin rash, nervous exhaustion, and brain collapse

Why is James considered by so many scholars to be the greatest American psychologist?
1. He wrote with clarity rare in science.
2. He opposed Wundts goal for psych namely, the analysis of consciousness into elements
3. He offered an alternative way of looking at the mind, a view congruent with the functional approach to psychology.
4. The times in American psych were ready for what James had to say

What was said in James “The Principles of Psychology” that eventually became the central tenet of American funtionalism?
That the goal of psychology is not the discovery of the elements of experience but rather the study of living people as they adapt to their environment.

James said, in his book,, that “psychology is the science of ______ _______, both of its phenomena and their conditions.
Mental life

____ is used to indicate that the subject matte of psychology is to be found in immediate experience
phenomena

___ refers to the importance of the body, particularly the brain, in mental life
conditions

According to James, the physical substructures of ____ form a basic part of psychology
consciousness

James rebelled against the ___ and ___ of the Wundtian position
artificality, narrowness

Who came up with the “stream of consciousness”?
James

What the function of consciousness?
To enable us to adapt to our environment by allowing us to choose

What’s pragmatism
The basic tenet of which is that the validity of an idea or conception must be test by its practical consequences

Whats the popular expression of the pragmatic viewpoint
anything is true if it works

Who primarily advanced pragmatism?
Charles Sanders

What are the 3 elements of the 3 piece self?
Material, social, and spiritual

Whats the material self?
Everything we call uniquely our own (body, family, home, and style of dress)

Whats the social self?
The recognition we get from other people

Whats the spiritual self?
Refers to our inner or subjective being

In James book, The Principles, he describes all living creatures as what?
bundles of habits

Who was the 1st woman president of the APA?
Mary Whiton Calkins

Using the empircal techniques of functional psychology, what two women proved Darwin and others were wrong about women?
Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley and Leta Stetter Hollingworth

Who did the first experimental test of Darwins notion that women were biologically inferior to men?
Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley

Who began whats considered to be the 1st psych lab in the US and 1st American journal of psych?
G Stanley Hall

Who received the 1st American doctoral degree in psych?
G Stanley Hall

Who founded the American Journal of Psych?
G Stanley Hall

Who as the 1st black person to earn a psych PhD?
Francis Cecil Sumner

What was Hall’s work governed by?
The conviction that the normal growth of the mind involved a series of evolutionary stages

Why is Hall often called a genetic psychologists?
Because his concern with human and animal development and the related of adaptation

Whats Halls recapitulation theory?
Children in their personal development repeat the life history of the human race evolving from a near savage state in infancy and childhood to a rational, civilized human being in adulthood

What was the 1st large scale survey of the psychological issues of old age?
Senescence by G. Stanley Hal

What was the most influential article published in the first 50 volumes of the psychological review?
The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology

What did Angell say were the 3 major themes of the functionalist movement?
1. Functional psych is the psychology of mental operations in contrast to structualism, which is the psych of mental elements. The task of functionalism is to discover how a mental process operates, what it accomplishes and under what condition it occurs
2. Functional psych is the psych of the fundamental utilities of consciousness
3. Functional psych if the psych of psychophysical relations (mind body relations) and its concerned with the total relationship of the organism to its environment

Who elaborated on Angells theoretical position?
Carr

Under ____ functionalism at Chicago reached its peak as a formal system
Carr

What are the 2 main points of Carrs textbook, Psychology?
1. He defined the subject matter of psych as mental activity
2. The function of mental activity is to acquire, fixate, retain, organize and evaluate experiences and use these experiences to determine ones actions

Carr called the specific form of action in which mental activities appear ______ or _____ behavior
adaptive or adjustive

A ____ psychology is concerned with motivation. Woodworths intention was to develop what he called a “motivology”
Dynamic

What did Woodworth believe psychology’s goal was?
To determine why people behave as they do

What did Woodworth say was the focus and primary interest of dynamic psychology?
Focus: Cause and effect relationships
Interest: In the forces that drive or motivate human beings

What were some criticisms of functionalism?
1. The term itself had not been clearly defined
2. Some said functionalism was not a psychology at all
3. Critics found fault with their interest in practical concerns

Why did Titchener and his followers say functionalism was not a psychology?
B/c it did not adhere to structuralism’s subject matter and methods

What psychologist helped with the Coca Cola investigation?
Harry Hollingworth

Why were the results of the Coca Cola test significant for psychology?
They demonstrated that sound experimental research could be funded by a major corporate entity without dictating or otherwise prejudicing the results. A more lasting effect was the knowledge that psychologists could have successful and financially rewarding careers in applied psychology without challenging their professional integrity.

