history Ch. 20

who was sentenced to death in a controversial criminal trial?
Nicola Sacco

the trial and execution of Nicola Sacco and Bartolommeo Vanzetti demonstrated that:
the Red Scare extended into the 1920s

What did Calvin Coolidge believe was the chief business of the American people?
business

Railroads were to the late nineteenth century what __ were to the 1920s.
cars

Why did new industries in electronics and chemicals increase their productivity and output so significantly in the 1920s?
they successfully applied Ford’s moving assembly line technology.

During the 1920s, American multinational corporations:
extended their reach throughout the world

Who became the world’s leader in office supplies in the 1920s?
International Business Machines

During the 1920s, consumer goods:
included vacuum cleaners and washing machines, which Americans paid for exclusively in cash.

In the 1920s, movies, radios, and phonographs:
helped create and spread a new celebrity culture.

During the 1920s:
an estimated 40 percent of the population remained in poverty.

Agriculture in the 1920s:
experienced declining incomes and increased bank foreclosures.

Labor unions lost members in the 1920s for all except what reason?
through collective bargaining, labor unions had secured a national eight-hour day

In the 1920s, employers embraced the American Plan, which:
advocated the “open shop”

The Equal Rights Amendment:
proposed to eliminate all legal distinctions based on sex.

For the feminist woman in the 1920s, freedom meant:
the right to choose her lifestyle

The flapper:
epitomized the change in standards of sexual behavior

Which would not be considered a characteristic of a flapper?
advocated temperance

In their 1920s study, Middletown, Robert and Helen Lynd:
argued that leisure and consumption had replaced political involvement

Which statement about politics in the 1920s is false?
women took an active role in national politics, mostly with the Republican Party

During the 1920s:
government policies reflected the pro-business ethos of the decade

President Harding’s call for a return to normalcy meant:
a call for the regular order of things, without Progressive reform

The administration of what president was plagued with scandals?
Warren Harding

The Teapot Dome scandal involved:
the secretary of the interior, who received money in exchange for leasing government oil reserves to private companies.

Calvin Coolidge had won national fame for:
using state troops against striking Boston policemen in 1919

Robert La Follette ran for president in 1924:
as a Progressive Party candidate

American foreign policy during the 1920s:
reflected the close relationship between government and business

What is an example of foreign policy designed to improve American business prospects?
suppressing a nationalist revolt in Nicaragua

“Banned in Boston” referred to:
a book ban in the city, including books by Ernest Hemingway.

The Hays Code:
prohibited movies depicting nudity, long kisses, and adultery.

In Schenck vs. U.S, the Supreme Court:
ruled that bans on dangerous speech were unconstitutional

Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis:
crafted an intellectual defense of civil liberties during the 1920s

All of the statements about Prohibition during the 1920s are true, except:
religious fundamentalists opposed Prohibition on the grounds that it violated freedom

The Scopes trial illustrated a divide between:
modernism and fundamentalism

During the Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, the defense lawyer, questioned whom as a supposedly expert witness about the Bible?
William Jennings Bryan

The Scopes trial of 1925:
pitted creationists against evolutionists

Many forces predisposed Ku Klux Klan members to accept the group’s exclusionary message without much analysis. These forces included all but:
Coolidge’s economic policies

Regarding public education, in 1922, Oregon:
banned private schools

The Ku Klux Klan:
flourished in the early 1920s, especially in the North and West

All of the following statements about the 1924 Immigration Act are true except:
the 1924 Immigration Act sought to ensure that more immigrants came from southern Europe than from northern Europe

Why did the 1924 Immigration law not impose limits on migration from the Western Hemisphere?
Large growers in California relied heavily on seasonal Mexican labor

Which group was first identified with the term “illegal alien”?
Southern and Eastern Europeans

Besides the family, the institutions most supportive of separate ethnic identities for immigrants were:
the Naturalization and Immigration Service

Cultural pluralism:
described a society that accepted ethnic diversity

In response to immigration restrictions and the Klan, southern and eastern Europeans:
reinvented themselves as ethnic Americans

What are the National Catholic Welfare Council and the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith lobbying for in the 1920s?
laws prohibiting discrimination against immigrants by employers, colleges, and government agencies.

Meyer vs. Nebraska
overturned a law that stated public schools would instruct classes in English only

In 1923, the Meyer vs. Nebraska decision:
was a startling reversal in the cause of Americanization

Which city was considered the “capital” of black America in the 1920s?
New York

According to Andre Siegfried, what did Americans consider to be a “sacred acquisition”?
a standard of living

“Slumming” meant:
whites going to Harlem’s dancehalls, jazz clubs, and speakeasies

The Harlem Renaissance:
included writers and poets such as Langston Hughes and Claude McKay

Which issue became the focus of the 1928 presidential race?
the fact that Alfred Smith was catholic

In 1928, Herbert Hoover:
called for a repeal of prohibition

the great depression was caused by all factors except:
increased government regulation of banking and stock market

a main cause of the great depression was:
declining American purchasing power

the great depression shaped the lives of Americans in all the following ways except:
the American suicidal rate declined

President Hoover responded to the onset of the depression by:
reassuring Americans that “the tide had turned”

the Hawley-Smoot Tariff:
raised taxes on imported goods

Hoover’s response to the depression included all but:
a tax increase

the Reconstruction Finance Corporation:
make loans to failing business