Health Semester Exam Study Guide

What are the 3 elements of health?
1. Physical health
2. Mental/emotional health
3. Social health

_____ is the overall state of well-being

What are personal habits or behaviors related to the way a person lives?
Lifestyle factors

List five lifestyle factors
1. Getting eight hours of sleep each night
2. Starting a day with a healthy breakfast
3. Eating a variety of nutritious foods each day
4. Being physically active for 30 to 60 minutes most days of the week
5. Maintaining a healthy weight

What are related risks that increase in effect with each added risk?
Cumulative risks

Define risk behaviors
Actions that can potentially threaten your health or the health of others

Define prevention
Taking steps to keep something from happening or getting worse

What is a nationwide plan for health promotion and disease prevention designed to help improve the health of all people in the United States?
Healthy People

What are all the traits that are biologically passed from parent to child?

Describe a person who has good mental health
They enjoy challenges that help them grow, accept responsibility for their actions, have a sense of control over their lives, can express their emotions in appropriate ways, usually can deal with life’s stresses and frustrations, generally have a positive outlook, and make thoughtful and responsible decisions

An achievement to work toward?

List the six stages of the goal setting process
1. Set a specific, realistic goal and write it down
2. List the steps you will take to reach your goal
3. Identify sources of help and support
4. Set a reasonable time frame for achieving your goal
5. Evaluate your progress by establishing checkpoints
6. Reward yourself for achieving your goal

What is the difference between a short term goal and a long term goal?
A short-term goal is a goal that you can reach in a short period of time and a long-term goal is a goal that you can plan to reach over an extended period of time

Define decision making skills
Steps that enable you to make a healthful decision

List the six steps of the decision making process
1. State the situation
2. List the options
3. Weigh the possible outcomes
4. Consider values
5. Make a decision and act on it
6. Evaluate the decision

Ideas, beliefs, and attitudes about what is important are called _____

If a teen refuses to do drugs, they are using _____
refusal skills

Draw and label Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
5. Reaching potential – need for self-actualization
4. Feeling recognized – need to achieve, need to be recognized
3. Belonging – need to love and be loved, need to belong
2. Safety – need to be secure from danger
1. Physical – need to satisfy basic needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, and shelter

What is the most basic of all needs?
Physical needs

Which term names a complex set of characteristics that makes you unique?

_____ _____ is achieved when a person reaches his or her potential
Self actualization

What is self esteem?
How much you value, respect, and feel confident about yourself

Give an example of high self esteem and low self esteem
High self esteem – valuing yourself
Low self esteem – not valuing yourself

Define stress
The reaction of the body and mind to everyday challenges and demands

Why do mental disorders often go untreated?
People feel embarrassed, ashamed, and/or worry about a stigma

What are some signs and symptoms of schizophrenia?
Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders

What is the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist?
A psychologist is a professional who diagnoses and treats emotional and behavioral disorders with counseling and a psychiatrist is a physician who diagnoses and treats mental disorders and can prescribe medications

Define cluster suicides
Series of suicides occurring within a short period of time and involving several people in the same school or community

List four warning signs of someone who may be suicidal
1. Direct statements such as “I wish I were dead”
2. Indirect statements such as “I can’t take it anymore”
3. Writing poems, song lyrics, or diary entries that deal with death
4. Direct or indirect suicide threats

Define the defense mechanism regression
Returning to behaviors characteristic of a younger age, rather than dealing with problems in a mature manner

Define the defense mechanism rationalization
Making excuses to explain a situation or behavior, rather than taking a responsibility for it

Define the defense mechanism suppression
Consciously and intentionally pushing unpleasant feelings out of one’s mind

Define the defense mechanism compensation
Making up for weakness and mistakes through gift giving, hard work, or extreme efforts

List three examples of emotions
1. Happiness
2. Sadness
3. Love

Which disorder is characterized by persistent thoughts, fears, or urgings leading to uncontrollable repetitive behavior?
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

What are three examples of an anxiety disorder?
1. Phobia
2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
3. Panic Disorder

Which type of disorder is characterized by patterns of behavior in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated?
Conduct disorder

Define schizophrenia
Mental disorder in which a person loses contact with reality

List some symptoms of depression
Changes in thinking, changes in feelings, changes in behavior

List three possible ways to treat depression
1. Taking medication
2. Making changes in the home or school environment
3. Counseling

What is the difference between a mood disorder and a personality disorder
A mood disorder is an illness that involves mood extremes that interfere with everyday living and someone with a personality disorder is unable to regulate their emotions

Define stigma
Mark of shame or disapproval that results in an individual being shunned or rejected by others

Define Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Set of recommendations about smart eating and physical activity for all Americans

In MyPyramid each colored band represents a _____
different food group

What disease is associated with unhealthful weight gain?
Type 2 diabetes

Define calories
Units of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food

Any substance in food that the body needs is _____
a nutrient

List the six basic nutrients
1. Proteins
2. Fats
3. Vitamins
4. Minerals
5. Water
6. Carbohydrates

Which nutrients are sometimes water-soluble and sometimes fat soluble?

