Govt Exam 3

question

How are critical elections and party realignments interrelated?
answer

A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections and may involve a national crisis.
question

Which of the following is a minor party that was formed to oppose segregation?
answer

The American Independent Party
question

Which of the following is an example of a trade association?
answer

the National Association of Manufacturers
question

Precinct and ward committees are important components of a political party’s organization at the state level.
answer

False
question

According to Figure 11.4, how have party unity scored in Congress changed over the last sixty years?
answer

Increased dramatically over time
question

Most researchers now explain the gender gap in party identification with the Republican Party’s difficulties in attracting female voters.
answer

False
question

Which of the following, if true, would indicate that grassroots/outside lobbying is an ineffective political tactic?
answer

Policy makers primarily work to satisfy the demands of their wealthiest campaign contributors. As a result, they rarely respond to broader public opinion.
question

A pluralist would view the presence and activities of lobbyists in Washington, D.C., as harmful to the functioning of our political system.
answer

False
question

What typically precedes a major party realignment?
answer

A critical election.
question

The Clayton Act of 1914 allowed unions to organize free from prosecution and also guaranteed their members right to strike.
answer

True.
question

When a case that an interest group is interested in, but not actually sponsoring, comes before a court, the group can _____.
answer

File an amicus curiae brief to present the group’s analysis of the case.
question

Modern national party conventions serve what ends.
answer

They mobilize supporters for the nominee, who has basically already been decided.
question

An interest group filing an amicus curiae brief is an example of _____.
answer

Lobbying the judicial branch.
question

The majority of individuals earning an annual income of more than $75,000 identify as independents.
answer

True
question

The key exception to the rule that state parties are free to act within the limits set by their state legislatures, without interference from the national party, is in the selection of _____.
answer

National convention delegates.
question

What is a trade association?
answer

An organization that represents businesses within a specific industry.
question

How does grassroots/outside lobbying differ from other efforts by interest groups to influence government?
answer

Grassroots/outside lobbying focuses more than other forms of advocacy on influencing public opinion to support groups’ goals.
question

Americans trust the government more when _____.
answer

Their chosen political party controls the White House.
question

Which of the following voter profiles most strongly suggests that an individual will identify with the Republican Party?
answer

Protestant, male, annual income over $75,000
question

Once a bill becomes a law, lobbyists typically leave the implementation up to the executive branch.
answer

False
question

The years 1860-1928 saw the ascendency of which party?
answer

Republicans
question

Which of the following is a minor party that was formed to oppose desegregation?
answer

The American Independent Party
question

Which of the following is an example of a faction, as conceptualized by Madison in Federalist No. 10?
answer

An interest group
question

In order to overcome the free rider problem, many interest groups offer material benefits. What are material benefits?
answer

Benefits given only to group members.
question

_____ provides a basis for mediation and negotiation laterally among the branches of government and vertically among national, state, and local layers.
answer

Party affiliation
question

How do interest groups lobby the courts?
answer

By bringing lawsuits to the courts on behalf of classes of citizens.
question

Which type of organization would find it easier to overcome the free rider/ collective action problem?
answer

A trade association representing a small number of firms.
question

Which of the following is an example of grassroots/outside lobbying?
answer

A petition sent to representatives in Congress
question

You are the leader of a consumer rights group that has been unable to get a meeting with your elected representative in Congress. How could you get the attention of your legislator on the issues your group cares about?
answer

Organize a demonstration in the representative’s district and invite the media.
question

One of the various ways in which parties contribute to democratic governance is by _____.
answer

Running candidates.
question

Member of partisan think tanks are primarily responsible for writing the national party platforms.
answer

False.
question

Scholarship suggests that about _____ of the promises in the victorious party’s presidential platform are completely or mostly implemented.
answer

