HIS 112 (Medieval History) Final Study Guide (URI) (Koster)

Flashcard maker : Bettina Hugo
Between 800 and 1000, Western Europe was
(c) divided, invaded, and reorganized.
Which is an area untouched by Viking raiders?
(c) Italy.
In the 9th century, the “Danelaw” was
(c) part of Britain then under Danish control.
Alfred the Great
(a) united all of non-Danish England under his authority.
The textbook talks of West and East Francia. Most of West Francia eventually became the kingdom of France. Most of East Francia became part of
(c) the Holy Roman Empire.
Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of early feudalism?
[(a) public power in private hands.
(b) the lord-vassal tie.
(c) powerful kingship.]
(c) powerful kingship.
A critical new technology in the development of feudalism was
(b) the stirrup.
Which match is NOT correct?
[(a) Louis the Pious: Charlemagne’s heir.
(b) Otto: Holy Roman Empire.
(c) Hugh Capet: Saxony.]
(c) Hugh Capet: Saxony.
Hugh, Earl of Chester died
(c) as a monk.
The Treaty of Verdun in 843
(b) divided Charlemagne’s empire among his three grandsons.
The ninth and tenth centuries were a time of renewed pressure on Europeans from
(b) Viking raiders, Magyar horsemen, and Muslim pirates.
Around the year 1000, Italy was
(b) politically dominated by bishops and their cities.
In West Francia c. 1000, which BEST describes the political situation?
(c) Rule by papacy.
In East Francia c. 1000, which of the following was established?
(b) a Holy Roman Empire.
In Italy c. 1000,
(a) autonomous cities dominated their regions.
The treaty of Verdun in 843 divided
(b) the Carolingian empire into thirds.
Alfred the Great (e. 871-899) began the process of consolidating power in
(a) England.
The story of Lady Godiva is about
(b) Coventry and tolls.
Primogeniture means
(b) inheritance by first-born son.
Which best summarizes the circumstances of the medieval West, Byzantium, and Islamic states between 1000 and 1300?
(a) the West began to prosper, while the fortunes of Byzantium and Islam declined.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the Agricultural Revolution?
(c) Europeans began to eat more vegetables than ever before.
Most medieval peasants lived within three critical institutions: manors, villages, and
(b) parishes.
Masters, apprentices and journeymen were regulated by medieval
(a) guilds.
Burghers or burgesses
(b) lived in cities and towns.
Manorialism allowed medieval elites
(a) to extract wealth from the peasantry.
Godric of Finchale ended his life as a hermit, but before that he made a fortune as
(b) a seafaring merchant.
Historians talk about a “communal movement” in medieval Europe. The medieval commune
(c) had a charter guaranteeing its own government, courts, taxes, and customs.
Usury was
(a) the loaning of money at interest.
The Central Middle Ages are dated in your textbook as circa
(a) 1000-1300.
Which came first in the expanding economy of the Central Middle Ages?
(c) The agricultural revolution.
Godric of Finchale lived for 100 years and during his life he was both
(c) a merchant and a hermit.
A burgher or burgess c. 1200 would have been found most often in a
(a) town.
At the castle of Canossa in 1077, what critical event occurred?
(a) Emperor Henry IV humbled himself before Pope Gregory VII.
Of all early universities, the greatest was in
(b) Paris.
The Papacy reached its greatest power under
(c) Innocent III, c. 1200.
The Investiture Controversy involved
(a) lay authority over clergy.
The papalist position argued that the pope was the head of Christendom, the imperialist position argued that the Holy Roman Emperor should rule in matters religious as well as temporal, and the clericalist position argued that
(b) Church and state should coexist.
The shift “from memory to written record”
(c) speaks to an increase in the use of government and personal documentation.
In consolidating the Papal States, popes faced
(a) rebellions in Rome.
Lombardy is located
(a) north of Rome.
Which of the following was NOT an object of papal reform? :
[(a) improve the moral character of the clergy.
(b) reclaim authority over the Eastern Orthodox Church.
(c) limit lay influence over Church matters.]
(b) reclaim authority over the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Gregorian reform is named after Pope Gregory VII who ruled
(a) 1073-1085.
