Government Final

The term public opinion is used to describe:
a. the presidents collected speeches and writings during his term in office
b. the analysis of events broadcasted by reporters during the evening news
c. beliefs and attitudes toward different issues, events and people
d. the U.S. Supreme Court’s decisions
A political ideology is best defined as:
a. the specific preferences individuals contemplate while discussing an issue
b. the basic principles that shape particular attitudes
c. a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government
d. the concrete interests that people try to defend through public policy
The difference between a political value and a political attitude is that:
a. values are conservative while attitudes are liberal
b. values are liberal while attitudes are conservative
c. values are held for a short term while attitudes are for a long term
d. values are basic principles while attitudes are specific preferences
A socialist is someone who believes that:
a government should be very active in providing-
a. universal health care but very inactive in all other spheres
b. universal education but very inactive in all other spheres
c. in promoting national defense but very inactive in all other spheres
d. government should be very active in many spheres in order to reduce economic and social inequality
A liberal would most likely support:
a. an expansion in govnt social services
b. an increase in the federal military budget
c. prayer in public schools
d. a ban on abortions
Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support:
a. govnt regulation of business
b. abortion rights
c. school prayer
d. the expansion of government activity
The term gender gap refers to:
a. differences in political opinions between men and women
b. differences in education and income levels for men and women
c. differing levels of political participation between the genders
d. differences in fundamental political values held by men and women
Which of the statements about agents of socialization is false?
a. family membership in social groups, and education are all important agencies of socialization
b. people’s preference for a political party is primarily acquired through their family
c. an individuals religion has no impact on their political values
d. attending college makes people more likely to participate in policies
Which is true about the news media?
a. the mass media are neutral messengers for ideas
b. the mass media have an enormous impact on public opinion
c. national journalists tend to avoid investigating political scandals
d. journalists tend to provide negative coverage of a president during times of crises
The small group selected by pollsters to represent the entire population is called
a. validilty quotient
b. reliability quotient
c. sample
d. quota
What was the most common form of taxation during the colonial era?
a. income tax
b. taxes on commercial products and activities
c. the animal head tax
d. taxes for use of governmental services and lands
Colonial Protestors of the stamp act and sugar act rallied around:
a.”no taxation without representation
b. “give me liberty or give me death”
c. “remember the alamo”
d. ………………
A ____________ is a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for powers expressly delegated to a national government
a. republic
b. confederation
c. democracy
d. bicameral state
How was political power in Congress divided under the Articles of Confederation?
a. each state had an equal vote
b. each state’s vote were not formally represented in Congress
c. that states were not formally represented in Congress
d. Each state’s power depended on its geographic size
The Articles of Confederation were adopted in:
a. 1763
b. 1768
c. 1777
d. 1787
As a constitution, the Articles of Confederation were concerned primarily with:
a. creating a unitary form of government
b. creating a federal form of government
c. creating a form of government in which the states were largely subservient to the national government
d. limiting the powers to the central government
The 3/5 compromise:
a. determined that three out of every five slaves would be counted for purposes of taxation and representation
b. determined that ratio between free states and slave states
c. created a bicameral legislature
d declared that the states would pay 3/5 fifths of the revolutionary war debt and the federal government would pay the rest
The virgina plan of the philadelphia convention proposed a system of representation in the national legislature that was based upon
a. equal representation between the states
b. the concept of universal suffrage
c. the population of each state or the proportion of each states revenue contribution, or both.
d. the geographical size of a state
Bicameralism is a constitutional principle that means the division of:
a. national government into two branches
b. the powers of the executive branch between two individuals: the president and the vice president
c. the powers of the executive branch between the two individuals: the head of state and the head of government
d.Congress into two chambers
Which was designed by the framers to be an office directly elected by the people?
a. a member of the U.S. House of Representatives
b. a U.S. senator
c. a U.S. president
d. a federal court judge
Which was not an accurate statement about the consequences of declining trust in government?
a. distrust threatens the government’s ability to attract good workers in the public sector
b. distrust makes people less willing to pay the taxes necessary for public activites
c. distrust motivates people to participate in politics through voting, volunteering for political campaigns, and running for office
d. distrust weakens the governments ability to help people in times of crisis
The belief that citizens can influence what government does is called:
a. political efficacy
b. political saliency
c. popular sovereignty
d. autocracy
What is a service that a person needs but is usually unable to provide for himself or herself:
a. public good
b. cultural commodity
c. selective benefits
d. cultural benefits
What is the principle difference between an autocracy and an oligarchy?
a. the responsiveness to public opinion
b. the number of people in charge
c. the level of wealth of the rulers
d. international diplomatic recognition
A government that is formally limited by laws and rules is called:
a. democratic
b. authoritarian
c. oligarchic
d. constitutional
Direct democracy is best defined as:
a. a state of continual revolution
b. the system of government run by one person
c. a system that allows citizens to vote directly for laws and policies
d. the competition between interest groups for governmental power
Which is not an example of a public good?
a. the military
b. the local police force
c. a job
d. fire protection
Which about the changes in American society between 1900 and 2010 is not true?
a. there has been a decline in the percentage of Americans who identify themselves as Protestants
b. The average age of Americans has fallen
c. There has been an increase in the percentage of Americans who live in urban areas
d. The percentage of Caucasians has decreased.