Two-thirds
question

Married voters today are most likely to identify as _____.
answer

Republicans
question

Which of the following is an example of an economic interest group?
answer

The Chamber of Commerce
question

How does lobbying the executive branch differ from lobbying Congress?
answer

Lobbying the executive branch focuses more on rule making, whereas lobbying Congress focuses more on pending legislation.
question

Decreasing numbers of _____ have been identified as one cause on increasing polarization.
answer

Northern liberal republicans
question

Which entity has the responsibility of establishing a cohesive vision for partisan identifies nationwide?
answer

The national party organization
question

Although national committee activists attract most of the media attention, the roots of the party lie in _____.
answer

The states and localities
question

To which of the following might political action committees (PACs) invest their contributions in order to maximize their political influence?
answer

Campaigns of incumbents
question

As part of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, interest groups are now bared from sponsoring and paying judges to attend “informational conferences.”
answer

False
question

Party identification is _____.
answer

Most determined by one’s parents and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior.
question

The _____ problem occurs when people fail to join a group because they can get the benefits the group offers without contributing to the groups efforts.
answer

Free rider
question

You are a policy analyst in the Department of Energy. You were just offered a job with a renewable energy company. How long must you wait before you can lobby the Department of Energy on behalf of your new employer?
answer

2 years
question

Recent polls concerning party identification might lead a political scientist trying to understand voter behavior to believe that voter registration _____.
answer

Indicates more independents than Democrats or Republicans.
question

Membership in labor unions has increased over the last several decades.
answer

False
question

Interest groups are prohibited from lobbying the executive branch of the federal government.
answer

False
question

Why do interest groups typically offer material benefits to their members?
answer

To overcome the free rider/collective action problem
question

Which of the following statements, if true, would confirm the theory of pluralism?
answer

Elected officials seek out the opinions of multiple interest groups when creating policy.
question

The Clayton Act of 1914 allowed unions to organize free from prosecution and also guarantee their members’ right to strike.
answer

True
question

According to Figure 11.4, how have party unity scores in Congress changed over the last sixty years?
answer

Increase dramatically over time/
question

Why was Madison particularly concerned about factions in Federalist No. 10?
answer

He believed that factions pursuing their self-interest would work against the broader public interest.
question

As part of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, interest groups are now barred from sponsoring and paying judges to attend “informational conferences.”
answer

False
question

Interest groups are prohibited from lobbying the executive branch of the federal government
answer

False
question

Which of the following is an example of the free rider (or collective action) problem?
answer

An environmental group struggling to raise funds for a “clean air” campaign
question

How do interest groups lobby the executive branch?
answer

By appearing at administrative hearings to offer information.
question

In recent years, political action committees (PACs) have declined as vehicles for campaign contributions
answer

False
question

What serves as the glue that holds together the disparate elements of the U.S. governmental and political apparatus?
answer

The political parties
question

In Federalist No. 10, James Madison described how a government could be designed to control the effects of _____
answer

Factions
question

What did the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 achieve?
answer

A ban on gifts and honoraria to members of Congress and their staffs
question

What is the single greatest influence in establishing a person’s first party identification?
answer

Parents
question

When did the last political realignment occur, according to most political scientists?
answer

1932
question

While the national congressional campaign committees work to garner more seats for their respective parties, the Democratic National Committee and the Republican National Committee focus on _____.
answer

Aiding presidential campaigns and conducting general party-building activities.
question

A _____ results after fissures develop in each party’s coalition, which begins to fracture after new issues appear, dividing the electorate.
answer

Critical election
question

What has become the most powerful predictor of congressional voting in recent years?
answer

Party labels
question

When can a party change its platform?
answer

During the national party convention
question

“Spin” is when a campaign staff puts forward the most favorable possible interpretation for their candidate on any circumstance occurring in the campaign.
answer

True
question

Candidates can give as much money toward their own campaigns as they wish.
answer

True
question

How would you go about strengthening political parties in the United States?
answer

Allow a multi-party system
question

Which presidential ticket was the first to use the Internet in a national campaign?
answer