What is psychology?
The SCIENTIFIC study of INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR and MENTAL PROCESSES.

What is a main feature of American psychology, from an evolutionary point of view?
The interest in individual differences

Who was the first psychologist to teach the statistical analysis of experimental results?
Cattell

Who developed the widely used order-of-merit ranking method?
Cattell

Who started the Psychological Review?
Cattell

What was Cattell’s strongest influence on American psychology?
His work as an organizer, executive, and administrator of psychological science and practice, and as an articulate link between psychology and the greater scientific community.

What were Cattell’s mental test?
Tests of motor skills and sensory capacities; intelligence tests use more complex measures of metal abilities

What did Cattell use his order-of-merit ranking method for?
To investigate the nature and origin of scientific ability

How did Cattell energetically reinforce the functionalist movement in American psychology?
Through his work on mental testing, the measurement of individual differences, and the promotion of applied psychology.

The first truly psychological test of mental ability was developed by
Alfred Binet

Binet provided an effective measure of human cognitive abilities and thus initiated the era of ___ ___ ___
modern intelligence testing

Binet developed the first truly psychological test of mental ability, which has evolved into the widely used…
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

What is mental age?
The age at which children of average ability could perform specific tasks

Who introduced the word moron?
Goddard

What is the IQ measure?
The ratio between mental age and chronological age

What did the book The Bell Curve argue?
That based on intelligence test scores, Blacks are inferior to Whites

Who began clinical psychology?
Lightner Witmer, though it was different than today’s clinical psych

Who opened the world’s first psychology clinic?
Witmer

What did Witmer really start?
School psychology

Who was the first person to apply psych to personnel selection and management and to advertising, and author of the first book in the field?
Walter Dill Scott

Who was the first to hold the title of professor of applied psych?
Walter Dill Scott

Who was the founder of the first psychological consulting company?
Walter Dill Scott

Who was the first psychologist to receive the Distinguished Service Medal from the US Army?
Walter Dill Scott

What was the primary focus of industrial psychologists during the 1920’s?
The selection and placement of job applicants – matching the right person with the right job

Who was the first person to get a PhD in the field of industrial-organizational psychology?
Lillian Moller Gilbreth

Who was Wundt’s only female student?
Lillian Moller Gilbreth

Who was the founder of applied psych?
Munsterberg

Forensic psych deals with psychology and the ___
law

Who did Darwin call “our philosopher”?
a. Spencer
b. Cattell
c. James
d. Dewey
e. Hollerith
Spencer

Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism?
a. All of the choices are a part of social Darwinism.
b. Governments should not try to restrict the activities of business.
c. Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor.
d. Nations of the world are in competition for survival, analogous to competition among species for survival.
e. Governments should not impede the rich by heavy taxes because the rich are needed for economic growth.
c. Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor

James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he:
a. criticized the use of the experimental method.
b. loathed laboratory work and refused to do it.
c. studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology.
d. hired Münsterberg, thus imposing Wundt’s psychology and its limitations on the new American psychology.
e. was a “gentleman scientist” rather than a traditional academic.
c. studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology

Although it took twelve years to complete, this person’s great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt’s approach to psychology.
a. Edward Bradford Titchener
b. James Angell
c. John Dewey
d. William James
e. Herbert Spencer
d. William James

William James used the term “stream of consciousness” to indicate that:
a. the analysis of consciousness into mental elements is difficult but possible.
b. the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements.
c. fish swimming upstream think harder than those swimming downstream.
d. consciousness is not as important as the unconscious in controlling behavior since consciousness is always changing.
e. the use of introspection to study consciousness is possible.
b. the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements

In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one’s learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by:
a. James.
b. Dewey.
c. Calkins.
d. Woolley.
e. Titchener.
C. Calkins

Hollingworth’s research refuted:
a. the variability hypothesis.
b. the belief that “maternal behaviors” decline during menses.
c. None of the choices are correct.
d. Woolley’s finding that women are more emotional and less rational during menses.
e. Fechner’s Law.
a. the variability hypothesis

Hall’s Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in:
a. child development.
b. heritability.
c. eugenics.
d. physiological psychology.
e. evolutionary theory.
a. child development

