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Group Counseling Test Questions

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Prior to the 1960s most counseling took place a) in a group setting b) with the entire family present c) in a dyadic relationship d) ub Behavior Therapy clinics
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c) in a dyadic relationship
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A group has a) a membership which can be defined b) some degree of unity and interaction c) a shared purpose d) all of the above
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d) all of the above
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The term group therapy was coined in 1931 by a) Frank Parsons, the Father of guidance b) Jacob Moreno, the Father of psychodrama c) E. G. Williamson, associated with the Minnesota Viewpoint d) Fritz Perls, the Father of gestalt therapy
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b) Jacob Moreno, the Father of psychodrama
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In the a1940s the two organizations for group therapy were created a) NASW & NBCC b) ASGW & AAS c) The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama and the The American Group Psychotherapy Association d) AACD and APA
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c) The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama and the The American Group Psychotherapy Association
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Which theorists work has bee classified as a preface to the group movement a) Freud b) Jung c) Jessie B. Davis d) Adler
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d) Adler
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Primary groups are a) preventative and attempt to ward of problems b) always follow a person-centered paradigm c) generally utilized for long-term psychotherapy d) always focused on the client’s childhood
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a) preventative and attempt to ward of problems
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A group is classified as secondary. This implies that a) it is preventative and attempts to ward off problems b) a difficulty of disturbance is present c) two therapists are utilized d) all of the above
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b) a difficulty of disturbance is present
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When comparing a tertiary group with primary or secondary group a) the tertiary focuses less on individual members b) the tertiary focuses more on the here-and-now c) the tertiary is less likely to deal with severe pathology d) the tertiary is ore likely to deal with severe pathology
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d) the tertiary is ore likely to deal with severe pathology
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Group norms a) exist only in encounter groups b) exist only in career counseling groups c) are not related to group cohesiveness d) govern acceptable behavior and group rules
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d) govern acceptable behavior and group rules
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Group therapy initially flourished in the U.S. due to a) Freud’s lectures b) a shortage of competent career counselors c) a shortage of individual therapists during WWII d) pressure from non-directive therapists pushing encounter groups
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c) a shortage of individual therapists during WWII
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Group content refers to material discussed in a group setting. Group process refers to a) analysis of the unconscious b) analysis of the ego c) the T-group paradigm d) the manner in which discussions and transactions occur
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d) the manner in which discussions and transactions occur
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Group cohesiveness refers to a) forces which tend to bind group members together b) an analysis of group content c) a common co-leadership style d) a style of leadership
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a) forces which tend to bind group members togethe
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Some theorists feel that group therapy differs from group counseling (which is also called interpersonal problem solving group) in that a) group counseling would be of longer duration b) group therapy, also dubbed as a personality reconstruction group, would be of longer duration c) group counseling d) group therapy addresses a less disturbed population of clients
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b) group therapy, also dubbed as a personality reconstruction group, would be of longer duration
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Most experts would agree that overall a) structured exercises are more effective that unstructured techniques b) structured exercises are less effective than unstructured techniques c) all well-trained therapists favor structured exercises over unstructured techniques d) ethical guidelines must forbid unstructured techniques because they can be dangerous to the depressed or anxious client
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b) structured exercises are less effective than unstructured techniques
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One advantage of group work is that a counselor can see more clients in a given period of time. One disadvantage is that a counselor can be too focused on group processes and a) thus individual issues are not properly examined b) the group becomes too behavioristic c) a and b d) thus the group focuses too much on content
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a) thus individual issues are not properly examined
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According to the risky shift phenomenon, a group decision will a) be less conservative than the average group member’s decision, prior to the group discussion b) be more conservative than the average group member’s decision, prior to the group discussion c) often be aggressive or illegal d) violate the group’s confidentiality norms
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a) be less conservative than the average group member’s decision, prior to the group discussion
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T-groups often stress ways employees can express themselves in an effective manner. The “T” in T-groups merely stands for a) techniques b) taxonomy c) training d) testing
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c) training