Clinton and Gore
question

Campaign consultants were first used in campaigns in the _____.
answer

1930s
question

Which presents the greatest threat to incumbents of the president’s party?
answer

A midterm election
question

The nomination campaign may begin years before the actual election.
answer

True
question

Which is true of citizens who are highly interested in politics?
answer

They constitute a small percentage of the population.
question

Most national campaigns prefer not to use social media to interact with prospective voters.
answer

False
question

A winner-take-all primary is the most representative way of allocating delegates in the nomination process.
answer

False
question

What is said of a successful presidential candidate who helps members of Congress get elected as well?
answer

The president has long coattails.
question

The _____ is the bureaucratic agency in charge of monitoring campaign activity.
answer

Federal Election Commission
question

Which of the following is the least likely reform to occur with respect to the Electoral College?
answer

Determining the president through popular vote.
question

According to the “How Has Campaign Financing Changed Over Time” feature, the largest increase in 527 political committees occurred in which year?
answer

2004
question

In general, women who vote favor which party?
answer

Democrats
question

How does the institutional weakness of political parties affect voter turnout?
answer

Voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties.
question

As the cost of campaigns has risen and fund-raising has become more important, the staff position of _____ has also grown in prestige and significance.
answer

Finance chair
question

Most elections follow the same structure, consisting of a(n) ______.
answer

Nomination campaign and general election campaign.
question

Which of the following religious groups maintains the most consistent voting patterns?
answer

Jewish voters
question

A campaign manager who was attempting to make clear that his candidate was suitable for the presidency would most likely _____.
answer

Prepare his candidate very well for televised debates.
question

If you wanted to have the most informed voters during a party nomination, you would use which nomination system?
answer

Caucus
question

What old practice did the Twelfth Amendment replace?
answer

The president and vice-president were elected from the same pool of candidates.
question

Until 2002, the primary federal regulation of campaign finance occurred according to the _____.
answer

Federal Election Campaign Act
question

During the same time period that legislators attempted to reform campaign finance, the number of PACs grew at a rapid rate.
answer

True
question

The ability of an office holder to fend off challenged from quality challengers is known as the _____.
answer

Scare-off effect
question

Candidates rarely make appearances on comedy shows such as Saturday Night Live and The Daily Show because the public does not take these outlets seriously.
answer

False
question

Nonprofit, tax-exempt groups that can expressly advocate for candidates and are not required to disclose the names of contributors are called _____.
answer

501 (c) groups
question

What institution is responsible for electing the president of the United States?
answer

Electoral college
question

Most elections follow the same structure, consisting of a(n)_____.
answer

Nomination campaign and general election campaign
question

The role of campaign consultants has become so important in today’s campaigns because _____.
answer

Candidates need specialists to help them make the most of fund-raising, media relations, and Internet outreach.
question

A campaign manager who was attempting to make clear that is candidate was suitable for the presidency would most likely_____.
answer

Prepare his candidate very well for televised debates.
question

If a small newspaper writes an incendiary expose about a candidate, the person on staff who most needs to be made aware of it is the communications director.
answer

True
question

Why is a candidate’s moving to the left or right during the nomination phase both an advantage and a disadvantage?
answer

While moving to one end of the spectrum might motivate a party base during nomination, it might actually alienate more moderate or on-the-fence voters of the general election.
question

How can redisricting threaten incumbent members of Congress?
answer

It can pit incumbents against one another.
question

In one recent election, researchers found that individual donors accounted for what percent of contributions to presidential candidates?
answer

85
question

The incumbency advantage includes which of the following?
answer

Greater visibility
question

Roughly what percentage of Americans rarely or never vote?
answer

35 percent
question

Why might being a member of a civic group make you more likely to vote?
answer

Civic groups provide opportunities to learn important political skills.
question

What Supreme Court decision determined that no limits could be placed on the amount of his or her own money a candidate spends in an election?
answer

