History DBQ Essay

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Joseph Chamberlain, “The British Empire”
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– Entire beginning shows importance of how England could not exist without commerce, connections, and trade – believes in social Darwinism where they control the rest of the countries adjacent (backwards people: Africa and Asia) – Says how their success has not always been perfect, but they have come up with “greater security to life and property” – “England was entirely unable to support the enormous population which is now maintained by the aid of her foreign trade” – “You cannot have omelets without breaking eggs”
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Karl Pearson, “Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified by Nature”
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– “Then I should say a thousand times better for him that he should not go than that he should settle down and live alongside the inferior race” – They might as well go and drive them out which is what the white man does in North America – Living with inferior races is suffering and they contribute nothing – A nation that does not have a strong sense of community on all levels will not be able to compete with other nations – There will be struggle and bloodshed “the path of progress is strewn with the wrecks of nations”
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Cecil Rhodes, “I Had Signed Away The Mineral Rights of My Whole Country”
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“The whites are the greatest and they have to inhabit the entire continent”
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Why was the West bad to the indians? (Edward Said)
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– they take and sell really important parts of the land and exploiting the indians by bringing railroads and industry – less conservative morals
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Edmund Morel, “The Black Man’s Burden”
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– people living in these African communities are superior because of their ability to work the land and their systematic agriculture and industrial work
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Listed Motivations and Justifications for European Imperialism
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– natural resources (gold, diamonds) – competition with other international powers – Markets- place for finished manufactured products – justification: helping to restore peace – justification: social darwinism
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What were the Indians interested in that the West had to offer? (Naoroki, “Benefits of British Rule”)
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– more democratic gov – markets – better education and science
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What was Orientalism and the dialectic of the West and the East? (Edward Said)
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– Creates a dialectic of Occidental and the Oriental and the view of the Orient was not just based on lies and generalizations but Orientalizm is really powerful in showing the European power over the Orient – Orient has defined Europe as its contrasting image
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Sayyid Jamal ad-Din “Letter to Hasan Shirazi”
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– Conflict between the Shah and the people of India – Hasan Shirazi’s duty is to protect the rights of the people, he is in an authoritative position – The Shah is bad, he is incapable of governing, his heart is impure – Shah takes up less conservative traditions (wine drinking, associates with less religious) and has sold really important parts of the land, bank system to Europeans
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“Orientalism in Nineteenth-Centruy Art”
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– European artists were inspired by Eastern dress – Europeans and Easterns used to only have a connection through trade, but now aspects are showing up in the art – Harem setting evoked a sense of cultivated beauty which many Westerners aspired – The Easterns were depicted as backwards – Eastern setting provided a backdrop for religious works which was especially popular in Britain
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Thomas Habington Macaulay, “On Empire and Education”
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– English don’t know whether to keep the Indians ignorant and submissive or to enlighten them – They cannot be educated within their own language because it does not contain literary or scientific content, so the people willing to become educated will need to learn english because it’s just better – English is the language spoken by the ruling class (white superiority) – “a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia”
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Dadabhai Naoroki, “Benefits of British Rule” (1871)
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– Why British rule is beneficial for India – Helping people live more fulfilling lives and less violence – both female and male education – peace and freedom of speech, a more democratic gov
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Emperor Kuang Hsu, “Abolition of the Examination System, 1898”
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– Through research of European culture, language, religion, and armament, the emperor could see that they were not nearly as much on the same level – Although we need to industrialize, we have to keep the morals of the sages – Necessity to establish Western education because we are really below them especially in military
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“Two Proclamations of the Boxer Rebellion”
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– State how sinful the West is – Boxers are religious – The science is kind of witch crafty – They wish to “exterminate the Foreign Devils”
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Fei Ch-i-hao, “The Boxer Rebellion, 1900”
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– Newly appointed governor was a promoter for the Boxer movement and hated the foreigners – Incentive for others to kill the incoming foreigners – Ottoman empire and china show a rush to industrialize and they still are industrializing themselves – Since China was so weak they had the west forced upon them whereas Japan had a strong government so they had the ability to take on certain aspects that were the most beneficial