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A counselor suggests that her client join an assertiveness training group. Most assertiveness training groups are a) unstructured b) psychodynamic or person-centered c) focused heavily on existential concerns d) behavioristic and highly structured
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d) behavioristic and highly structured
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Weight Watchers is a a) T-group also called a training group b) self-help or support group as in AA c) psychotherapy group d) marathon group
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b) self-help or support group as in AA
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ACA and the ASGW division recommend screening for potential group members a) for all groups b) only when the group is in a hospital inpatient setting c) only when the group is composed of minors d) only if the group deals with chemical dependency
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a) for all groups
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A counselor is conducting a screening for clients who wish to participate in a counseling group which will meet Tuesday nights at his private practice office. Which would most likely be the poorest choice for a group member a) a shy librarian b) an anxious salesman with no group experience c) an extremely hostile and belligerent construction worker d) a student with 16 hours toward her M.Ed in counseling
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c) an extremely hostile and belligerent construction worker
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A counselor is screening clients for a new group at the college counseling center. Which client would most likely be the poorest choice for a group member a) a first-year student who is suicidal and sociopathic b) a second-year student who stutters c) a graduate student a facial tic d) a fourth-year student with obsessive-compulsive tendencies (OCD)
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a) a first-year student who is suicidal and sociopathic
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A screening for group members can be done in a group or privately. Although private screening interviews are not as cost effective or as time efficient, many group leaders feel they are superior inasmuch as private screening sessions a) intensify transference b) encourage catharsis c) intensify abreaction d) are generally superior in terms of counselor/client interaction
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d) are generally superior in terms of counselor/client interaction
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Most experts in the field of group counseling would agree that the most important trait for group members is the ability a) to open up b) to listen c) to trust d) to convey empathy
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c) to trust
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Groups can be open or closed. The two differ in that a) open groups are limited to hospital settings b) in an open group members can socialize between group meetings c) closed groups always employ co-leaders d) closed groups allow no new members after the group begins
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d) closed groups allow no new members after the group begins
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One major advantage of a closed group versus and open group is a) cost effectiveness b) it promotes cohesiveness c) it lessens counselor burnout d) it allows the members to meet less frequently
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b) it promotes cohesiveness
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One major disadvantage of a closed group versus an open group is that a) if everyone quits, you will be left with no group members b) closed groups cannot provide depth therapy c) it promotes paranoid feelings in group members d) closed groups are much more structured
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a) if everyone quits, you will be left with no group members
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The number of people in an open group is generally a) more stable than in a closed group b) much smaller after an extended period of time than in a closed group c) significantly larger than in a closed group d) more dependent on the group leader’s marketing skills than in a closed group
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a) more stable than in a closed group
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One distinct disadvantage of an open group is that a) new members are not accepted after the first meeting b) the leader does not control the screening process c) a member who begins after the first meeting has missed information or experiences d) the group is generally too behavioristic for the depth therapy to occur
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c) a member who begins after the first meeting has missed information or experiences
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When a group member is speaking, it is best for the counselor to a) try to face the group member b) not face the group member, as this does not appear genuine in a group setting c) smile while listening d) suppress genuine emotion
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a) try to face the group member
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A group setting has a flexible seating arrangement in which clients are free to sit wherever they wish. In this setting it is likely that a) an African-American client and Caucasian leader would sit close together b) A Hispanic client and an African-American leader would sit close together c) an Asian-American client and an African-American leader would sit close together d) An Asian-American leader and an Asian-American client would sit close together
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d) An Asian-American leader and an Asian-American client would sit close together
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A group setting has a flexible seating arrangement in which clients are free to sit wherever they wish. In this setting it is likely that a) a male leader in a designer suit and a female client in cut-off jeans will sit close together b) A Hispanic male leader in a designer suit and an Asian male client in another brand of designer suit will sit close together c) A Caucasian female leader in a designer outfit and a Caucasian male client in a pair of old jeans and an undershirt will sit close together d) A male leader in a designer suit and a female client in a jogging suit and old tennis shoes with holes in them will sit close together.