Buckley v. Valeo
question

The person closest to the candidate who makes the essential day-to-day decisions is the _____.
answer

Campaign manager
question

If a state wanted to increase its influence in the presidential nomination, what could the state do?
answer

Frontload the primaries
question

Candidate debates became a regular part of presidential campaigns in which decade?
answer

the 1980s
question

As shown in Figure 12.1, which shows how PACs allocate their campaign contributions, if you are challenging an incumbent and looking for PAC money to support your campaign, you can expect to receive_____.
answer

Significantly less money that if you were an incumbent.
question

The brief, clever quotes that candidates hope will be replayed after media events are known as _____.
answer

sound bites
question

The most dominant feature of traditional media coverage of campaigns is _____.
answer

Coverage of the “horse race”
question

Which of the following is a criticism of early voting?
answer

It decreases the importance of campaigns.
question

Most candidates running in a general election tend to move their campaigns toward the _____.
answer

Ideological center
question

Why are some people concerned about electronic voting?
answer

Electronic voting could increase election fraud.
question

Front-loading benefits _____.
answer

Front runners
question

Which of the following is a problem presented by the Electoral College?
answer

The winner of a popular vote can still fail to be elected.
question

Congressional incumbents tend to have a low chance of reelection.
answer

False
question

What is front-loading?
answer

The tendency of states to choose an early date on the nomination calendar.
question

In one recent election, researches found that individual donors accounted for what percent of contributions to presidential candidates?
answer

85
question

Which campaign consultant might be asked by a candidate to conduct a public opinion survey?
answer

Pollster
question

The biggest reason cited by Americans for not voting is forgetfulness.
answer

False
question

If proportional representation primaries are fairer to the public, why might some state parties choose not to adopt them?
answer

They can lengthen the nomination process.
question

Why did the original Electoral College hold separate elections for president and vice-president?
answer

The Framers anticipated that partisanship would have little influence.
question

If you wanted to improve voter turnout, which of the following would your suggest?
answer

Turning Election Day into a national holiday
question

If you were to run for president on the Republican ticket and followed the general trend, you would likely accentuate your most conservative ideas in the primary and then appear more moderate during the general election.
answer

True.
question

What strategy was MOST likely behind Senators John McCain and Russell Feingold working together to pass the 2002 campaign finance reform bill?
answer

Having two senators work across the aisle limited accusations of partisanship.
question

Why is redistricting an issue for incumbents?
answer

It can pit an incumbent against another incumbent in the next election cycle.
question

Prospective judgement is voting based upon _____.
answer

A candidates policy promises
question

One of the primary dangers of the nomination campaign is that _____.
answer

Candidates can become too ideologically extreme.
question

One explanation for low voter turnout is that the burden of voter registration falls on the state and not the individual citizen.
answer

False
question

Congressional incumbents tend to have a low chance of reelection?
answer

False
question

Democrats no longer use the winner-take-all primary because _____.
answer

It was generally less representative
question

The Twelfth Amendment lowered the voting age to eighteen.
answer

False
question

George Gallup undoubtedly had a vested interest in fostering reliance on public opinion polls. Why?
answer

He was a pollster.
question

The main difference between a press briefing and press conference is the level of what?
answer

Restriction
question

Which of the following statements best reflects the Framers’ attitudes about public opinion.
answer

Public opinion is potentially counterproductive and should, therefore, be tempered.
question

The Gallop organization predicts that Andrew Cuomo, the governor of New York, wins the 2016 presidential election with 61 percent of the popular vote. If Cuomo actually wins by capturing 49 percent of the popular vote, to which factor, more that the others, would you attribute the discrepancy, given what you know about how successful Gallup has been in making presidential predictions?
answer

The presence of a prominent third-party candidate.
question

The media is also known as the _____.
answer

Fourth estate
question

How do political scientists define political socialization?
answer

As the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values.
question

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sought to _____.
answer

Balance corporate and consumer interests.
question

Gaps in the way that citizens view government, political leaders, and public policies may be the result of gender, race, age, party, and religion, which are collectively known as what?
answer

