Groups And Group Development Commerce Essay

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Many people used the word squad and group interchangeably, but there are really a differences between the word squad and group. It is much easier to organize a group than a squad. In group, they could be grouped harmonizing to gender, experience, age or other common factors. Although the effectivity of the group may be variable, but organizing a group merely based on a certain commonalty is non peculiarly hard. A group ‘s strength may come from sheer volume or willingness to transport out a individual leader ‘s bids. On the other manus, a squad can be more hard to organize. The members will selected for their complementary accomplishments, non a individual commonalty. In a squad, each member has a intent and a map. So the overall success depends on a functional interpersonal moral force. When working together in this manner, there is normally non as much room for struggle. A squad ‘s strength depends on the commonalty of intent and interconnectivity between single members.


Although most groups are n’t formed for such dishonorable intents, the success of this group at its undertaking was impressive ( Stephen and Mary, 2007 ) . Managers would wish their groups to be successful at their undertakings and the first measure is understanding what is a group and how its develop.

2.1 Group Definition

Harmonizing to Stephen and Mary ( 2009 ) , a group can be defined as two or more interacting and mutualist persons who come together to accomplish specific ends. . Although a groups frequently have ends, but there ‘s non province that group members must portion a end or motive.

2.2 Types of Group

There are two types of group which is formal group and informal group. Formal group will designated work assignments and specific undertakings directed at carry throughing organisational ends and defined by an organisation ‘s construction. There are four illustrations of formal work groups ( Sidin J.P, 2011 ) :

Command group – groups that are determined by the organisation chart and composed of persons who report straight to a given director.

Task group – groups composed of persons brought together to finish a specific occupation undertaking.

Cross-functional squads – groups that conveying together the cognition and accomplishments of persons assorted work countries of groups whose members have been trained to make each others ‘ occupation.

Self-managed squads – groups that are basically independent and that, in add-on to their ain undertakings, take on traditional managerial duties, such as hiring, planning and programming, and measuring public presentation.

While informal groups are group-based societal elements. These groups occur of course in the workplace and is more concerned with friendly relationship and common involvements. A friendly relationship group is friend who do many activities together and it is comparatively lasting and informal, and its benefits from the societal relationship among its members. Meanwhile, the common involvement such as bowling group and adult females ‘s web is comparatively impermanent and is organized around an activity or involvement shared by its members.

2.3 Phase of Group Development

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Exhibit 2.1 – Phase of Group Development ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

2.3.1 forming

Forming phase is the first phase in group development. This phase has two stages. In a formal group, people join because of some work assignment. The 2nd stage begins when the people joined the formal group. Then these people define the group ‘s intent, construction, and leading. This phase is complete when members begin to believe of themselves as portion of a group.

2.3.2 storming

When group members get to cognize each other better, the storming phase begins. This storming phase named because of the intragroup struggle that occurs over who will command the group and what the group needs to be making. This phase is characterized by a command for power. There are six features of the storming phase which is competition, strained relationships, leader is challenged, tenseness and disunity, differences are uncomfortable, and the issues of liberty vs. control support vs. competition influence decision-making. When this phase is complete, there is a comparatively clear hierarchy of leading and understanding on the group ‘s way.

2.3.3 norming

The norming phase is one in which close relationship develop and the group become cohesive and has begun to be effectual. There ‘s now a strong sense of group individuality and chumminess. This phase will be complete when the group construction has been assimilated as a common set of outlooks about behaviour and go solid. There are some features about this phase:

Issues of beef uping relationships, unfastened communicating, positive/constructive feedback.

Increased coherence

Emerging trust

More coaction

Appreciation of differences

2.3.4 acting

The 4th phase of group development is executing. Many groups ne’er reach the acting phase. A This is the phase at which would be an first-class client service and to make an impressive illustrations. The group construction is in topographic point and accepted by group members. In this phase, features include productiveness, full development of the potency of the group and the persons in the group, harmoniousness and effectual problem-solving. This is the last phase of development for lasting work groups.