The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by:
a. Dewey.
b. Witmer.
c. Angell.
d. James.
e. Hall.
e. Hall

The notion that children’s development reflects the history of the human race is the:
a. theoretical basis for Binet’s tests.
b. collective unconscious.
c. primary law of evolution.
d. recapitulation theory.
e. child study movement.
d.. recapitulation theory

John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology.” What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?
a. Psychology should only apply the evolutionary doctrine to the development of organisms. The evolutionary doctrine should not be used to analyze society.
b. Psychology should try to analyze behavior into stimulus-response units only.
c. Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
d. Psychology should be concerned with behavior only.
e. Psychology should try to become a biological science and attempt to explain mental processes in terms of brain activity.
c. Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism

For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is:
a. the function, not the structure, of the animal that is important.
b. adaptive and essential for an organism’s survival.
c. the cause of its adaptation to the environment.
d. not a reason for it to be studied.
e. the appropriate subject matter of psychology.
b. adaptive and essential for an organism’s survival

Like Wundt, Carr proposed that studying ________ would illuminate mental processes.
a. neurology
b. animals
c. family relationships
d. myths
e. literary and artistic creations of a culture
e. literary and artistic creations of a culture

In Woodworth’s motivology, introspection was a method to be used to investigate what occurs inside the organism. T or F
True

Social Darwinism flourished in the United States primarily as a result of the American character and propensities. T or F
True

A medicinal product called Americanitis Elixir was marketed for the treatment of Americanitis. T or F
True

Hall was considered by some to be “obsessed with sex.” T or F
True

Titchener indirectly founded functional psychology. T or F
True

Carr described adaptive behavior as the manifestation of mental activities. T or F
True

The American public’s response to the new science of psychology was:
a. to reject structuralism but accept functionalism.
b. to embrace it.
c. to reject functionalism but accept structuralism.
d. concern about psychologists’ ability to read people’s minds.
e. to reject it until after World War I and the development of intelligence tests.
B. To embrace it

Cattell’s interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by:
a. Hall’s use of questionnaires.
b. his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University.
c. Freud’s development of projective tests.
d. his work on reaction times in Wundt’s laboratory.
e. Hall’s child study movement.
b. his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University

Unlike Titchener, Cattell believed graduate students should:
a. study the contents of consciousness.
b. study children as well as adults.
c. study animals as well as humans.
d. study whatever they liked.
e. adopt Carr’s final form of functionalism.
d. study whatever they liked

The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by:
a. Hall.
b. Binet.
c. Wechsler.
d. Cattell.
e. Terman.
b. Binet

Woodworth’s Personal Data Sheet was designed to:
a. separate the neurotic from the average recruit.
b. separate White from not-White recruits in World War I.
c. assess personality complexes of combat pilots.
d. separate the literate from the illiterate in World War I.
e. separate the psychotic from the neurotic recruits.
a. separate the neurotic from the average recruit

An “intelligence test” developed by ________ raised doubts about the validity of such tests.
a. Edison
b. Witmer
c. Goddard
d. Cattell
e. Terman
a. Edison

Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children?
a. Goodenough
b. Thurstone
c. Cattell
d. Bond
e. Anastasi
a. Goodenough

Who wrote Psychotherapy?
a. Beers
b. Scott
c. Healey
d. Viteles
e. Münsterberg
e. Munsterberg

The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was:
a. Anna Berliner.
b. Walter Scott.
c. Lillian Gilbreth.
d. Lightener Witmer.
e. Frank Gilbreth.
c. Lillian Gilbreth

Whose therapeutic technique might be described as “therapist-centered?”
a. Scott’s
b. Münsterberg’s
c. Witmer’s
d. Hall’s
e. Freud’s
b. Munsterberg’s

American psychology was influenced more by the works of Wundt and Titchener than by the work of Darwin and Galton. T or F
False

Unlike Galton’s eugenics, Cattell’s position on that subject was that data on individual differences should be used to develop programs to teach people to adapt more successfully to their environments. T or F
False

A significant finding by Witmer was that behavior disorders and cognitive deficits are substantially influenced by a child’s environment. T or F
True

Scott’s approach to personnel selection was to assess the traits of those successful in an occupation, rather than to define necessary traits ahead of time. T or F
True

Münsterberg made direct suggestions to his patients about how he believed they could be cured. T or F
True