Demographic characteristics.
question

In the context of public opinion polls, what is self-selection?
answer

A reference to highly motivated respondents who decide for themselves whether or not to participate in surveys.
question

“A source at the White House said…” is an example of an attribution based on information obtained _____.
answer

On background
question

Which of the following statements about the relationship between political knowledge and political participation is true?
answer

Increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation.
question

The rise of Spanish language television and news programming is an example of _____.
answer

Narrowcasting.
question

Like the Literary Digest, George Gallup incorrectly predicted the results of the 1936 election between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Alf Landon.
answer

False
question

Bloggers, television news anchors, and radio hosts all have what in common?
answer

Tendency toward coverage bias.
question

In 1948, the Chicago Tribune wrongly predicted that Republican Thomas E. Dewey would beat incumbent President Harry S. Truman. Knowing what you know about the accuracy of various polls, what kind of poll would most likely have led the Chicago Tribune to make this erroneous prediction?
answer

A straw poll.
question

What was one result of the nineteenth century muckraking?
answer

Popular demand for anti-trust regulations.
question

Which is a primary reason that news cameras are not allowed in the Supreme Court?
answer

To avoid politicization of Court activity.
question

Which branch of the U.S. Government interacts very little with the media?
answer

Judicial
question

According to the box, “Who Owns the News Media,” over the last thirty years, media ownership _____.
answer

Has consolidated.
question

In the White House Press Room, which group would you find closest to the podium?
answer

Wire services
question

ARPANET, developed by the Department of Homeland Security, was a precursor to the Internet.
answer

False.
question

Which is a media effect?
answer

Agenda setting
question

Internet service providers _____.
answer

May not infringe upon subscribers’ rights to access legal content.
question

Americans are likely to have the most difficulty forming opinions on which of the following topics?
answer

Topics involving the European Central Bank and creditor nations?
question

In your American government class, you learn that most Americans’ level of knowledge about history and politics is quite low and is declining every year. You also learn that political knowledge and political participation have a reciprocal effect on one another. Which of the following statements aligns with the statements presented in this scenario?
answer

In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go down.
question

Simple random samples are not very useful for predicting voting outcomes because they may undersample or oversample key populations not likely to vote.
answer

True
question

Today, most news is written by _____.
answer

Citizen journalists.
question

The press has the greatest impact on public opinion regarding _____.
answer

Events in foreign countries.
question

What is the purpose of a “name recognition survey”?
answer

To discover how many people have heard of a potential candidate for office.
question

You are in a political science class. There is an argument about how to define the target population for a survey to determine if families with children would use school vouchers to send their children to charter schools. From which of the following populations should you select a sample?
answer

Parents of children under age 18.
question

Media effects is the term used for changes in _____ due to the influence of news sources.
answer

Public opinion.
question

If the president wants a live press engagement, but doesn’t want to appear him or herself, the best option would be a ______.
answer

Press briefing
question

A public official has the most control over the spin of his or her message _____.
answer

In a press release
question

The president addresses the nation directly during a _____.
answer

Press conference
question

Deep Throat of the Watergate scandal was which kind of journalistic source?
answer

Deep background
question

What is the difference between simple random sampling and stratified sampling?
answer

Stratified sampling combines random selection with predetermined weighting of a population’s demographic characteristics, whereas random sampling does not.
question

The 1996 Telecommunications Act resulted in expanded media services. What helped expand media services in the nineteenth century?
answer

Cheap paper
question

Which of the following is true regarding mandatory spending policies?
answer

They create a serious ongoing financial burden on the federal government.
question

Which of these statements best characterizes the effects of the recent economic crisis?
answer

The overall influence of the federal government in the economy has increased.
question

Which of the following is true about Social Security?
answer

It is a retirement benefit program for citizens.
question

If you support laissez-faire economic policies, you would generally favor _____.
answer