2.3.5 recessing

The concluding phase is recessing. In this phase, the group prepares to disband. Group members will respond in some manner that is independent of a confident and excited about the public presentation of their group. While, others may be sad over the loss of chumminess and friendly relationship. That ‘s why more attending is focused on wrapping activities instead than task public presentation.


A work group is include the organisation ‘s scheme, authorization relationships, formal regulations and ordinances, the handiness of resources, employee choice standards, the public presentation direction system and civilization, and the general physical layout of the group ‘s work infinite. That ‘s mean a work group was affected by external conditions ( Stephen and Mary, 2009 ) .Exhibit 3.1 – Group Performance Satisfaction Model ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

3.1 Group Member Resources

Group member resources is a group ‘s public presentation potency that depends on a big extent on the resources each single brings that group. These resources include personality traits, cognition, accomplishments, and abilities. They will find what members can make and how efficaciously they perform in that group. There particularly conflict direction and declaration, communicating, and collaborative job work outing in interpersonal accomplishments. It ‘s systematically emerge as of import to execute good in a work group. The group public presentation besides affected by personality traits because they strongly act upon how an person will interact with the other group members.

3.2 Group Structure

Work group are n’t unorganised crowds. They have an internal construction that shapes members ‘ behaviour and influences group public presentation. The construction defines functions, norms, conformance, position systems, group size, group coherence, and leading.


A function refers to behavior forms expected of person busying a given place in a societal unit. In an organisation, directors are n’t the lone one person who play the assorted functions. In a group, persons are expected to make certain things because of their place in the group. Besides that, the different outlooks of these functions, do the employees face function struggle.

3.2.2 Norms

All groups have norms. A norm is a criterions or outlooks that are accepted and shared by a group ‘s members ( Stephen and Mary,2009 ) . Norms that exist within the group construction emphasizes such things as promptness, work end product, absenteeism, velocity to finish the work, and the sum of socialising at work. Norms that exist within the group construction will heighten the action of antisocial persons.


Each person would wish to be accepted by the society about. Equally good as persons who are in a group in the organisation. However, they are excessively afraid non accepted by other group members, so the exposure force per unit area to conform. Early experiments done by Solomon Asch demonstrated the impact of the conformance has on an person ‘s attitudes and judgement. Following, people tend to happen it more pleasant to hold than to be riotous even it will better the group ‘s effectivity. So we conform. But conformance can travel excessively far when an person ‘s sentiment differs important from the others in that group. When this happens, a phenomenon that known as groupthink will look. Groupthink will happen when there is a clear individuality, group perceives a corporate menace to positive image and members will keep this positive group image that they want to protect.

Exhibit 3.2 – Examples of Asch ‘s Cards ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

Status Systems

Status systems are an of import factor in understanding groups. Status is a place, rank within a group and a prestigiousness scaling. Status can be officially and informally. Status is officially and it ‘s of import to employees believe that the organisation ‘s formal position systems is congruous. There ‘s consistence between the position symbols he or she receives from the organisation and the sensed ranking of an person. While, the informally of the position systems is may be conferred by characteristic such as accomplishment, instruction, or experiences. Anything can hold position value if the members of the group measure it that manner. Group members have no job to puting into position class. Normally the group members will hold about who has low or high position.

Group Size

Harmonizing to Moorhead and Griffin ( 2001 ) , group size is the figure of members of the group and have an of import consequence on public presentation. Group size will impact the figure of resources available to execute the undertaking, but the consequence depends on what the group is supposed to carry through. One of import research happening related to group size concerns societal idleness ( Stephen and Mary,2009 ) . Social idleness is the inclination of some members of groups to set away less attempt in a group than they would when work entirely. The deductions of societal idleness are important. When directors use groups, they must place the single attempt. If non, group productiveness and single satisfaction may worsen.

