History Chapter 9 Study

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The two hemispheres were changed radically when?
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Columbus’s voyage
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America got its name because mapmakers wrongly believed ________ saw parts of the new world before Columbus
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Amerigo Vespucci
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Why did Columbus call the natives in the new world \”Indians\”?
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He thought that he was in India
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Demographers estimate the total population of the Western Hemisphere in the 1400s to be?
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70 million
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What destination was Columbus trying to reach on his initial voyage?
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Asia
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The most accurate assessment of contemporary history of the peoples of the Americas is that they?
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Crossed into America from Russia Siberia
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Today, increasing numbers of archaeologists have concluded the migrants to the Americas arrived no earlier than?
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9000 BCE
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The earliest civilization in North America was identified by a spear point which gave the group what name?
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Clovis
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The chinampas of the Amerindians in Central Mexico was a(n)
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agricultural technique
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The main crop grown by Amerindians was called?
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Maize
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By what year did copper reach Mexico?
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3000 BCE
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What is a milpa?
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a field used for farming
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What agricultural product when chewed increased stamina and kept individuals warm?
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Coca
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By what year did earthworks, or mounds, begin to appear in North America?
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2500 BCE
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Around 900 BCE the center of early Olmec culture was likely destroyed by?
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invaders from the north
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What was the largest city in Norte Chico?
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Caral
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What are khipu?
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knotted strings of cotton used for recording tax obligations and census records
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The richest concentration of mound buildings found in the Americas are where?
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in the Ohio and Mississippi valley
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The name for the Maya comes from what?
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Zamna, a Maya god
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The entire Maya region had about how many inhabitants?
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14 million
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What document gives us a Maya view of creation, good and evil, and the purpose of life?
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The Popul Vuh
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The largest Mayan religious ceremonial center was?
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Tikal
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Who established the city of Tula?
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Topiltzin
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An important mound building people who existed in present-day Ohio were the?
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Hopwell
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The leader of the Mississipian people had religious responsibilities and managed what?
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Long distance trade
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What led to the decline of the Hohokam and Anasazi?
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erosion of soil and drought
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The Mississipian mound builders were strongly influenced by?
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Mesoamerica
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What group established itself near the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in Illinois?
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Cahokia
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The Cahokia mounds represent the culture of the?
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Hopewell people
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The early Mexica or Aztec people settled on the shores and island of what body of water?
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Lake Texcoco
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The Aztec success in conquering Mexico can be attributed primarily to their?
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association of war to part of their faith
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According to the Aztecs, what did the sun need to keep moving across the sky?
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Human blood/hearts
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To gather sacrificial victims, The Aztecs sometimes went on campaigns called?
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Flower Wars
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The name Huitzilpochtili translates as?
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Blue Humming Bird of the South
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What was the feathered serpent god?
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Quetzalcoatl
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What was the capital city of the Aztecs?
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Tenochtitlan
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In the Aztec society, the head of the family was both a ________ and _______
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warrior and provider
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In Aztec society, social status and mobility depended on?
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Military performance
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The Aztec’s first king came from what group?
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The Toltecs
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The techutli were?
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provincial governors
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In his first campaign, if a boy captured a prisoner he would become a _____, or Warrior
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iyac
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Scholars today believe that Aztec emperors were ________ by royal family
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Elected
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In Aztec society, the Maceualtin were considered
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military service and honor
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Andean culture depended primarily on?
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potatoes
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What group/s preceded the Inca in their rule in ancient Peru?
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Chavin and Moche
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What name was given to the Inca language?
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Quechua
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Inca rulers sought to prevent rebellion by?
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deporting conquered peoples to new areas
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what aided in the growth of communication in the Inca empire?
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roads
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The Inca king Atauhualpa encountered the initial Spaniards entering the kingdom led by whom?
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Pizzaro
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The _____, or clan served as the fundamental social unit of Inca society
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ayllu
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The mita in the empire was?
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the system of conscripting labor from villages
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During the marriage ceremony, what did the bride and groom exchange?
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A pair of sandals
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The Spaniards referred to the Inca nobility as?
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Big Ears
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The Curaces were the _______ who conducted relations with outsiders
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headmen
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In Inca society the state required everyone to?
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marry
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The word for Inca nobility was?
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Oregones
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How did the Aztecs get to the Americas?
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They crossed Bering strait during Ice Age
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What led the Aztecs to settle in Central America?
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availability of water in the Valley of Mexico
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In what way were the Aztecs more advanced than their Eruropean counterpart?
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The number zero
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What was the main material that the aztecs tools were made from?
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Stone
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When did the Aztecs actually reach the valley of Central America?
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1250 BCE
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On what lake did the Aztecs settle upon?
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Lake Texcoco
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How were the aztecs supposed to know where they were supposed to build their capital city?
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Eagle sitting on a cactus eating a serpent
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What was the capital city of the Aztecs?
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Tenochtitlan
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Who were the two temples and the pyramid honoring in Tenochtitlan?
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Sun, war, and rain gods
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How large was the Aztec empire?
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100,000 square miles
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How many people did the Aztecs have under their control?
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15 Million
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In 1494, How many hearts were cut out in only four days?
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20 thousand
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Who was he greatest king of the Aztecs?
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Montezuma
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Whose return was Montezuma afraid of?
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Quetzalcoatl
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Who was the Spanish leader that landed in Mexico?
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Cortes
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Who divided the new world between the Spanish and the Portuguese?
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The Pope
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Who served as a translator between the Aztecs and the Spanish?
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Marina
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Why was the Spanish weaponry and Horses so intimidating to the Aztecs?
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The Spanish claimed their horses were sent by god
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Why did Cortes’ men attack the Aztecs during the festival?
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To prevent human sacrifice
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Who killed Montezuma?
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Cortes
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Who did Cortes kill in order to escape the Aztecs?
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An Aztec chieftan
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What killed most of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan?
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A plague- small pox
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How many troops did Cortes bring with him in his second round against the Aztecs?
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100,000
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What did the Aztec empire become known as after the conquest?
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New Spain
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What city was built on top of Tenochtitlan?
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Mexico City
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Where was the Maya civilization located?
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Tekan
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What type of writing system did the Maya use?
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Hieroglyphics
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Between what dates did the Maya civilization flourish?
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250-900CE
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How did missionaries destroy Mayan history?
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They burnt Mayan religious texts, scientific documents, and literature
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How many books were salvaged from Maya civilization?
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four
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With what subject did the Maya associate their mathematics?
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a complex system of astronomy
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What country would eventually decipher the Mayan glyphs?
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Russia
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What did the Maya kings use as repayment to the gods?
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Blood
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What happened to the losers of the early Maya games?
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They were sacrificed to the Gods
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What do modern shamans use to make sacrifices to the gods?
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chicken blood
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Why did the Mayan civilization come to an end?
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The people lost faith in their kings

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