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b) A Hispanic male leader in a designer suit and an Asian male client in another brand of designer suit will sit close together
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Which statement made by a doctoral-level counselor is illustrative of a leader focused on process rather than product a) “Jim seems more relaxed today” b) “Sally seems a bit self-critical this evening” c) “I hear a lot of sadness in Betty’s voice” d) “You wince whenever James raises her voice”
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d) “You wince whenever James raises her voice”
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Which statement made by a group leader in a residential center for adolescents focuses on product rather than process a) ” Ken has not stolen for a week and thus is eligible for supplementary tokens” b) “And Karen looks down when Bill discusses relationships” c) “It sounds like there is a deep sense of hurt…” d) “Oh, so your fold your arms are sort of close up when Carey mentions the angry side of your personality.”
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a) ” Ken has not stolen for a week and thus is eligible for supplementary tokens”
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Groups promote the concept of universality, which suggests that a) we are unique and so are our problems b) there is a universal way to solve nearly any difficulty c) a and b d) we are not the only ones in the world with a given problems
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d) we are not the only ones in the world with a given problems
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In the late 1930s researchers identified three basic leadership styles a) directive, non-directive, and semi-passive b) autocratic (authoritarian), democratic, and laissez faire c) relaxed, anxious, and tense d) assertive, non-assertive, and aggressive
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b) autocratic (authoritarian), democratic, and laissez faire
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The autocratic and authoritarian leader may give orders to the group, while the laissez faire leader a) assigns a group member as the authoritarian b) has a hands-off policy and participates very little c) has the most desirable style of leadership d) nearly always run open-ended groups
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b) has a hands-off policy and participates very little
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When comparing the autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire styles a) the autocratic is the most desirable b) the laissez faire is the most desirable c) the democratic is the most desirable d) there is no discernable difference in the effectiveness
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c) the democratic is the most desirable
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A group with more than one leader is said to utilize co-leaders. Co-leadership is desirable because a) the group can go on even if one leader is absent b) two leaders can focus on group dynamics better than one leader c) leaders can process their feelings between sessions d) all of the above
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d) all of the above
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Co-leadership a) reduces burnout and helps ensure safety b) increases burnout c) has no impact on burnout d) should not be used for open groups
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a) reduces burnout and helps ensure safety
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Co-leadership a) is helpful when one leader is experiencing counter-transference b) exacerbates the harm of counter-transference c) has no impact on the issue of counter-transferrence d) eliminates all difficulties associated with counter-transference
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a) is helpful when one leader is experiencing counter-transference
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Co-leadership, also known as co-facilitation, can be a disadvantage when a) leaders are working against each other; this can fragment the group b) leaders are intimate with each other c) leaders question each other’s competence d) all the above
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d) all the above
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Co-leaders are apt to work at cross-purposes when a) they do not meet between group sessions b) they do meet between group sessions c) they are master’s level practitioners d) they are doctoral level practitioners
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a) they do not meet between group sessions
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Gerald Corey, who has written extensively on group therapy, believes _______ is necessary for an effective group leader. a) a master’s degree in guidance and counseling b) a doctorate in counselor education c) participation in a therapeutic group and participation in a leader’s group (even if the individual is well educated and is licensed and certified) d) three credit hours in a graduate course in group therapy
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c) participation in a therapeutic group and participation in a leader’s group (even if the individual is well educated and is licensed and certified)
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Most experts would agree that an effective adult counseling group has ______ members. a) 9 to 12 b) 3 to 5 c) 11 to 16 d) 5 or 6 to 8
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d) 5 or 6 to 8
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Most experts would agree that an effective counseling group for children has a) more members than an adult group b) less members than an adult group c) at least two group leaders d) 9 to 12 members
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b) less members than an adult group
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Although the length of group counseling sessions will vary, most experts would agree that _____ is plenty of time when critical issues are being examined. a) three hours per session b) one hour per session c) six hours per session d) two hours per session
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d) two hours per session
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In terms of group risks a) an ethical leader will discuss them during the initial session with a client b) an ethical leader should never discuss the risks with a client c) research has demonstrated that the less said about them the better the group will interact d) an ethical leader allows the group to discover the risks and work through them at their own pace
