HBS unit 3 study guide

excretion
removes metabolic waste from the blood which came from cells – urea, toxins, drugs (excretory system function)

maintain blood volume and concentration
balances various products and removes excess from the blood in the form of urine (excretory system function)

Kidneys
filter blood to make urine, maintain homeostasis by controlling the chemical composition of the blood

ureters
tubes that carry urine from kidney to urinary bladder

urinary bladder
stores urine until it is expelled

urethra
tube through which urine is expelled from body

renal artery
carries blood to the kidney

renal vein
carries blood away from the kidneys

inferior vena cava
major vein that the renal vein flows into. carries blood back to heart

aorta
major artery that delivers blood from the heat to the renal artery

renal cortex
outer region of the kidney

renal medulla
consist of cone shaped pyramids that lie on the inner part of the renal cortex

renal pelvis
area where urine collects and is transported to the bladder through the tube called the ureter

nephron
filter out urea and other solutes ( salt, sugar)

blood plasma
………….. filtered into nephron

filtration
fluids from blood collected. includes water and solutes

reabsorption
selectively reabsorb needed substances back to blood

secretion
pump out unwanted substances to urine

bowmans capsule
site of filtration, formation of filtrate

proximal tubule, loop of henle,
reabsorption

distal tubule
secretion, reabsorption

collecting duct
carries urine to renal pelvis, reabsorption, secretion

respiratory system
gas exchanges between the blood and external environment

internal respiration
an exchange of gases between the cells of the body and the blood way of the fluid bathing the cells

external respiration
gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveloi. oxygen is loaded into blood. co2 is unloaded from blood

tidal volume
the volume of air breathed in and without conscious effort (subconscious, normal breathing)

reserve volume
additional volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after normal exhalation of forcibly inhaled

involuntary breathing
medulla

digestive system
mouth, pharnx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

pancreas
enzyme producing gland located below the stomach and above intestines, excretes enzymes to break down proteins, lipids, carbs, and nucleic acids in foods

small intestine
absorb nutrients, glands in intestine walls help break down sugars and starches

large intestines
removes water and salts (electrolytes) from undigested material and to form solid waste that can be excreted

mastication
chewing, process by which food is crushed and grounded by teeth

churning
makes food in stomach break down in size giving larger Surface area

amalase
continues breakdowns of starches(sugars)

pepsin
breaks down proteins into large peptides

carbohydrates
simple/ complex..sugars/starches

ketoacidosis
burning of fat this is caused when body runs out of insulin

ADH
increases water reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. decreases the amount of water lost in urine (decreases urine volume) which increases blood volumes

oxyhemoglobin
oxygen combined with RBC

% of filtration eventually reabsorbed into blood stream
70%

visceral membrane, pulmonary pluera
surface of lungs

parietal pluera membrane
lines walls of thoracic cavity

1.0010 dilute
specific gravity

plueral fluid
fills in area btwn the two layers