A reduction in the amount of economic regulation by the government.
question

Medicare is what type of federal program?
answer

Social insurance
question

What is the main purpose of monetary policy?
answer

To affect how much money is available to businesses and banks.
question

What do Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security have in common?
answer

They are all entitlement programs.
question

Which of the following best characterizes the federal budget process?
answer

Complicated
question

Which of the following would indicate that the economy is experiencing inflation?
answer

Interest rates are increasing.
question

The primary purpose of the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) was to _____.
answer

Bail out the banking sector.
question

Why might businesses lobby for increased regulation by the federal government?
answer

To protect themselves from domestic and foreign competitors.
question

What is the function of Medicaid?
answer

Subsidized medical care for the poor.
question

Upon taking office in 2009, which of the following did President Obama advocate to deal with the economic crisis?
answer

Increasing government spending/
question

Deregulation of which of the following industries was probably the biggest factor contributing to the economic crisis that began in 2008?
answer

The investment banking industry.
question

The best way to influence the money supply is through fiscal policy.
answer

False
question

Regulatory activities exist to help control the negative effects of economic activity.
answer

True
question

Which program is one of the first entitlement programs created under the New Deal?
answer

Social Security
question

If you subscribed to Keynesian economic policies, you are most concerned with _____.
answer

Unemployment.
question

Which of these resulted from President Roosevelt’s New Deal?
answer

The federal government created Social Security and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
question

U.S. monetary policy involves which of the following?
answer

Interest rates and the money supply
question

The Affordable Care Act deals primarily with what policy area?
answer

Health Care
question

The federal stimulus package is generally referred to as TANF.
answer

False
question

Why is monetary policy often the preferred way to address an economic crisis?
answer

Because it is both easy to implement and has fewer long-term consequences than deficit spending.
question

The main goal of fiscal policy is _____.
answer

To use taxes and government spending to help stimulate or slow down economic growth.
question

Which president helped to create modern welfare policy in the United States?
answer

Franklin Roosevelt
question

What is the long-term concern about the Social Security Trust Fund?
answer

There will be too few workers contributing to support the increasing number of retirees.
question

Which of the following is true of Social Security benefits?
answer

Benefits under Medicare Part A are automatic when a person qualifies for Social Security.
question

Which of the following is accurate with regard to the national debt?
answer

The national debt as a percentage of GDP has drastically increased in recent years.
question

In an economic slowdown, Keynesian economic policy would advocate _____.
answer

Increasing government spending.
question

According to Table 13.2, the largest number of Americans benefit from which means-tested program?
answer

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
question

Which of the following strategies does monetary policy dictate in inflationary periods?
answer

The federal reserve should raise interest rates.
question

The most recent economic crisis was a depression.
answer

False
question

Lowering the discount rate would have which of the following effects?
answer

it would encourage banks to borrow more and to extend more loans at lower rates.
question

What distinguished a means-tested program from a social insurance program?
answer

A social insurance program provides benefits based upon lifetime contributions, while a means tested program provides benefits based upon demonstrated need.
question

Health care costs in the United States _____.
answer

Have risen dramatically in the last few years.
question

Which of the following entities is responsible for setting interest rates in the United States?
answer

The Federal Reserve Board
question

Which of the following provides the greatest source of revenue for the federal government?
answer

Income taxes
question

In general, a recession does which of these?
answer

Generates a response by the federal government.
question

The national debt is the yearly difference between government revenues and the deficit.
answer

False
question

The Affordable Care Act, colloquially known as Obamacare, involved a federal takeover of the insurance industry.
answer

False
question

The annual shortfall between federal revenues and expenditures is know as which of the following?
answer

The budget deficit.
question

The size of the national debt is _____.
answer

Rising.
question

The total market value of all goods and services produced in an area during a year is termed which of the following?
answer

