HD santrock ch6

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*• INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT.* • autonomy versus shame and doubt. • industry versus inferiority. • intimacy versus isolation.
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According to Erik ERIKSON, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is
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*• CONSCIENCE* • independence • fear • obedience
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According to Erik ERIKSON, what is the *\”great governor\” of INTIATIVE*?
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*• INITIATIVE* • autonomy. • industry. • trust.
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When *Travis decided* he wanted to catch a bird with a butterfly net, his *parents encouraged him to test out his idea*. Because his parents supported his plan, he will probably grow up with:
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*ERIKSON’S VIEW OF GUILT, INITIATIVE & CONSCIENCE* during the early childhood period – which best summarizes his view?
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*• Children’s CONSCIENCES MAKE THEM FEEL GUILTY ABOUT some of the INITIATIVES that they take.* • Children feel guilty if they do nothing, so their consciences tell them to take the initiative. • Children’s consciences tell them they are guilty, so they take initiative to prove they are not. • Children’s consciences are not yet mature enough to distinguish between guilt and initiative.
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*UNDERSTANDING SELF* – In general terms, the preschool child’s understanding of self is:
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*• CONCRETE* • abstract. • symbolic. • transitory.
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*UNDERSTANDING SELF* – Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche most likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?
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• \”I am quiet, nice, and friendly.\” *• \”I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle.\”* • \”I like preschool, especially reading, and I am good in art.\” • \”I am the daughter of Sam and Renee and the sister of William.\”
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*UNDERSTANDING SELF* – What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?
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• a same-sex friend • a chance to share intimate feelings *• an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age* • a view of what the world looks like from another person’s perspective
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*UNDERSTANDING OTHERS* – According to research, children start to understand others in terms of psychological traits (e.g., \”my teacher is nice\”) starting around what age?
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• 2 to 3 years *• 4 to 5 years* • 6 years • between 7 and 8 years
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*• SELF-CONSCIOUS EMOTIONS.* • basic emotions. • primary negative emotions. • secondary negative emotions.
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Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of:
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*• EMOTION-DISMISSING PARENT* • emotion-criticizing parent. • emotion-coaching parent. • emotion-ignoring parent.
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A parent who DENIES, IGNORES, or tries to change the *negative emotions* of their children would be called an:
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*PIAGET* was primarily interested in:
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*• moral reasoning of children.* • moral behavior of children. • how parents teach moral standards to children. • the biological basis of moral integrity.
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*• GENDER IDENTITY* • gender role • gender • gender schema
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A child’s sense of being male or female is referred to as their:
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*GENDER IDENTITY* – According to Maccoby (1998, 2002), gender is important in:
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• the composition of children’s groups. • the size of children’s groups. • the interaction in children’s groups. *• all of these.*
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*GENDER THEORY* – The primary social theories of gender include all but which of the following?
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*• EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY VIEW* • gender schema theory • psychoanalytic theory • social cognitive theory
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*SOCIAL ROLE THEORY OF GENDER DIFFERENCES* suggests that:
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*• gender differences result from the CONTRASTING ROLES of women and men in most cultures.* • the mother and father role are social constructions that emerged from our evolutionary past. • different social roles for men and women in most societies are chosen, not determined. • nature is the primary determinant of differences between the social labels we call \”gender.\”
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*• SOCIAL ROLE THEORY (OF GENDER)* • social cognitive theory of gender • sex role theory of gender • psychoanalytic theory of gender
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Research has shown that women perform more domestic work, spend fewer hours in paid employment, receive lower pay, and are less represented in the highest levels of organizations. These findings support which theory of gender?
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*• PSYCHOANALYTIC* • social cognitive • biological drive • cognitive developmental
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The __________ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child’s *attraction to his or her OPPOSITE-SEX parent*.
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*• SCHEMA* • format. • subset. • system.
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COGNITIVE structure that consists of a *network of associations* that *guides and organizes an individual’s perception*
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*PARENTING & GENDER* – Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning parenting practices and gender development?
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• Fathers are more consistently given responsibility for the nurturance and physical care of their children. • Mothers are more likely than fathers to engage in playful interactions with their children. • Mothers are more likely than fathers to treat their sons and daughters differently. *• FATHERS are more involved in socializing their SONS than their daughters.*
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*PARENTING* – Five-year-old Joe is crying because his favorite aunt is moving away. His parents are in the kitchen arguing about how to respond to the situation. Joe’s father wants to tell him \”big boys don’t cry.\” Joe’s mother wants to tell him \”it is okay to cry when you feel sad.\” According to research, which response will be most helpful for Joe?
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• Joe’s father’s response. • Joe’s father’ response, but only because Joe is a boy. For girls, Joe’s mother’s response would be more helpful. *• Joe’s mother’s response.* • Joe’s mother’s response, but only because Joe is around preschool age. For older children, Joe’s father’s response would be more helpful.
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*• AUTHORITARIAN PARENT* • authoritative parent. • indulgent parent. • neglectful parent.
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A parent who uses a *RESTRICTIVE, PUNITIVE* style to control the behavior of their children is a(n):
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*• AUTHORITATIVE PARENT* • authoritarian parent. • indulgent parent. • neglectful parent.
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Suzanne believes that helping children *develop their independence* while *still placing appropriate boundaries and limits* on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):
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*• NEGLECTFUL PARENT* • authoritarian parent. • authoritative parent. • indulgent parent.
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A parent who is very *UNINVOVED* in a child’s life, showing neither responsiveness nor control, is a(n):
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*• INDULGENT* • authoritarian • authoritative • neglectful
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Which of the following parenting styles has low demands and high responsiveness?
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*MISBEHAVIOR* – most child psychologists recommend:
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• reasoning with the child. • explaining the consequences of the child’s actions for others. • removing the child from a setting that offers positive reinforcement. *• all of these.*
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*• COPARENTING* • cohesive rearing • directional childcare • collaborative directing
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The *support that parents give each other* in raising children, including coordination of rules and parenting efforts, is called:
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*CHILD MALTREATMENT* – __________ is almost always present when other forms of child maltreatment are identified.
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• Physical abuse • Child neglect • Sexual abuse *• Emotional abuse*
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*CHILD MALTREATMENT* – What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child?
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*• depression, delinquency, and substance abuse* • personality disorders and physical health problems • a rigid and controlling personality • None of these
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*CHILD MALTREATMENT* – term includes all but which of the following possibilities?
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• physical abuse *• tough love* • child neglect • sexual abuse
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*MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT* outside of the home, how affect children?
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• Children are not properly socialized for the adult roles they will occupy. • Children are not able to develop a secure attachment to their parents. • Children tend to perform poorly academically. *• Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping.*
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*DIVORCE* – Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?
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*• A divorce may improve children’s lives under some circumstances.* • Divorces inevitably impair children’s ability to adapt to difficulties in their lives. • Competent children cannot be raised in single-parent families. • Divorce has only minor effects on children.
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*SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES)* – Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
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• spank their children. • criticize their children. • emphasize adherence to authority. *• emphasize delaying gratification.*
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*SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES)* – social class differences in parenting behaviors in most Western cultures. Lower socioeconomic status parents are more likely to __________ than middle-class parents.
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• ask their children questions • use reasoning to accompany their discipline *• use physical discipline* • use verbal praise
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*TELEVISON* – overall effects on kids’ development are:
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• almost all negative. • almost all positive. *• some positive, some negative.* • not measurable enough to be significant
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Children who grew up in gay and lesbian families usually self-identify themselves as:
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• homosexual. *• heterosexual.* • bisexual. • asexual.

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