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HGD Chapter 13 Essay

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After a divorce, children tend to feel pressured to choose sides between the mother and father, and may experience a degree of divided loyalty by the age of ____ years.
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10
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Sally’s adolescent classmates call her and the other 125 members of her advanced computer software group “nerds,” meaning she is part of a
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crowd
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Adolescents’ views of societal problems are
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ones with which their parents would be likely to agree.
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Which of the following is a reason for the decline in the fertility rate?
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women joining the workforce
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If an adolescent student is liked by some and disliked by others, that adolescent is considered
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controversial
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With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT
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most children of divorce who choose sides after the divorce never regain relationships with the both parents.
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According to Damon, the first stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is basing friendship on
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others’ behavior
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According to Damon, when Martha (who is 8 years old) was asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that she responded:
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“Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it.”
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Frederick is living in a specialized living environment where all residents are of retirement age and in need of some level of care. Frederick is in a(n)
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continuing-care community
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A young man who sees his father as a powerful figure who maintains discipline, and who is taught that it is his responsibility to care for his parents throughout his lifetime, is likely to be
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Asian America
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What percent of people over the age of 65 live with family members?
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66%
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Which of the following is the best example of functional play?
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skipping or jumping
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When Anna uses Legos to build a playhouse, or puts a puzzle together, this is an example of
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constructive play
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All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to have children EXCEPT
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to get financial gain from governmental benefits programs such as tax breaks and welfare.
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A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and worldviews is known as
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generation gap.
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Which of the following is NOT a reason why boomerang children return home to live with middle-aged parents?
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middle-age parents miss their children
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Children and adolescents who are uniformly disliked are called
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Immediately after a divorce, both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustment for a period that may last from
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6 months to 2 years.
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Juanita is feeling stressed today because her children need help with their homework while her elderly parents need someone to take them grocery shopping. Juanita is a member of the
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sandwich generation.
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In preschool one day, five children decided to help each other build a fort with the items that were available to them. Each child took it upon him/herself to find objects in the classroom that could be put together to build a fort. This is an example of
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associative play.
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According to your author, the motivation of middle-school-age girls to solve conflict among friends is due to
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the desire to maintain an equal-status relationship lacking in dominance hierarchy.
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All of the following reasons are explanations as to why people become friends EXCEPT
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social standing and financial security.
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Allison is well liked by the other members of her swim team, but not well liked by other adolescent girls in her homeroom class. Allison would be considered
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controversial
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The segregation of friendships according to gender occurs
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in almost all societies and in non-industrialized societies.
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Raul and Raymond are 4 and 5 years old, and the main benefit they get out of being “best” friends is
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trust, support, and shared interests.
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In the 1930s, 70% of Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have was _________. In the 1990s, Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have is _________.
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3 or more; no more than two, although three or more is ideal if money is no object
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What type of play involves action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other?
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parallel play
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Constructive play is typical of
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4-year-old
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Grace’s care needs have increased since her husband’s death. She has moved into an independent housing unit, which is supported by medical providers as needed. Grace is living in a(n)
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assisted-living facility
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“Companionate” grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT they
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hold clear expectations about the way their grandchildren should behave.
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What statement is true regarding financial issues in late adulthood?
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Social inequities that various socioeconomic groups experience during their earlier lives become magnified with increasing age.
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Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called
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cliques
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After Kathy and Bob’s son leaves for college, they have feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression. They are experiencing
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empty nest syndrome.
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Which term below refers to the experience that relates to parents’ feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their children’s departure from home?
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empty nest syndrome
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Groups of people with whom one compares oneself are called
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reference group
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Children living in poverty experience many more disruptions than do children in socioeconomically secure environments. Examples of these disruptions include all of the following EXCEPT
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living in single-parent households.
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What percent of elderly people live in self-described senior housing that provides a number of supportive services?
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5%
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People who negotiate retirement most successfully are those who see it as a(n)
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opportunity for development and exploration.
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Three children in the preschool class are working to complete puzzles, and they all take turns fitting in the pieces. This is an example of
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cooperative play
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What percent of people age 65 to 74 live in nursing homes?
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1%
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What is a major drawback of some continuing-care facilities?
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requiring a substantial initial payment
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The number of children that one generation must produce to be able to replenish its numbers is called the
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replacement level.
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Which of the following age groups of women giving birth have increased over earlier decades?
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30-34
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Several 4-year-old boys are sitting at a table playing with cars in a makeshift race, and one boy stands by the table watching them. Occasionally, the boy who is standing calls out for the green car to go faster, but he does not actually join in the game. This is an example of
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onlooker play.
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Brandy is a shy 15-year-old girl who is neither liked nor disliked by others at her school. Rather, Brandy gets no attention from her classmates at all, and she feels as though she might as well be invisible. Brandy would be considered
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neglected
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Which of the following is NOT a reason to develop a friendship?
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competition
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When young adults return after leaving home for some period to live in the homes of their middle-aged parents, this is called
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boomerang children
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What percent of elderly women living alone are on an income below the poverty line?
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25%
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_________ is assistance and comfort supplied by a network of caring, interested people.
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Social Support
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What percent of people age 65 and older live in poverty?
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10%
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Children living in blended families may be uncertain about their responsibilities and how to behave toward stepparents and stepsiblings. This is known as
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role ambiguity
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Sally, who is a middle-school-age girl, wants her friend Beth to go to the movies with her. Which of the following statements is Sally likely to use to get her friend to go?
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“I’d like it if we went to the movies together.”