Compared to 1000, the papacy in 1300 was
(b) less powerful.
The Fourth Lateran Council meet in 1215. Who presided?
(c) Innocent III.
“Canon” law is
(b) ecclesiastical law.
The struggle of pope and emperor over “lay investiture” concerned
(b) lay control of Church appointments.
Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) is associated with
(c) the Cistercian reform.
The most troubling heretics of the Central Middle Ages were the
(a) Cathars.
Which match is NOT correct? :
[(a) Poor Clares: nursing.
(b) Franciscans: poverty.
(c) Dominicans: preaching.]
(a) Poor Clares: nursing.
Moses Maimonides sought to reconcile Judaism and
(b) the writings of Aristotle.
The carved oak figure known today as the Gero Cross is an example of a shift toward a greater emphasis on
(a) Christ’s redemptive suffering.
The Fourth Lateran Council met in
(b) 1215.
Talmud, Kabbalah, Maimonides. All these speak to
(a) the piety of medieval Jews.
Which came first?
[(a) Cistercian monks.
(b) Dominican and Franciscan friars.
(c) Cluniac monks.]
(b) Dominican and Franciscan friars.
John and Giovanni; William and Guglielmo; Thomas and Tommaso. These are examples of
(b) the Europeanization of Europe.
The term “Reconquest” is usually used with reference to
(a) Christian advance against Muslim lands in Iberia.
In the eleventh century, Sicily and the southern Italian peninsula fell under the control of
(c) Normans.
German expansion was mostly to the
(b) east.
The First Crusade was preached by Pope Urban II in 1095. It
(b) captured Jerusalem.
The “military orders” were designed to accommodate
(b) ordinary people who wanted to participate in the crusades.
In the history of Jewish-Christian relations in the Middles Ages, the twelfth century marks the beginning of
(c) violent persecutions of Jews by Christians.
A great solidier and leader, Richard the Lion-Hearted was also
[(a) a crusader.
(b) a relentless collector of taxes.
(c) both.]
(c) both.
((a crusader.
AND a relentless collector of taxes.))
Robert Guiscard and Sichelgaita were associated with
(c) Italy.
From 1100, Germans began to expand their influence in which direction?
(c) eastwards into Slavic lands.
The medieval crusader states were established in modern-day
(b) Israel, Lebanon, and Syria.
After c. 1250, the Holy Roman Empire
(c) was a weak confederation.
Louis IX of France ruled from 1226 to 1270. He is associated with
(b) royal sanctity.
Blanche of Castile (1182-1252)
(b) saved the Capetian monarchy.
Between 1000 and 1300, the Holy Roman Empire
(b) disintegrated.
After 1250, the Italian peninsula was controlled by
(c) regional principalities.
The Angevin Empire refers to lands held by
(a) Henry II of England, c. 1175.
Between 1000 and 1300, monarchs in France
(b) exercised power only in the region surrounding Paris.
Edward I subdued Wales, devastated Scotland, and
(a) used parliament to make new law.
Which match is NOT correct?
[(a) Hildegarde of Bingen: mysticism.
(b) Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica.
(c) Averroes: founder of Oxford University.]
(c) Averroes: founder of Oxford University.
With its vaulted ribs, pointed arches, and flying buttresses, Gothic cathedrals were able to
(c) eliminate supporting columns in the nave.
Compared to lyrics, epics, and romances, fabliaux were enjoyed by audiences that were
(b) more humble in social rank.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) wrote The Divine Comedy. He also wrote lyrics inspired by
(c) his unconsummated love for Beatrice.
Which statement about Roman law principles is most accurate?
(b) They were especially influential in English law.
The debate over universals concerned whether
(c) Platonic archetypes (or ideals) were real.
Robert Grossteste and Roger Bacon were important
(c) scientists.
Peter Abelard died in 1142. Thomas Aquinas died in
(c) 1274.
Galen, Ibn Sina, and Salerno are associated with
(c) medicine.
Bologna, Gratian, and the Roman Emperor Justinian are associated with
(a) law.
John of Salisbury (c. 1115-1180) argued that
(c) Christians must obey a king but could kill a tyrant.
Hildegard of Bingen (c. 1098-1179) was a composter, medical scholar, theologian, playwright, and political consultant. She derived her authority especially from her
(c) mysticism.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) wrote his poetry in
(c) Italian.