Gross domestic product
question

Why is a monetary policy often the preferred way to address an economic crisis?
answer

Because it is both easy to implement and has fewer long-term consequences than deficit spending.
question

If the Federal Reserve wanted to increase lending by banks, what would it do to reserve requirements?
answer

Lower the reserve requriements for banks.
question

Which of the following was the biggest contributor to the economic crisis that began in 2008?
answer

Deregulation of the investment banking industry.
question

Congress has the primary responsibility for setting interest rates in the Untied States.
answer

False
question

Since the economic crisis that began in 2008, the national debt has declined.
answer

False
question

Which of the following statements regarding the role of the federal government in the economy is correct?
answer

Presidential election outcomes are heavily influenced by the health of the economy.
question

Why might some businesses lobby for increased regulation by the federal government?
answer

To protect themselves from domestic and foreign competitors.
question

Which of the following is true in the United States of how government handles ensuring health care to the poor and the elderly?
answer

Medicare provides health care to the elderly, and medicaid provides health care to the poor.
question

Which of the following is a possible solution to the long-term problem of solvency in the Social Security program?
answer

Increase the minimum retirement age.
question

One of the biggest concerns surrounding the Social Security Trust Fund is that _____.
answer

There will not be enough money to pay future retirees.
question

The annual shortfall between federal revenues and expenditures is known as which of the following?
answer

The budget deficit.
question

What is the primary tool that monetary policy uses to affect the overall economy?
answer

Interest rates
question

Congress has the primary responsibility for setting interest rates in the United States.
answer

False
question

What is a government program called that provides benefits to all citizens who meet eligibility requirements?
answer

An entitlement program.
question

Which of the following most accurately describes the recent financial crisis in the United States?
answer

A severe recession
question

What do economists use gross domestic product to measure.
answer

The total value of goods and services produced in the economy.
question

Inflation is best understood as the rate at which _____.
answer

Prices for goods and services increase.
question

Which type of organization would find it easiest to overcome the free rider/collective action problem?
answer

A trade association representing a small number of firms.
question

You are the leader of an environmental organization working to address the problem of climate change. Given the free rider problem, what would be the most effective way to get others to join your cause?
answer

Offer an incentive, such as a t-shirt, to those who join the campaign.
question

The key exception to the rule that states parties are free to act within the limits set by their state legislatures, without interference from the national party, is in the selection of _____.
answer

National convention delegates
question

Which of the following, if true, would indicate that grassroots/outside lobbying is an effective political tactic?
answer

Policy makers primarily work to satisfy the demands of their wealthiest campaign contributors. As a result, they rarely respond to broader public opinion.
question

Which of the following is a provision of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007?
answer

Lobbying disclosure requirements.
question

The Clayton Act of 1914 allowed unions to organize free from prosecution and also guaranteed their members’ right to strike.
answer

True
question

Which of the following factors was instrumental in bringing about the first national interest groups in the United States?
answer

Improvements in communication networks.
question

The most visible instrument that parties use to formulate, convey, and promote public policy is _____.
answer

It’s platform
question

Why did president Franklin D. Roosevelt create hundreds of new government agencies?
answer

To regulate business practices and various aspects of the national economy.
question

Federal agencies are prohibited from engaging in adjudication, or quasi-judicial processes.
answer

False.
question

How do government corporations differ from private companies?
answer

Government corporations perform activities that private companies cannot.
question

Virtually all government regulation of political parties falls to the states.
answer

True
question

The competitive two-party system has always featured prominently in the Untied States.
answer

True.
question

Party conventions have hosted delegates casting Electoral College voters to select presidential nominees since 1832.
answer

True.
question

Which of the following is an element of a political party’s organization at the state level?
answer

Congressional district committees.
question

In recent years, political action committees (PACs) have declined as vehicles for campaign contributions.
answer

False
question

Members of partisan think tanks are primarily responsible for writing the national party platforms.
answer

False
question

In Federalist No. 10, James Madison described how a government could be designed to control the effects of _____.
answer