What percentage of your daily calories should come from fat?
Less than 25%-35%

List three types of carbohydrates
1. Simple
2. Complex
3. Fiber

List three foods that are high in fiber
1. Vegetables
2. Whole grains
3. Nuts

What does your body break calories down into?
Their simplest forms, usually glucose

What percentage of your daily calories should come from protein?

What is the process by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from food?

Define cross-contamination
Spreading of pathogens from one food to another

Define BMI
Measure of body weight relative to height

Skinfold testing can be used to measure _____

List the fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K

List the water soluble vitamins
B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, folic acid

What is cholesterol?
Waxy, fatlike substance

What is the body’s most essential nutrient?

Describe the eating disorder bulimia
Involves cycles of overeating and purging, or attempts to rid the body of food

Describe the eating disorder anorexia
Irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves

What is the nutrient found in salt, which is often linked with high blood pressure?

If individuals increase their muscle mass, the number of calories they burn while they rest will _____

Define osteoporosis
Condition in which the bones become fragile and break easily

List some physical benefits of exercise
Strengthens your muscles and bones, boosts your energy level, improves your posture

Which principle of fitness involves gradually increasing the demands on your body?

What is a reasonable rate of weight loss per week?
1-2 pounds a week

Define aerobic exercises
All rhythmic activities that use large muscle groups for an extended period of time

Give three examples of aerobic exercise
1. Jogging
2. Swimming
3. Riding a bike

Define anaerobic exercise
Intense, short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen

Give two examples of anaerobic exercise
1. Sprinting
2. Lifting weights

Stretching exercises improve what aspect of fitness?

Define exercise
Purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, and that improves or maintains physical fitness

When is the best time to stretch during an exercise session?
During a cool-down

List three symptoms of hypothermia
1. Drowsiness
2. Weakness
3. Confusion

Is a sprain a major injury?

List three examples of fad diets
1. Miracle foods
2. Magic combinations
3. Liquid diets

What is the addictive drug found in tobacco leaves?

List four long term effects of tobacco
1. Brain chemistry changes
2. Respiration and heart rate increase
3. Taste buds are dulled and appetite is reduced
4. Users have bad breath, yellowed teeth, and smelly hair, skin, and clothes

What effect does smoking have on blood vessels?
It constricts them

What is a carcinogen?
A cancer-causing substance

Leukoplakia can develop into what condition?
Oral cancer

List four long term effects of tobacco use
1. Chronic bronchitis
2. Emphysema
3. Lung cancer
4. Coronary heart disease and stroke

What is ETS?
Air that has been contaminated by tobacco smoke

What are some ways to reduce the effects of ETS?
Establish smoke-free areas, make a rule that smokers go outside, open windows

Which organ oxidizes alcohol?

What is fermentation?
The chemical amount of yeast on sugars

What is BAC?
The amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage

List and describe the three stages of alcoholism
1. Abuse: Alcoholism may begin with social drinking. A physical and psychological dependence develops. The person may experience memory loss and blackouts, and may begin to lie or make excuses to justify his or her drinking.
2. Dependence: The person cannot stop drinking and is physically dependent on alcohol. The drinker tries to hide the problem, but performance on the job, at school, and at home suffers.
3. Addiction: In the final stage of alcoholism, the person is addicted. At this stage, the liver may be already damaged, and so less alcohol may be required to cause drunkenness. If the alcoholic stopped drinking, he or she would experience severe withdrawal symptoms.

Define FAS
A group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems

Children with fetal alcohol syndrome tend to have what characteristics?
Small head and deformities of face, hands, or feet; heart, liver, and kidney defects; vision and hearing problems; central nervous system problems, developmental disabilities, and poor coordination; difficulties in learning and short attention span; hyperactivity, anxiety, and social withdrawal

Alcohol interferes with the liver’s ability to _____

Define intoxication
The state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance, and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced

In most states, “Driving While Intoxicated” is defined as having a blood concentration of _____

List some short term risks of alcohol
Slows reaction time, impairs vision, diminishes judgment

List four long term effects of alcohol use
1. Damage to brain cells and a reduction in brain size
2. Increase in blood pressure, which may lead to a heart attack or stroke
3. Build up of fat cells in the liver, which can lead to cell death
4. Destruction of the pancreas

Define binge drinking
Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting