History of Psych – Ch 4

In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could
not pay attention to two things at once.

For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
consciousness.

Introspection as used by Wundt is also called
internal perception.

According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely
sensation and feelings.

The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of
apperception.

Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because
it was not seen as having practical value.

Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he
successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory.

Ebbinghaus’s focus of study was on the
initial formation of associations.

Ebbinghaus measured learning by
counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material.

Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that
material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down.

Apperception
The process by which mental elements are organized.

Imageless thought
Ku?lpe’s idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component.

Introspection
Examination of one’s own mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts or feelings.

Mediate and immediate experience
Mediate experience provides information about something other than the elements of that experience; immediate experience is unbiased by interpretation.

Nonsense syllables
Syllables presented in a meaningless series to study memory processes.

Phenomenology
an approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements. (Stumpf)

Systematic experimental introspection
Kulpe’s introspective method that used retrospective reports of subjects’ cognitive processes after they had completed an experimental task.

Tridimensional theory of feelings
Wundt’s explanation for feeling states based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, and excitement/depression.

Voluntarism
The idea that the mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher-level thought processes.

In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in ________.
physiological psychology

Wundt’s productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged ________.
2.2 pages a day for over 50 years

Wundt’s observers used introspection to report ________.
judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli

Wundt’s doctrine of apperception refers to ________.
the process of organizing mental elements into a whole

While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?
Ebbinghaus

Other than Stumpf’s research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been ________.
educating the founders of Gestalt psychology

Systematic experimental introspection involves ________.
retrospection and the performance of a complex task