History 1301 Exam 2, Chapters 4,5,6 Essay

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Olaudah Equiano (fell in the blank)
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His autobiography was the eighteenth century’s most widely read account by a slave of a slave’s own experiences
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African and the slave trade
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The Atlantic slave trade’s effect in West Africa had distorted and weakened West Africa’s economy and society
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Chesapeake slavery
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Tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism
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The development of rice plantations in South Carolina led to a black majority in that colony by 1770, and The _______ assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of these jobs
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Task System
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The Georgia Experiment
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Georgia was established by James Oglethorope, whose cause included improved conditions for imprisoned debtors and the abolition of slavery. However, colonist sought self-government to gain the right to introduce slavery.
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Slavery in the North
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In the northern colonies, slaves made up only a small percentage of the colonies population
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Becoming African American
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~ Slaves learned English ~ Slaves participated in the Great Awakening ~ Slaves were exposed to white culture ~ Slaves began to reproduce
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Gullah
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The language (with mixed African roots) spoken by African-America slaves on the rice plantations of South Carolina, and Georgia
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Resistance slavery
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Slave resistance in the 18th century included rebellions in both northern and southern colonies that led to the deaths of several of those
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The Stone Rebellion / September 9th 1739
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The participants in South Carolina’s stone rebelling included some who apparently had been soldiers in Africa. ~ The 1741 panic in New York city that led to 34 executing was sparked by a plan to burn the city
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During the 18th century, ________ placed great importance on the idea of Britain being the freest nation
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British Patriotism
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John Locke
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~ Political philosophy stressed a contract system between the people and the government ~ His belief in democracy meant that if a majority wanted to own slaves, they should be free to do so this is how he reconciled his belief in natural rights and how he supported slavery
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The right to vote
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In comparison to British politics colonists tended to agree with the British that owns property was related to having the right to vote ~ During the 18th century about 50 to 80% adult white males could vote in colonial British America ~ Property qualifications for holding office meant that the landed gentry wielded considerable power in colonial legislature
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Colonial Press
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The Boston News-Letter was the first continuously published newspaper in the British colonies of North America, serving for 72 years
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The Trail of Zenger
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John Peter Zenger’s liberal trial properly would not have ended in his house acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor ~ As a result of John Peter Zenger’s trial freedom of expression was becoming ingrained in colonial society
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The American Enlightment
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The America versi0n of the Enlightment had no impact on religion ~ Deists shared the ideas of the 18th century European Enlightment thinkers, meanly that science could uncovered laws that governed that natural order rather than god ~ Deists concluded that the best form of religious devotion was to study the working of nature
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The Great Awakening
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~ It involved several denominations, not just Congregationalists ~ It increased social tensions because ministers criticized certain aspects of colonial society commercialism and slavery ~ It was a transalitics movement, not just an America one ~ The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minsters was George Whitefield ~Revivalists percales during The Great Awakening frequently criticized commercial society ~ In the 18th century, the Spanish Empire in North America was thinly populated and weaker economically than the British Colonies
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Junipero Serra
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Wanted to convert Indians to Christianity and settled to farming.
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The Seven Year’s War
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The French and Indian war began because some American colonists felt that lane was encroaching on land claimed by the Ohio company.
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Proclamation Line
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The Proclamation of 1763 primary purpose was to bring stability to the colonial frontier
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Pennsylvania and the Indians
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Paxton Boys apposed Indians in Pennsylvania
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Albany Plea of Union was drafted by?
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Benjamin Franklin
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7 years war
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~ To fight the sevens years war Britain borrowed from banks and individual investors ~ The Seven years war was a major event which first led the British government to seek ways to make the colonies bear port of the cost of the empire
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George Greenville
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First Lord of the Treasury and later Prime Minister who was responsible for some of the most outlandish taxes on the American colonies, including the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act.