Group Cohesiveness

Harmonizing to Moorhead and Griffin ( 2001 ) , group coherence is the extent to which a group is committed to staying together. Group cohesiveness really of import because its related with a group ‘s productiveness. Some research has by and large shown that cohesive groups are more effectual than less cohesive 1s ( Stephen and Mary, 2009 ) and the relationship between coherence and effectivity is complex. The more the members follow its end, the more cohesive for that group. A cohesive group is more productive than a less cohesive group when the ends are desirable. But, the productiveness will diminish when the coherence is high and attitudes are unfavourable. In this instance, there ‘s no important consequence on productiveness when coherence is low and ends are non supported.

Exhibit 3.3 – Group Cohesiveness and Productivity ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

Group Processes

Group procedures are of import to understanding work group because they will act upon the public presentation and satisfaction positively or negatively. The synergism of four people on marketing research squad who are able to bring forth more thoughts than work separately is an illustration of positive procedure factor. While, the group that have negative procedure factor such as societal idleness, hapless communicating and high degrees of struggle, that may impede the effectivity of the group. There are two of import group procedure:

Group decision-making

It ‘s an organisation that does n’t utilize undertaking forces, reappraisal panels, survey squad or other similar groups to doing a determination. In group decision-making, there are such of advantage to make it. Some of that is groups can bring forth more cognition and compete information for their work. Besides that, they will hold an experience when work in group to do a determination procedure that an person can non. In add-on, groups will increase legitimacy. Decision made in a group more legitimacy than determinations that made by ego. While, the disadvantage to make this group decision-making is that about group ever take more clip to make a solution than would an person. Another disadvantage is the critical thought that group think can find will harm the quality of concluding determination. If we want to find whether groups are effectual at doing determination, it depends on the standards that used to measure effectivity. The group determination may work best when its creativeness, truth, and grade of credence are of import. Beside of that, the determination effectivity is influenced by the group size.

Exhibit 3.4 – Creative Group Decision Making ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

Conflict direction

Conflict is perceived incompatible differences that result in intervention or resistance ( Stephen and Mary, 2009 ) . In conflict direction, there are three different positions such as traditional position of struggle, human dealingss position of struggle, and interactionist position of struggle. The traditional position of struggle is the position that all struggle is bad and must be avoided. Meanwhile, the human dealingss position of struggle is the struggle that is natural and inevitable result in any group but has possible to be positive force in lending to a group ‘s public presentation. The interactionist position of struggle is the most recent position. Its proposes that non merely be a positive force in a group, but some struggle is perfectly necessary for the group to execute efficaciously.

Exhibit 3.5 – Conflict and Group Performance ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

There are more struggles such as functional struggles, dysfunctional struggles, undertaking struggles, relationship struggles, and procedure struggle because the interactionist position does n’t propose that all struggles are good.

Exhibit 3.6 – Conflict- direction Techniques ( Sidin J.P, 2011 )

3.3 Group Task

Group undertaking are either simple and complex. Simple undertaking are standardized and everyday. While, complex undertaking tends non-routine or to be fresh. Its appear when the more group benefits from group treatment about alternate work methods, so the more complex of that undertakings. In this state of affairs, group members will trust on standard operating processs and no demand to discourse such options for a simple undertaking. Therefore, the undertakings are complex and interdependent when effectual communicating and controlled struggle are most relevant to group public presentation.


From group there will turning to squads. In squads all of the members will working together to accomplish the common ends. A squad is non merely a people who work at the same clip in the same topographic point. Most of the people that work in a squad are non all equal in endowment, instruction, or experience, but they are equal in one vitally of import manner. Team relationships fulfill that basic demands.

4.1 Teams Definition

Harmonizing to Williams ( 2007 ) , work squad is a little figure of people that work together with complementary accomplishments who hold themselves reciprocally accountable for prosecuting a common intent, bettering mutualist work procedures and accomplishing public presentation ends. In many industries, squads are importance because they help organisations react to challenges and specific jobs.