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a) an ethical leader will discuss them during the initial session with a client
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An adept group leader will a) attempt to safeguard clients against risks b) work to reduce risks and dangers c) a and b d) let the group handle the dangers on their own
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c) a and b
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A group participant wants to drop out of a group. Since the group is “closed” ASGW ethics state that a) the leader must insist that the client stay b) the client must be allowed to withdraw c) the leader should allow other members to put pressure on the participant to stay d) a and c
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b) the client must be allowed to withdraw
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During the initial session of a group the leader explains that no smoking and no cursing will be permitted. This is known as a) setting ground rules b) ambivalent transference c) blocking d) scapegoating
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a) setting ground rules
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Group norms refer to a) a statistically normal group composed of 8-12 members b) a statistically normal group composed of 12-14 members c) a normal group with no cultural differences d) the range of acceptable behavior within the group
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d) the range of acceptable behavior within the group
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The study of group operations is often called a) group desensitization b) the hot seat technique c) group dynamics d) structuring the group
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c) group dynamics
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The word dynamic means the group is a) normal b) always changing c) static d) defined in an operational manner
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b) always changing
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Experts firmly believe that a common weakness in many groups is a) setting too many goals b) using a male and female co-leader c) that the leader uses a democratic style d) a lack of goal setting
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d) a lack of goal setting
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A group leader who utilizes an abundance of group exercises is a) probably not running assertiveness training group b) is running an unstructured group c) is running a structured group d) is in variably running a self-help group
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c) is running a structured group
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Some theorists object to the word unstructured in group work because a) a group cannot have structure b) only structured groups are effective c) unstructured groups are hardly therapeutic d) unstructured refers only to counseling and not to therapy groups
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a) a group cannot have structure
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Some research demonstrates that a) structure exercises early in the group impaired later communication between group members b) structured exercises with feedback early in the group served to improve communication btwn group members c) autocratic or authoritarian leadership styles promote communication best d) structured exercises are never appropriate
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b) structured exercises with feedback early in the group served to improve communication btwn group members
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In some literature, group cohesiveness, or “we-ness”, is known as a) group unity b) a sociogram c) Karpman’s triangle d) the transition stage
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a) group unity
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Group members assume roles within a group. Which of the following is not a group role a) energizer b) scapegoat c) gatekeeper d) reactive schizophrenia
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d) reactive schizophrenia
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A group member who insists on asking other members inappropriate questions is known as a Peeping Tom or a) an energizer b) a scapegoat c) an interrogator d) a follower
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c) an interrogator
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The follower goes along with whatever the rest of the group thinks. From a personality standpoint, the follower is a) aggressive b) assertive c) practicing excitation d) nonassertive
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d) nonassertive
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The _____ may secretly wish that he or she was running the group. a) follower b) gatekeeper c) social isolate d) harmonizer
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b) gatekeeper
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Everybody picks on a) the gatekeeper b) the harmonizer, also known as the conciliator c) the scapegoat d) the storyteller, the intellectualizer, the attacker, and the joker
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c) the scapegoat
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A female group member is obviously not participating. A group member playing the ____ is most likely to mention this and urger her to participate. a) gatekeeper b) interrogator c) scapegoat d) storyteller
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a) gatekeeper
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Cohesiveness, or group unity, is desirable. It promotes bonding and a sens of “we-ness” between group members. When cohesiveness is strong, nevertheless, it can be negative as a) it can stunt creativity b) it can abet conformity c) a and b d) it can cause the group to split into factions
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c) a and b
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In a healthy group, members a) assume a role and never change it b) have no roles c) are flexible and can change roles d) spend a great deal of time practicing role reversal
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c) are flexible and can change roles
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In a group, task roles a) help solve problems b) aid in terms of goal setting and keep the group focused c) are seen as positive d) all of the above