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Robert B. Ingersoll, “Should the Chinese Be Excluded”
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Context: American government was created to preserve liberty and the Exclusion Acts (1882) are denying that on a racial bias (“a great nation should be bound by the highest conception of justice”) – Explains how Americans are stupid because they only accept their own culture – Americans have the need to feel superior (this is a very popular justification on American and European imperialism) – Chinese are not doing any harm “they eat the bread that they earn” Americans punishing the Chinese after helping us is “barbarous” – Compares the Europeans and the Chinese showing how the Americans are excluding the Chinese, when the Europeans are the ones directly causing distress for the Americans – The Chinese can actually helps us in their special skills that we do not use in America (irrigation, physical labor) Significance: No one even really listens to Ingersoll. It is very ironic because we are excluding them, but we are beginning to give African Americans (different races) equal rights within the country
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Helen Hunt Jackson, “A Century of Dishonor”
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– It wasn’t unchartered and wasn’t really for American discovery, but the Native Americans were open to having them come in – The white government owes the native americans something, but the settlers should still be colonizing them – We have to start treating them like allies, they don’t have to live under our same law or even be our citizens in order to co-exist on the same territory – Inconsiderate to throw the citizenship on them
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Chief Joseph, “An indian’s Perspective”
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– Realization that rebellion and violence is necessary to make their voices heard – Too many misunderstandings between the two parties (American vs. NA) – Asking to be recognized as equal men and even says that they are willing to be under the same laws, but just to be able to live and trade like the white men do – When this is established there will be no more conflict or wars
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Motivations for US imperialism?
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– markets – China has an open-door policy which means that we can work with them and trade with them but we are not trying to annex them – competition and Europe impaired powers – Alfred Thuyer Mahan: military and naval bases (Hawaii) – Turner- Frontier Thesis (spreading democracy) – Social Darwinism, american exceptionalism – depression of the 1890s encouraged men to look for business abroad
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McKinley, “Declaration of War”
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– Cuba has tobacco, sugar, and coffee – American Trade was suffering because of Cuba’s issues with Spain – First: We believe by colonizing they are helping – Second: They are protecting them with life and liberty and no other government is able to do that – Third: If we do not watch over them, they are actually hurting us – Fourth: the condition of affairs proposes a threat to peace of American citizens – Had congress authorize a “forceful intervention” to get the Spaniards out – Teller Amendment: renouncing Cuba’s annexation – 1902 Platt Amendment: We will not control Cuba, but we reserve the right to get involved if necessary
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Anit-Imperialist thoughts on annexing the Philipines?
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– many influential americans were against the annexation of the Philippines, but they wanted expansion. – worried that Filipinos would flood the work force – Did not want to have the expenses of maintaining the Philippines as a colony
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Puerto Rico’s and Philipine’s role in the US?
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– Puerto Ricans and Philippines had second class citizenship in the United States – executive authority represented by an appointed governor – received a voice in the government as a nonvoting rep in the U.S. House of Rep
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William G. Sumner, “Professor Sumner Spurns Empire”
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– Saying how different people all over the world boast about how their mission is to civilize others because they are so civilized – We assume that the Spanish-Americans and Filipinos feel blessed that we are helping and saving them from their darkness, but that is so untrue – we are false and wrong and violating liberty
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“Beveridge Trumpets Imperialism”
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– promoting imperialism – The separations of true oceans binds us better with our neighbors – “steam joins us, electricity joins us” imperialism and industrialization – before when we were expanding there was no need for it because our products were not greater than the trade we could access – But today our land is too small, not enough work, industrial society congested, making more than we can use – When our government makes sure that Hawaii and Puerto Rico are safe, we will develop so much – expansion = opportunity
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Carl Schurz, “Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League”
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– Justifying anti-imperialism – Feels imperialism is against their goal and influences hostility to liberty – Explains how what they’re doing to the Filipinos is unnecessary – They will aid anyone who stands against forcible subjugation – “No man is good enough to govern another man without that man’s consent” (despotism) – Staying loyal to the constitution and the declaration of independence
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What was the vision of the West?
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rugged and less industrial lifestyle, but also the image of real Amercanism and democracy
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Turner Frontier Thesis
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individual image of what America should be like. It is the epitome of democracy, but it is fading because we are industrializing so we need to move on and expand

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