4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Work Team

In work as a squad, there will hold a batch of advantages and disadvantages. The advantages when work as a squad is:

Improved client satisfaction

Improved merchandise and services quality

Improved velocity and efficiency in merchandise development

Employee occupation satisfaction

Better determination devising and job resolution

Meanwhile, the disadvantages of work as a squad is:

Initially high employee turnover

Social idleness

Disadvantages of group determination such as groupthink, inefficient meetings, domination by a minority, and deficiency of answerability.

4.3 Groups Versus Teams

Work squads

Work groups

Leadership function is shared.

One leader clearly in charge.

Accountable to self and squad.

Accountable merely to self.

Team creates specific intent.

Purposed is same as broader organisational intent.

Work is done jointly

Work is done separately.

Meetings characterized by open- ended treatment and collaborative problem-solving.

Meetings characterized by efficiency ; no coaction or open-ended treatment.

Performance is measured straight by measuring corporate work end product.

Performance is measured indirectly harmonizing to its influence on others.

Work is decided upon and done together.

Work is decided upon by group leader and delegated to single group members.

Table 4.1 – Beginning: J. R. Katzenbach and D. K. Smith. “ The Wisdom of Teams, ” Harvard Business Review, July-August 2005, p.161.

4.4 Types Of Teams

Teams can make all of things. They can plan merchandises, co-ordinate undertakings, offer advice, supply services, negotiate trades, and do determinations ( William, 2007 ) . Work squads is a groups whose members work intensely on a particular, common ends, single and common answerability, utilizing their positive synergism, and complementary accomplishments. There are several types of squads:

Types of squad


Problem-solving squads

A squad from the same functional country or section that ‘s involved in attempts to work out specific jobs or better work activities.

Self-managed work squad

A type of work squad that operates without a director and is responsible for a complete work section or procedure.

Cross-functional squad

It is a work squad composed of persons from assorted fortes.

Virtual squad

It ‘s a type of work squad that uses engineering to associate physically spread members in order to accomplish a common ends.

Table 4.2 – Types of squad ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )

4.5 Creating Effective Work Teams

Teams are non ever achieve high degrees of public presentation and besides non ever effectual. However, research on squads provide insight into the features typically associated with effectual work squads. There are nine of features of effectual squads:

Exhibit 4.1 Characteristics of Effectiveness Teams ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 )



Clear ends

It is a high public presentation squad that has clear apprehension of the end to be achieved. The members in the squad will cognize what they ‘re expected to carry through, committed to the squad ‘s end, and understand how they will work together to accomplish these ends.

Relevant Skills

Effective squads are composed of competent persons that have the necessary interpersonal and proficient accomplishments to accomplish the coveted ends while working good together. This is of import because non everyone who is technically competent has the interpersonal accomplishment to work as a squad members.

Common Trust

The effectual squads are characterized by high common trust among the members. The members must believe in each other ‘s ability, unity and character. This is because trust is delicate. So, keeping trust requires careful attending by the directors.

Unified Committedness

This characteristic is characterized by dedication to a squad ‘s ends and a willingness to use extraordinary sums of energy to accomplish them.

Good Communication

All of the effectual squads will characterized by the good communicating. Members convey messages, verbally and nonverbally, between each other in ways that are readily and clearly understood and the feedback will assist to steer squad members and right misinterpretation.

Negociating Skills

Effective squad will doing accommodations to who does what and this requires team members to posses negociating. This is because the jobs and relationships are on a regular basis altering in squads, and members need to be able confront and reconcile differences,

Appropriate Leadership

By clear uping ends, showing that alteration is possible by increasing the assurance of squad members, get the better ofing standards, and assisting members to more to the full recognize their possible.

Internal Support

The squad should hold sound substructure, which means proper preparation, a clear and sensible measuring systems that team members can utilize to measure their overall public presentation, a supportive human resources system, and an incentive plan that recognizes and wagess squad activities.

External Support

In external support, directors should supply the squad with resources needed to acquire the occupation done.

Table 4.3 – Features of Effective Teams and The Explanation ( Stephen and Mary, 2007 )


Directors can construct effectual squads by understanding what influences the satisfaction and public presentation. But, director will besides confront some current challenges in pull offing squad, chiefly to those that associated with pull offing planetary squads and with understanding organisational societal webs ( Stephen and Mary, 2007 ) .

