History of Psychology Final

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Psychology is unique among the sciences in its requirement that its students
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study the history of psychology
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Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its
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History
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According to Schultz & Schultz, a course in the history of psychology is useful because
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a. it helps us to understand why modern psychology has so many different movements. b. it helps to integrate the areas and issues that constitute modern psychology. c. it provides a fascinating story on its own. d. ALL OF THE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
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As a scientific discipline psychology is
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one of the newest and one of the oldest
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The feature of modern psychology that distinguishes it from its antecedents is its
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Methodology
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Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways?
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Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions.
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The data of history are most accurately depicted or described as
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data fragments
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Skinner’s self-discipline as a student and Freud’s being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that
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participants may themselves produce biased accounts.
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A surge in the practice of applied psychology occurred in response to the lack of jobs in academic settings for PhDs. Thus, the development of applied psychology was a direct consequence of the
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economic context of the United States.
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According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has
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engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole.
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What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the \”spirit of mechanism\”?
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clock
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The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is
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determinism
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Contemporary cognitive psychologists’ computer model of artificial intelligence is a direct descendant of
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Babbage’s calculating machine
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Empiricism attributes all knowledge to
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experience
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Descartes was significant to psychology as a science because he helped liberate
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science from the stranglehold of theology.
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The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to
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the mind-body problem.
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Descartes changed the focus from the study of ____ to the study of ____.
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the soul; the mind
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Descartes’ notion that we are born with certain perceptual processes is also a principle of which modern school of psychology?
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Gestalt
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The idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is called
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Positivism
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Materialism is the belief that
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a. speculation and inference are acceptable. b. consciousness exists beyond physics and chemistry. c. the mental world exists on a plane of its own. d. ALL THINGS CAN BE DESCRIBED IN PHYSICAL TERMS.
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David Kinnebrook was fired because
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his observations differed from the observations of his boss.
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The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the
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extirpation method.
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____’s phrenology proposed that the topography of a person’s skull revealed his of her intellectual and emotional characteristics.
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Gall
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The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is
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Galvani
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German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because
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there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike.
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Why did Helmholtz abandon his research into human reaction times?
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He found differences from one individual to the next and he found differences in the same individual.
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Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the
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just noticeable difference
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Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was the
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quantification of the mind-body relationship
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The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in a sensation is a definition of
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the differential threshold
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How did the British empiricists (BritE) and the German physiologists (GerP) differ in their approach to the study of the senses?
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The BritE studied the senses from the viewpoint of philosophy. The GerP used scientific methods to study the senses.
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In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could
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not pay attention to two things at once.
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For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
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Consciousness
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Introspection as used by Wundt is also called
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Internal perception
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According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely
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Sensation and feelings
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The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of
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Apperception
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Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because
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it was not seen as having practical value
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Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he
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successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory.
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Ebbinghaus’s focus of study was on the
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initial formation of associations.
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Ebbinghaus measured learning by
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counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material.
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Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that
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material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down
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Subjects in Titchener’s laboratory were asked to
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a. swallow a stomach tube. b. record their sensations and feelings during urination and defecation. c. make notes of their sensations and feelings during sexual intercourse. d. attach measuring devices to their bodies to record their physiological responses during sexual intercourse. e. ALL OF THESE ANSWERS ARE CORRECT
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Titchener’s manner with his students during lectures was one of
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Formality
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One of the main reasons that Titchener’s thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener
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translated Wundt’s books from German into English
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This person was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
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Margaret Floy Washburn
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Titchener’s definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is
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conscious experience
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To confuse the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed was to commit
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stimulus error
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The sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime is Titchener’s definition of
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Mind
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In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to
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be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind.
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Toward the end of Titchener’s career, he came to favor the ____ method
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phenomenological
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When Titchener died, the era of structuralism
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Collapsed
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The most important consequence of functionalism was
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applied psychology
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The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were
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the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.
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____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
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A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by
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Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
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The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the
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fact of variation among members of the species.
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A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was
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a focus on individual differences.
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Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
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Galton
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The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.