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Great Britain’s Debt
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Great Britain’s debt from colonial wars was 150 million pounds. This would be the Equivalent of tens of trillions of dollars in today’s money ~ England is taxed First
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Writs of Assistance
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General search warrants that allowed custom officials to search anywhere they chose for smuggled goods
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The American Revenue Act of 1764
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So called Sugar Act, was a law that attempted to curb the smuggling of sugar and molasses in the colonies by reducing the previous tax rate and enforcing the collection of duties
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The Sugar Act
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Alarmed colonists because it would be more difficult to evade paying the tax on Molasses.
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The 1764 Currency Act
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Was a law passed by British Parliament to regulate the issue and legal tender status of paper money in the colonial economy. ~ This act was an extension of the that applied to New England colonies, the 1764 Currency Act applied the same principles to all British colonies in America.
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The Stamp act
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What did the Stamp Act Tax? Legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, beer, playing cards ~ The Stamp Act created such a stir in the colonies because it was the first direct tax Parliament imposed on the colonies
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What contribution did the Stamp Act episode make to the colonists’ concept of liberty?
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The Stamp Act Congress insisted that the right to consent to taxation was essential to people’s freedom.
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The resistance of the colonies against being taxed has its roots in the slogan “_________”. They believed that when they are taxed the government takes away their private property and they would have the right to do so only with the permission of its citizens. Since they had no representation in parliament they had no right to tax its colonial residents.
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No taxation without representation
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“No taxation without representation”
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was the argument that the colonist used To protest the Stamp Act.
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Virtual representation
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Which held that each member represented the entire empire, not just his own district .Which was based on the belief that a member of parliament virtually represented every person in the empire and there was no need for a specific representative from Virginia or Massachusetts
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Patrick Henry Declared
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” Give me liberty or give me death,”
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The Sons of Liberty
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Led New York colonists’ protests of the Stamp Act.
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The attack by Massachusetts colonists
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On the home of lieutenant governor and chief justice Thomas Hutchinson demonstrated the depths of feelings aroused by Britain’s efforts to impose more control over the empire.
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The Declaratory Act
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Rejected American claims that only their elected representatives could levy taxes.
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Violent social turmoil in rural areas during the 1760s
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involved events in both northern and southern colonies.
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In South Carolina the Regulators were
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wealthy frontiersmen
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Massachusetts radical James Otis said
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“The passage of the Sugar Act set people a thinking, in six months, more than they had done in their whole lives before”
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Why did the colonist protest?
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It was the first direct tax on the colonist , which they felt was placed on them without their consent.
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So what’s significant about the Stamp Act?
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It’s the first direct tax levied by Parliament directly upon the colonists. It’s not a duty on shipping. It’s a tax levied by Parliament directly upon the colonists and what they’re purchasing in the colonies.
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Patrick Henry
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was an American attorney, planter and politician who became known as an orator during the movement for independence in Virginia in the 1770s. (Possible Bonus)
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Committees of Correspondence Organization
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founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. Each committee was responsible for recording the most important events occurring in their colony and sending that information on to the other colonies.
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The Sons of Liberty
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was an organization of patriots that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies. The secret society was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to fight the abuses of taxation by the British government. ~ The Sons of Liberty led New York colonists’ protests of the Stamp Act.
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The Regulators
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were an armed group of wealthy frontiersmen motivated by deep frustrations with the corruption of North Carolina’s county officials
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The Townshend Act did all of the following
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~ One act suspended the New York legislature until it complied with the Quartering Act of 1765, which required legislatures to house and provide supplies to British troops stationed in the colonies. ~ Another act imposed import duties on tea, lead, paper, paint, and glass ~ The third act allowed tea to be imported to the colonies free of the taxes that were levied in Great Britain. ~ The fourth act restructured the customs service in the colonies, placing its headquarters in Boston.
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The “____________” was the name given to women who spun and wove to create their own clothing rather than buy British goods
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“Daughters of Liberty”
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Day to day resistance
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Was the most common form of opposition to slavery
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Boston Massacre
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The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans.
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Tea Act
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Was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.Its principal overt objective was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company in its London warehouses and to help the struggling company survive. ~ Colonists objected to the Tea Act because they felt that by paying it, they would be acknowledging Great Britain’s right to tax the colonists.