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If an adolescent student is mostly liked by other students, that adolescent is considered
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popular.
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What percentage of children in the U.S. live in “blended families”?
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17%
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People over 65 represent what percent of single-person households?
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25%
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In the United States, what is the average amount of money that parents will spend on one child from birth until the child reaches age 18?
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$235,000
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What is the term for play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds?
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functional play
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By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a
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blended family
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When did the fertility rate peak in the United States?
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after World War II, when each woman had 3.7 children
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Renee is 67 years old and is in the hospital because she broke her hip. She will need extensive physical therapy for two months. Which of the following is the proper facility to provide care for her?
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skilled nursing
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Tony has been in a nursing home for one year. He has become apathetic, indifferent, and does not care about himself. What term describes Tony?
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institutionalism
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Larger groups that are composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another are called
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crowds
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According to Damon, when Sammy (who is a kindergarten student) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he will respond:
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“Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”
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According to Damon, the third stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is basing friendship on
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psychological closeness.
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Adolescent membership in particular cliques and crowds is often determined by
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the degree of similarity with members of the group.
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The lack of cross-gender interaction in the middle childhood years means that
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boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex.
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Amad does not need continued care. However, he does receive care during the day in the form of meals and medications. What type of facility does Amad attend?
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adult day-care
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Almost ________ of African American children under the age of 18, and almost _________ of Hispanic American children under the age of 18, live in a single-parent household.
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60%; 35%
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Melissa is sitting at her preschool table playing with a toy car, while Alex is sitting next to her playing with a toy car and making quiet engine sounds. These two children never interact together. What type of play are these two children engaged in?
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parallel play
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The desire to have independence and a sense of control over one’s life is called
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autonomy.
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Thinking about “old age” and associating it with nursing homes is a
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stereotype.
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What is the approximate percentage of children in the U.S. who spend their entire childhood living in the same household with both parents?
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50%
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What is the term for action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves?
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onlooker
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Middle-school-age boys typically have all of the following EXCEPT
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one or two “best friends” who are of relatively equal status.
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Learned helplessness is a belief that
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one has no control over one’s environment.
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Functional play is typical of
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3-year-olds.
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Middle-school-age girls tend to __________, while middle-school-age boys tend to ________.
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play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy
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What are the major effects of poverty in children?
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high rates of aggression, poorer academic performance, conduct problems
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Because of the adolescent’s development of _________, the balance of power in the relationship between parents and adolescent becomes more _______ toward the end of adolescence.
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autonomy; egalitarian
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What percent of people in late adulthood live in homes that are some kind of specialized environment?
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10%
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Andrew is a 16-year-old who does not participate in any sports or clubs in school, and does not attend social events or have a girlfriend. Nobody likes Andrew because he is difficult to get along with and aggressive, and subsequently, he feels lonely. Andrew would be considered
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rejected
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What is the term for play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something?
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constructive play
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Couples in their middle age that must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents are called
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sandwich generation.
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“Involved” grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT
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they act as supporters and buddies to their grandchildren.
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Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT
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ADD/ADHD.
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Approximately how many children under the age of 18 in the U.S. live in a single-parent household?
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25%
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Children who grow up in which of the following families tend to have a strong sense of extended family?
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families headed by African American or Hispanic American parents
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Children and adolescents who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions are called
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neglected
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Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood (ages 8 to 10)?
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mutual trust
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What developments lead to the change in the way adolescents view the opposite sex?
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onset of puberty in addition to societal pressures indicate it is appropriate for romantic involvement to begin
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Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?
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dominance hierarchy
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Research suggests that children raised in households in which parents are homosexual
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show no differences in eventual adjustment
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A set of standards against which adolescents can judge their abilities and social success is/are called
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norms
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All of the following are reasons why friendships are more highly valued by older people in late adulthood than family relationships EXCEPT
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new friendships require much less time and effort than maintaining family ties.
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According to psychologist William Damon, a child’s view of friendship passes through all of the stages below EXCEPT
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basing friendship on intelligence.
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Sue will retire next year. She has a good retirement plan and has made several wise investments. Friends ask her if she is concerned about retirement. Sue informs her friends that she doesn’t really worry about retirement and will take each day as it comes. According to Nancy Schlossberg, Sue will take which path in her retirement?
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easy glider
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What does the term “border work” mean?
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middle-school boys and girls who occasionally enter each other’s territories with romantic overtones
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What is the term for play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests?
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cooperative
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What is the term for play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing?
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associative
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What is the most likely reason for the dramatic decrease in the number of children in the average American family?
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the availability and use of effective contraceptives
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According to Damon, when Steven (who is 15 years old) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he will respond:
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“Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”
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What type of facility provides full-time care for those with a chronic illness or who are recovering from a temporary medical condition?
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skilled nursing
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Preschoolers’ peer relationships are based on
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the desire for companionship, play, and fun.
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Approximately what percent of divorced black women between 65 and 74 years of age live below the poverty level?
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50%
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Discernible benefits when children leave home include all of the following EXCEPT
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spouses may have less time to go on “dates.”
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Boys’ play tends to come in bursts rather than in more extended, tranquil episodes, due in part to
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boys’ concern over dominance hierarchy, known as restrictive play.
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What percent of same-sex couples are parents?
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16-20%
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According to Damon, the second stage of building friendship for middle-school- age children is basing friendship on
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trust.
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All but which of the following apply to “remote” grandparents?
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They hold clear expectations about the way their grandchildren behave.
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Which of the following can assist in conflict resolution when elderly people live with their children?
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establishing ground rules regarding roles