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d) all of the above
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Maintenance roles, like task roles, are positive since such roles a) help to maintain the group b) are self-serving c) help promote autocratic leadership d) always stress the importance of the here-and-now
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a) help to maintain the group
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Self-serving or individual roles are negative inasmuch as a) they promote democratic leadership b) they work against the group c) they serve the individual and not the group d) b and c
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d) b and c
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Although task roles and maintenance roles are indeed positive, the group can suffer if the group is not flexible and remains in one or the other too long since a) an effective group needs some self-serving roles b) if a group gets stuck in task roles, interaction suffers c) if a group gets stuck in maintenance roles, little work (or tasks) will be accomplished d) b and c
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d) b and c
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Group specialists define role conflict as a) tension between two group members who have assumed different roles b) a situation in which there is a discrepancy between the way a member is expected to behave and the way he or she actually behaves c) tension between the group leader and a group member d) members criticizing other members between group sessions
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b) a situation in which there is a discrepancy between the way a member is expected to behave and the way he or she actually behaves
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A major group dynamic is group development. This is usually expressed in terms of a) the number of hours of group conflict b) theories of group stages c) the Rosenthal Effect d) the Hawthorne Effect
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b) theories of group stages
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Irvin Yalom is a famous existentialist therapist and a pioneer in the group movement. He suggested these four group stages: orientation, conflict, cohesion, and termination. In 1977 Tuckman and Jensen reviewed 25 years of research and came up with five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Which stage in Tuckman and Jensen’s paradigm is similar to Yalom’s orientation stage? a) forming b) storming c) norming d) performing
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a) forming
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The final stage suggested by theories of group stages generally deals with issues of a) group tasks b) transition c) power and control d) separation and termination
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d) separation and termination
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The initial state has been called forming, orientation, or preaffiliation stage. This stage is characterized by a) avoidance-avoidance conflicts b) a tendency for members to compete with the leader for power c) approach-avoidance behavior d) members working on the interpretation of unconscious behavior
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c) approach-avoidance behavior
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A client would generally feel the most suspicious of others in a) the final stage of separation or termination b) the intimacy stage c) the group formation/exploratory stage d) a group with co-leadership, also known as co-facilitation
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c) the group formation/exploratory stage
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Fights between subgroups and members showing rebellion against the leader generally occur in a) the second stage know as the control stage or the transition stage b) the first stage or formation stage c) the separation stage d) the intimacy stage
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a) the second stage know as the control stage or the transition stage
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A hierarchy, or pecking order, among members occurs in a) the stage of storming order, also known as the power-control stage b) the orientation stage c) the separation stage d) the intimacy stage
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a) the stage of storming order, also known as the power-control stage
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Group planning occurs a) in the initial stage b) in the stage after the transition or conflict stage c) in the final stage, also known as the termination stage d) before the group begins and continues throughout the life of the group
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d) before the group begins and continues throughout the life of the group
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The final group stage (also called the termination stage) is geared toward a) developing intimacy b) working through power and control issues c) exploration d) breaking away
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d) breaking away
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A group therapist is constructing a diagram to better understand the dynamics between subgroups and members. This is called a) sculpturing b) ego state analysis c) charting a pictorial sociogram d) charting the variance
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c) charting a pictorial sociogram
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A group leader who asks each group member to recapitulate what he or she has learned during a given session is promoting a) summarization b) clarification c) blocking d) linking
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a) summarization
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A leader who wishes to stop inappropriate discussion should rely on a) summarization b) clarification c) blocking d) linking
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c) blocking
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When a leader attempts to relate one person’s predicament to another person’s predicament, it is known as a) summarization b) clarification c) blocking d) linking
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d) linking
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Strategies that approach the group as a whole are known as a) vertical interventions b) horizontal interventions c) crossed transactions d) parallel transactions