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Boston Tea Party (1773)
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A shipment of the East India Company’s tea arrived in Boston harbor, but there were no buyers. Before the royal governor could arrange to bring the tea ashore, a group of Bostonians disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded the British ships, and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor.
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Intolerable Acts
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In retaliation of the Boston Tea Party, the British government enacted a series of punitive acts (the Coercive Acts), together with a separate act dealing with French Canada (the Quebec Act). The colonists were outraged by these various laws.
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Quartering Act
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Enable British troops to be quartered in private homes. It applied to all colonies.
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The Continental Congress
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was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution. The Congress met from 1774 to 1789
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Suffolk Resolves
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were a set of resolutions made in 1774, urging Massachusetts citizens to prepare for war.
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In the years immediately before the American Revolution, the concept of natural rights:
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greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson’s early writings.
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Americans in the 13 colonies
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Became divided in their feelings toward Great Britain. About 1/3 of the colonists supported England. They wanted to remain English and loyal to King George III of England. They called themselves Loyalists or Tories.
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The Treaty of Paris
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Ended the Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States, it recognized American independence and established borders for the new nation
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In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson’s biggest influence in regards to natural rights came from
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John Locke.
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All of the following were advantages enjoyed by the British during the American Revolution:
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The world’s best navy. • A professionally trained army. • The ability to recruit German soldiers to fight for the British •experienced military commanders.
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The following were significant battles during the first year of the Revolutionary War:
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Lexington and Concord, which included “the shot heard ’round the world”
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Black soldiers during the American Revolution :
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• Rhode Island, which had a relatively high black population for New England, formed a black regiment. • George Washington initially refused to allow black recruits but later changed his mind. • Blacks and whites served together in racially integrated Continental army units.
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Fort Ticonderoga
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where soldiers commanded by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold forced a British surrender.
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Breed’s Hill
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where the British suffered heavy casualties trying to dislodge colonial militiamen
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The Siege of Boston
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which culminated in Sir William Howe’s troops abandoning the city.
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The Declaration of Independence
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~ Promoted the idea that America could serve as a model for the rest of the world. ~ Is a fundamental document establishing the United States as a nation, adopted on July 4, 1776. The declaration was ordered and approved by the Continental Congress and written largely by Thomas Jefferson.
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Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
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American political philosopher and author: he urged an immediate declaration of independence from England in his anonymously and simply written pamphlet, Common Sense.
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The expulsion of the journalist John Wilkes
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from his seat in Parliament: symbolized the threat to liberty for many in both Britain and America
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Committees of Safety
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were part of a series of efforts by the Continental Congress to promote unity and to take action against enemies of liberty.
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The principle of hereditary aristocracy was rejected by Americans
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This was a result of the American Revolution
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Inequality had been fundamental to colonial social order
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The revolution challenged the meaning of freedom in many ways
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In the wake of the American Revolution it was used to express “Greater equality inspired by _________”
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The struggle for independence
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Pennsylvania adopted a new state constitution that sought to institutionalize democracy by concentrating power in a ________, elected men over 21
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One person house legislature
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The revolutionary was _______ in Pennsylvania was displaced based on the artisan and lower class communities
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Radical Potential
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John Adams 1776 published “______”, which insisted that the new constitution should create balanced governments whose structure with reflects the division of society between the wealthy (“upper”) ordinary man and the (“lower”) lower class
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Thoughts of government
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The right to vote
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The new state constitution created during the Revolutionary War greatly expanded the right to vote in almost every state ~ Issues regarding voting was owning property
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Catholic Americans
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The War of Independence affected anti-Catholicism in America because the alliance with France, a predominantly catholic country, helped demolish American anti-Catholicism
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Separating church from state
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Despite the rhetoric of religious freedom, such as limiting office holding Christians
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Jefferson and Religious Liberty
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As a result of the religious freedom created by the revolution upstart churches began challenging the wall established churches
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Christian Republicanism a Righters Community
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Christian republicanism is a scholarly idea that was motivated by a fear of corruption and
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“invisible hand”
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refers to free market

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