5.1 Pull offing Global Teams

There are two features of today ‘s organisations are obvious such as planetary and work is progressively done by squads. That means that any director would wish to pull off a planetary squad. There are drawbacks and benefits in utilizing the planetary squad.



Disliking squad members.

Greater diverseness of thoughts.

Distrusting squad members.

Limited groupthink.


Increased attending on understanding others ‘ thoughts, positions, etc.

Communication jobs.

Stress and tenseness.

Table 5.1 – Global squads ( beginning: based on N. Adler, International Dimensions in Organizational Behavior, 4Th Edition, pp.141-147 )

In add-on, by utilizing our group theoretical account as a model, we can see some of the issues associated with pull offing planetary squads such as:

Group Member Resources in Global Teams.

In planetary organisations, understanding the relationship between group public presentation and group member resources is particularly ambitious because the alone cultural features represented by members of a planetary squad ( Stephen & A ; Mary, 2007 ) . In add-on, directors need to be familiar with the squad members abilities, accomplishments, cognition, and personality to clearly understand the cultural features of the group members that they manage.

Group Structure.

Some of the structural countries where we see differences in pull offing planetary squads include societal idleness, coherence, position, and conformance. “ Social idleness has a Western prejudice ” ( Stephen & A ; Mary, 2007 ) . It ‘s consistent with individualistic civilizations, such as the U. S. and Canada, which is dominated by self-interest but non consistent with collectivized societies, in which persons are motivated by group ends ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 ) . Cohesiveness is another group structural component with which directors will confront the particular challenges and its frequently more hard to accomplish because of the higher degrees of “ misgiving, miscommunication, and emphasis ” . For position, it is of import in France and depends on societal beginning and besides the states that have differ on the standards that confer position. Besides that, to pull off planetary squads, conformance besides findings generalizable across civilization. Equally might as expected, conformance to societal norms tends to be higher in collectivized civilizations than in individualistic civilizations ( Sidin J.P. , 2011 ) .

Group Processes.

The procedure that planetary squads use to make their work can be peculiarly disputing for directors and for one thing communicating issues frequently arise because non all squad members may be fluent in the squad ‘s on the job linguistic communication ( Sidin J. P. , 2011 ) . This peculiar state of affairs will take to inaccuracies, inefficiencies, and misconstruing. However, pull offing struggle in planetary squads is n’t easy, particularly when those squads are practical squads because struggle can interfere with how a squad uses information ( Stephen & A ; Mary, 2007 ) .

The Manager ‘s Role.

There are things that directors can make to supply a group with an environment in which effectivity and efficiency are enhanced. First of wholly, because communicating accomplishments are critical, so directors should concentrate on developing those accomplishments ( Sidin J.P. , 2011 ) . Besides, directors must see cultural differences when make up one’s minding the type of planetary squad to utilize. Finally, it ‘s critical that directors be sensitive to the alone differences of each member of a planetary squad ( Stephen & A ; Mary,2007 ) .


As a decision, work as a group will hold a strong, clearly focussed leader who had single answerability and besides have a intent that ‘s the same as the broader organisational mission. While, work as a squad have some undermentioned characteristic such as, shared leading functions, specific squad intent and so on.

From this chapter, we know that group is two or more interacting and mutualist persons who come together to accomplish specific ends ( Stephen & A ; Mary, 2007 ) . While, squad is a little figure of people with complementary accomplishments who are committed to common intent, common public presentation ends, and an attack for which they hold themselves reciprocally accountable ( Griffin, 2006 ) .

Ginny V Lee in his article “ From Group to Team ” have said that in squads, they will shared the common intent and end. Besides that, squad members besides are mutualist because they understand that they need to work good as a unit inorder to finish their undertaking. Ginny besides said that skilled facilitation moves a group from a aggregation of persons to an effectual squad.

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