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Cattell; Galton
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When Galton’s measures are compared to the same measures taken today, the data reveal
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the developmental rate was slower in Galton’s time.
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The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his
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use of the anecdotal method.
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Perhaps the most important factor that enabled functionalist psychology to flourish in the United States was the
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American temperament as a whole.
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Who should social Darwinism bring to mind?
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Spencer
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Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?
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Hollerith
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William James
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established an environment favorable for functionalism with his Principles of Psychology.
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For James, one’s stream of consciousness
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is distorted when analyzed into distinct elements.
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Woolley’s research on sex differences and alleged male superiority was
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the first experimental test of the variability hypothesis of male superiority.
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The notion of a \”motherhood instinct\” was
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refuted by Hollingworth’s research.
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The first American PhD in psychology was earned by
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Hall
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The first African American to earn a PhD in psychology was
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Sumner
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The notion that children’s development reflects the history of the human race is the
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recapitulation theory.
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Why did the FDA take Coca Cola to court in 1911?
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because one of Coke’s ingredients was caffeine
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According to Cattell, by 1895 psychology was
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a required subject for an undergraduate degree.
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Galton’s influence on Cattell led to
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the study of large groups rather than single subjects.
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The original purpose for the founding of The Psychological Corporation was to
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deliver applied psychological services
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Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its
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emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence.
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The construct called \”IQ\” was developed by
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Stern
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The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that
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Binet’s tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups.
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One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that
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public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since.
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Witmer’s \”clinical psychology\” is today known as
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school psychology
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The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were
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World War II and the VA hospital system.
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By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the
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a. value of introspection. b. existence of mental elements. c. need for psychology to be a pure science. d. replacement of structuralism by functionalism. e. NONE OF THESE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
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The early 20th-century Zeitgeist in science was marked by
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Positivism
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For Loeb, a tropism is a/an
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involuntary forced movement.
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The case of Clever Hans served to
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illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study of animal behavior with proper control conditions.
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Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of
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Thorndike’s law of exercise.
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Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that
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punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection.
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Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.
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reinforcements and S-R connections.
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For Pavlov this is necessary for learning to take place.
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Reinforcement
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While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes
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Edwin Burket Twitmyer
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Bekhterev
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applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles.
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In his 1914 book, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, Watson argued
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for the acceptance of animal psychology.
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After his dismissal from Johns Hopkins, Watson
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published for the American public through popular media.
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For Watson, the goal of psychology is
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the prediction and control of behavior.
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The most important research method of the behaviorists was
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the conditioned reflex method.
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Watson predicted that the laws of behavior would be identified when
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behaviors were reduced to their basic S-R units.
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The Little Albert study
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has never been replicated.
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Mary Cover Jones’s study of Peter
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was a forerunner of behavior therapy.
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A major criticism of Watson’s system is that it discounts
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sensation and perception
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The efficiency of learning is a function of the total amount of brain tissue; this is ____ law of ____.
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Lashley’s; mass action
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McDougall believed that human behavior
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derives from innate tendencies.
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Skinner’s former students, ____ and ____, demonstrated that operant conditioning can be taken out of the animal lab and applied to the real word.
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Breland; Breland
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Operationism means that a concept
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is synonymous with its methods of measurement.
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Tolman’s concept of cognitive maps, i.e., that the animal learns the \”whole,\” might be traced to his work
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with Koffka during graduate school.
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Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?
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motivation
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The term intervening variable refers to
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internal processes that \”connect\” the stimulus with a response.
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In Tolman’s system, the repetition of an act leads to
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sign Gestalts.
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The classic test of Tolman’s learning theory concerned whether a rat in a maze
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learns by using a cognitive map or learns by using a set of motor responses.
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From the 1940s to the 1960s, who dominated American psychology?
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Hullians
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Hull’s system sought to describe and explain
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all behavior.
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The technique that Hull added to the then-accepted battery of experimental methods was
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the hypothetico-deductive method.
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The Gestalt school’s major difference with behaviorists was over the
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utility of the concept of consciousness.
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The unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs is
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phenomenology
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\”Apparent movement\” is another term for
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the phi phenomenon.