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b) horizontal interventions
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Strategies that focus on an individual member of the group are known as a) vertical interventions b) horizontal interventions c) crossed transactions d) parallel transactions
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a) vertical interventions
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A group therapist must make a) fewer decisions than an individual therapist b) the same number of decisions as an individual therapist c) modality changes for each group d) more decisions than an individual therapist
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d) more decisions than an individual therapist
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When a counselor reads the journals in this field, it becomes evident that a) group counseling has more research than individual counseling b) researchers and practitioners are working very closely to provide accurate and effective group strategies c) a researcher/practitioner split exists in group work d) no journals focus solely on group work
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c) a researcher/practitioner split exists in group work
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Experts predict that in the future a) group leaders will be more like life-skills trainers b) group leaders will become more person-centered c) group leaders will return to a psychodynamic viewpoint d) groups will lose their popularity and eventually die out
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a) group leaders will be more like life-skills trainers
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According to researchers, groups are effective a) although researchers cannot pinpoint precisely why this is true b) due to increased transference in group work c) due to better morale in a group setting d) due to emphasis on cognitive restructuring
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a) although researchers cannot pinpoint precisely why this is true
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A major limitation related to group work is that a) REBT cannot be utilized in group therapy b) it is not really cost effective c) gestalt therapy cannot be used in a group setting d) a group leader can lose control and members could experience emotional harm
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d) a group leader can lose control and members could experience emotional harm
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A major advantage of group work versus individual work is that a) members learn to give help in addition to receiving and group sessions generally cost less (i.e. they are more economical) than individual counseling sessions b) the leader has a less complex role than that of an individual counselor c) the group leader nearly always possesses more training than an individual counselor d) all of the above
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a) members learn to give help in addition to receiving and group sessions generally cost less (i.e. they are more economical) than individual counseling sessions
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Which statement best depicts a major advantage of group work a) group work usually focuses on the here-and-now b) group work is always time limited c) group work is always superior for career counseling d) the group setting is somewhat analogous to the communication and interaction of everyday life
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d) the group setting is somewhat analogous to the communication and interaction of everyday life
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Which of these factors is not delineated by Yalom as a curative factor a) altruism, universality, and existential learning b) manifest dream content and insight into the unconscious mind c) catharsis, cohesiveness, and instillation of hope d) imitative behavior and reenactment of family experiences
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b) manifest dream content and insight into the unconscious mind
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In terms of research and the group leader’s personality a) extroverts are the most effective leaders b) introverts are the most effective leaders c) qualities such as flexibility, enthusiasm, and common sense have a tremendous positive impact may be helpful to a very small degree d) qualities such as flexibility, enthusiasm, and common sense have a tremendous positive impact.
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c) qualities such as flexibility, enthusiasm, and common sense have a tremendous positive impact may be helpful to a very small degree
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Conyne suggested that group intervention is intended to a) ferret out unconscious material b) enhance rational self-talk c) illuminate dysfunctional nonverbal behavior d) prevent, correct, or enhance behavior
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d) prevent, correct, or enhance behavior
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A group leader who wishes to assess the impact of the group ideally would a) hand out a written evaluation form during the final session b) hold a follow-up session so members can share experiences c) have an outside “observer” sit in during group sessions and consequently rate the level of behavioral change d) give each member a pretest and posttest utilizing a projective measure
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c) have an outside “observer” sit in during group sessions and consequently rate the level of behavioral change
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A group leader who is counseling children under 10 years of age could best enhance the treatment process by a) involving parents and asking them for input b) keeping the parents uninvolved c) reminding the children to speak softly at all times d) b and c
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a) involving parents and asking them for input
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When an adolescent complains about his or her parents in the group it is best to a) jump on the bandwagon and agree with the child b) avoid taking sides but help him or her see the parents’ point of view via a therapeutic technique such as role-playing c) talk only about positive experiences d) immediately put the child on the hot seat
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b) avoid taking sides but help him or her see the parents’ point of view via a therapeutic technique such as role-playing