Which words best characterize a typical Gothic cathedral?
(a) pointed arches; flying buttresses, light.
The Great Famine occurred in
(b) 1315-22.
Which was the buzzword of the renaissance?
(a) humanism.
After the Great Plague, what happened to serfdom in Western Europe?
(c) it declined.
Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of urban economies after 1348?
(b) technological innovation dramatically declined.
The “nobility of the robe” signal the importance of
(b) royal service.
The “conciliar movement” sought to limit the authority of
(b) popes.
Catherine of Siena is an example of the importance of what trend in late medieval Christianity?
(b) mysticism.
The fourteenth and fifteen centuries—for medieval European kingdoms, the Byzantine empire, and Islamic states in the southern Mediterranean—are best characterized as
(b) a violent and unsettled time.
Which of the following did not happen to peasants in western Europe after the Great Plague?
(b) revolts stopped.
Historical demographers estimate that Europe c. 1300 had
(c) too many people.
Between 1309 and 1376, popes lived in Avignon which is today located in
(b) southern France.
Which statement BEST summarizes Muslim presence in western Europe c. 1300?
(a) Muslims controlled Sicily, Spain, and southern Italy.
John Hus and John Wycliffe were both
(c) heretics.
“Sovereignty” means
(b) unchallenged authority over a state.
In consolidating power, late medieval kings faced two main challenges. Which was NOT a major challenge?
(c) peasantry.
Which of the following statements about the Hundred Years War (1337-1453) is correct?
(c) It provoked the intervention of Joan of Arc.
Louis XI (r. 1461-1483)
(b) subdued the aristocrats of France.
Who dominated Russia c. 1500?
(b) Muscovite princes.
The story of William Tell is a symptom of the growing importance of
(b) nationalism.
The Hapsburg dynasty first took root in
(c) the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles VI who ruled in France from 1380 to 1422 was
(b) mentally instable.
York; Lancaster; the Wars of the Roses. These are all pertinent to
(a) aristocratic factionalism in late medieval England.
After 1328,
(b) the English king claimed the right to be king of France too.
Joan of Arc intervened in the
(b) Hundred Years’ War.
For most of the Later Middle Ages, Russia was under the control of
(a) Mongols.
“New monarchs” are so called because they
(c) consolidated power.
In 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured
(b) Constantinople.
After 1347-50, the proportion of literate people
(a) increased.
Hans Behem
(a) preached radical ideas.
Francesco Petrarch died in
(b) 1374.
The gothic architecture of the Later Middle Ages stressed
(a) height and decoration.
Which of the following was NOT a late medieval trend in political thought?
[(a) the clericalist position (different jurisdictions for church and state) gained more support than before.
(b) a practical interest in nitty-gritty matters of governance developed.
(c) the divine right of kings became the predominant justification for royal power.]
(c) the divine right of kings became the predominant justification for royal power.
Which of the following statements about William of Ockham is NOT true?
[(a) he favored papal supremacy.
(b) he severed the bonds between revelation and reason.
(c) he was a radical empiricist.]
(a) he favored papal supremacy.
Marsilio Ficino translated the works of
(c) Plato.
Donatello’s David expresses
(b) the influence of Greco-Roman traditions.
When more literature was written in vernacular languages after c. 1300, what else also spread?
(a) literacy.
Francesco Petrarch is associated with
(a) the development of the Italian language.

{Tentative answer}

Late Gothic churches were
(a) highly decorated and ornate.
In late medieval universities, St. Thomas Aquinas’s enthusiasm in the power of reason was
(a) accepted.
In later medieval political theory on church-state relations, which position was most compelling?
(c) clericalism (separate jurisdictions for kings and popes).

{Tentative answer}

The “renaissance”
(a) was a rebirth from a dead medieval past.
Marsilio Ficino, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, & Nicholas of Cusa are associated with a late medieval revival of
(b) Neoplatonism.
In late medieval culture,
(a) death was everywhere.

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