Factions.
question

Modern national party conventions serve what ends?
answer

They mobilize supports for the nominee, who has basically already been decided.
question

Who is included in the “party in the electorate”?
answer

Voters who identify with a party label.
question

What is the term for change in public opinions and voting preferences caused by media coverage?
answer

Media effects
question

Which is an exception to the equal time rule?
answer

News stations may exclude third party candidates from debates.
question

The Gallop organization predicts that Andrew Cuomo, the governor of New York, wins the 2016 presidential election with 61 percent of the popular vote. If Cuomo actually wins by capturing 49 percent of the popular vote, to which factor, more than others, would you attribute the discrepancy, given what you know about how successful Gallup has been in making presidential predictions?
answer

The presence of a prominent third-party candidate.
question

Agenda setting affects the executive branch more that it affects the Supreme Court due to _____.
answer

Media influence
question

Consuming the slanted views of cable and Internet news sources has a neutral effect on the way that citizens process political information.
answer

False
question

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 imposed regulations on large segments of the electronic media.
answer

False
question

How are exit polls conducted?
answer

In person
question

Why is Walter Lippmann credited with spurring the growth of public opinion polling?
answer

Lippman wrote a book in which he observed that research on public opinion was far too limited, especially in light of its importance.
question

Who is considered the founder of modern-day polling?
answer

George Gallup
question

Many of the latest regulations enacted by Congress are in response to demands from constituents?
answer

True
question

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program (TANF) requires that mothers provide information about a child’s father to receive benefits.
answer

True
question

What distinguishes a means-tested program from a social insurance program?
answer

A social insurance program provides benefits based upon lifetime contributions, while a means tested program provides benefits based upon demonstrated need.
question

The main goal of the fiscal policy is _____.
answer

To use taxes and government spending to help stimulate or slow down economic growth.
question

Which element of policy making is government recognition that a problem is worthy of intervention.
answer

Agenda setting
question

What was the name of the legislation enacted in 2002 to assist states with upgrading their voting equipment?
answer

Help America Vote Act
question

How can redistricting threaten incumbent members of Congress?
answer

It can pit incumbents against one another.
question

Suppose you are the candidate and you want to re-craft your campaign message. With which of the following staff members would you MOST likely work to create a compelling and effective message?
answer

Communications director.
question

A member of the Electoral College is known as a(n) ______.
answer

Elector
question

If a newspaper writes an incendiary expose about a candidate, the person on staff who needs to be made aware of it is the communications director.
answer

True
question

The person closest to the candidate who makes the essential day-to-day decision is the _____.
answer

Campaign manager.
question

How does the institutional weakness of political parties affect voter turnout?
answer

Voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties.
question

What strategy was MOST likely behind Senators John McCain and Russell Feingold working together to pass he 2002 campaign finance reform bill?
answer

Having two senators work across the aisle limited accusations of partisanship.
question

In one recent election, researchers found that individual donors accounted for what percent of contributions to presidential candidates?
answer

85
question

Most elections follow the same structure, consisting of a(n) _____.
answer

Nomination campaign and general election campaign
question

Which of the following is an example of monetary policy?
answer

Lowering interest rates
question

Which element of policy making is government recognition that a problem is worthy of intervention?
answer

Agenda setting
question

An entitlement program provides benefits to _____.
answer

Citizens who meet eligibility criteria.
question

If you subscribe to Keynesian economic policies, you are most concerned with _____.
answer

Unemployment
question

Which is an argument in favor of federal involvement in public policy?
answer

The federal government can best deal with some problems or matter of concern.
question

Monetary economic policy uses the money supply to affect growth in the U.S. Economy.
answer

True
question

If you wanted to improve voter turnout, which of the following would you suggest?
answer

Turning Election Day into a national holiday
question

If you are competing for your party’s nomination for office, you must first participate in a(n) _____.
answer

Primary election

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