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One of the major reasons that Gestalt psychology failed to become popular in the United States apparently was
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American scholars’ belief that Gestalt theory had only to do with perception.
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____ was the spokesman for the Gestalt movement who studied the thinking processes of chimpanzees, left Germany because of his anti-Nazi activities, came to the United States, and eventually became president of the American Psychological Association.
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Wolfgang Köhler
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A(n) ____ is a quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experiences that does not vary even when the actual sensory elements change.
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perceptual constancy
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The basic premise of the Gestalt principles of perception is that perceptual organization is
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Innate
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Köhler argued that solving a problem requires
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a restructuring of the perceptual field.
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Köhler argued that trial-and-error learning
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was a consequence of not allowing the subject to see the whole situation.
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The Gestalt psychologists maintained that a correspondence called ____ exists between perceptual activity and brain activity.
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Isomorphism
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A basic difference between psychoanalysis and the other systems of psychology was that
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the other systems had an academic background and a focus on pure science.
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A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was
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the unconscious.
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The analogy that the mind is like an iceberg, with its bulk hidden from view (unconscious), is attributed to
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Fechner
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The person who most strongly influenced humane reforms for the mentally ill in the United States was
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Dix
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The techniques of Mesmer
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were investigated and he was discredited and often involved convulsions.
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Freud’s interest in a scientific strategy to acquiring knowledge has been attributed to his reading of
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Darwin
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Freud’s use of hypnosis was a direct consequence of
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his association with Breuer and a research grant to study with Charcot.
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The goal of Freud’s therapies was to
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make the unconscious conscious.
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Freud argued that whether an event happened in childhood
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is less important than the patient’s belief that it occurred.
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According to Freud, the biological, need-related part of everyone’s personality is the
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id
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The essential difference between those who are classified as dissenters and those who are classified as carrying on in the Freudian tradition is that the dissenters
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developed their own theories during Freud’s lifetime.
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The primary form of psychoanalysis practiced in the United States for some 30 years after Sigmund Freud left Vienna was
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ego psychology
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Jung’s theoretical system is known as
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analytical psychology.
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For Jung, dream analysis was
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a lifelong practice for resolving personal crises.
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Jung’s concept of the personal unconscious
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contains individual experiences that have been suppressed or forgotten.
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According to Jung, in our ____, we retain experiences of our ancestors, animal and human.
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collective unconscious
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A component of the Zeitgeist at the beginning of the 20th century that influenced some dissenters within psychoanalysis was the
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recognition of the influence of social forces.
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As he himself acknowledged, Adler’s childhood experiences are a direct reflection of his concept of
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inferiority feelings.
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Which aspect of Adler’s system has led to the most research?
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birth order
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In general, the designation \”third force\” applies to
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humanistic psychology.
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There are no structural psychologists left in the United States. However, structural psychology was a success because it
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helped to establish psychology as an independent science.
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Cognitive psychology is concerned with
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the study of all mental processes such as perception, learning, memory, and problem solving.
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The founder of cognitive psychology was
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There was no single founder.
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Neisser’s definition of \”cognitive\” basically involves terms from the metaphor of
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information processing.
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The very first \”thinking\” machines, used for calculations, were developed by
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Babbage and Hollerith.
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Cognitive psychology differs from behaviorism because cognitive psychologists
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a. believe that people actively and creatively arrange environmental stimuli. b. are interested in how the mind organizes experience. c. focus on the process of knowing, not just on responses to stimuli. d. ALL OF THESE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
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The cognitive psychologists’ focus on cognitive processes has meant that using animals as subjects is
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fruitful in cognitive psychology.
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This is the most recently developed approach to psychology.
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evolutionary psychology
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The behaviorist premise that all behavior is learned was challenged by
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a. the Brelands’ work on instinctual drift. b. Harlow’s work with monkey-mothers. c. Seligman’s work on biological preparedness. d. ALL OF THESE CHOICES ARE CORRECT
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According to Schultz and Schultz, when a movement within psychology becomes a formalized school, the only way its momentum can be stopped is by its
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