Which is true?
a. Native Americans have always been recognized as citizens of the United States
b NA became U.S. citizens in 1868
c. NA became U.S. citizens in 1965
d. NA became U.S. citizens in 1924
Political Culture refers to the:
a. way artists, musicians, filmmakers, and cultural critics use their messages to influence political decision making
b. factors that influence the way informal social organizations make decisions
c. shared values, beliefs, and attitudes that serve to hold a nation and its people together.
d. system of organizing politically, which is defined historically in the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
The Office of the Presidency was established by Article ____ of the Constitution:
A. I
In the early 1800’s, the system of nominating presidential candidates that left the candidates beholden to their parties leaders in Congress was called:
A. the king caucus
b. party primaries
c. congressional nominations
d. presidential gerrymandering
_________________________ powers are specifically established by the language of the constitution.
a. expressed
b. delegated
c. implied
c. inherent
The president’s expressed powers include all of the following except ________________________:
a. military
b. partisan
d. diplomatic
The president’s delegated powers come from ___________
a. the constitution
b. Congress
c. the states
d. the president’s party
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
a. a majority of both houses of Congress
b. two-thirds of both houses of Congress
c. three-fourths of both houses of Congress
d. a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress
An executive order is:
a. a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president that has the status of a law
b. an emergency decree that is only for the duration of a crisis or pending congressional approval
c. a demand to Congress that it vote on a particular piece of legislation
d. any act of the executive branch that does not have to be made public
As a means of managing the gigantic executive branch, presidents have increasingly come to rely on the _________________:
a. cabinet
b. Executive Office of the President
c. Kitchen Cabinet
d. White House Staff
The power to receive ambassadors is an example of:
a. an expressed power
b. a delegated power
c. executive privilege
d. an executive agreement
Which of the following is not an expressed power of the president under Article II of the U.S. Constitution?
a. to serve as commander in chief of the armed forces
b. to declare war
c. to grant pardons for federal crimes
d. to faithfully execute the laws
Which of the following statements about the presidential veto is most accurate?
a. Presidents have used the veto only twice in American history
b. Use of the veto has remained constant across presidential administrations, and vetoes are frequently overridden
c. use of the veto varies considerably across presidential administrations, and seldom overridden
d. the line item veto and pocket vetoes are theoretical and never used
The _______________ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.
a. White House Staff
b. committee of staff
c. Presidential Advisory Committee
d. Cabinet
The President has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
a. state governors who resign before their terms have expired
b. all state Supreme Court justices
c. cabinet secretaries
d. members of the House of Representatives who resign before their terms have expired
The office of management and budget and the council of economic advisers are both parts of the _______________:
a. cabinet
b. white house staff
c. office of the vice president
d. executive office of the president
Presidential spouses are an important resource for the president in order to carry out the duty of:
a. head of government
b. head of state
c. commander in chief
d. legislative initiator
The main political value of the vice president is to:
a. bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support
b. draw negative attention away from the president during times of crisis
c. give the president an institutional link to Congress
d. act as the political partys chief fund-raiser
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
a. to serve as speaker of the house of reps
b. to cast tie breaking votes in the senate
c. to act as a chief admiral of the U.S. Navy
d. to represent the president overseas
Which of the following spouses of the presidents was the first one to run for elective office in her own right?
a. laura bush
b. Eleanor Roosevelt
c. Betty Ford
d. Hillary Clinton
The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was during:
a. World War II
b. the Korean War
c. the Vietnam War
d. the Afghanistan War
What is the general tendency of a president’s popularity?
a. Presidents usually begin with moderate ratings that move drastically up or down, depending on their success
b. presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years
c. presidents usually maintain the public approval ratings they had when entering office, unless there is an economic recession or international crisis
d. presidents usually begin very unpopular and increase their popularity significantly as their terms in office continue
A U.S. senator has a ___________ year term:
a. 2
d. 8
Which of the following is the best definition of a constituent?
a. it is another name for a voter
b. it is the name for a member of congress running for re-election
c. it is someone who donates money to a campaign
d. it is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature
Congress is a _______________ legislature with __________________ members:
a. unicameral; 342
b. bicameral; 535
c. bicameral; 100
d. bicameral; 442
Under the original Constitution, senators:
a. served four year terms
b. had the authority to choose the president’s cabinet ministers
c. were appointed by state legislatures
d. were selected by the federal judiciary
The idea of _____________ representation identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents.
a. agency
b. sociological
c. mirroring
In each House district there are approximately _______________ people:
a. 200,000
b. 700,000
c. 1,000,000
d. 1,500,000
In the House of Representatives, the majority leader:
a. is subordinate to the Speaker of the House
b. is the same office as the Speaker of the House
c. is superior in formal powers to the Speaker of the House
d. has the same powers as the Speaker of the House but is a different office
A senator or representative running for re-election is called the:
a. constituent
b. incumbent
c. elector
d. trustee
The process of allocating congressional seats among the fifty states is called:
a. redistricting
b. gerrymandering
c. redlining
d. apportionment
Which of the following statements concerning the process of reapportionment is correct?
a. in order for one state to gain a state, another state must lose a seat
b. states that grow in size may gain extra seats, but the Constitution forbids reducing the number of representatives for any state
c. states that fall below a maximum number of inhabitants are represented in the House by a nonvoting delegate
d. states that grow in size may gain extra seats, but the Constitution forbids any state from having more than 35 representatives
Gerrymandering refers to:
a. resources that elected members use to reward their supporters
b. manipulation of electoral districts to serve the interests of a particular group
c. practice where legislators trade their support or opposition on one bill to get the support
d. investigations of the executive branch that Congress frequently engages in
Pork Barrel Legislation:
a. deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district
b. deals with specific agricultural subsidies
c. funds efforts to increase the levels of America’s meat exports
d. grants a special privilege to a person named in the bill
Which of the following is a key assumption of the sociological model of representation?
a. because similarity helps promote good representation, the composition of legislative bodies should mirror the composition of society
b. the composition of legislative bodies need not mirror because all members of congress are equally well equipped to represent the views and interests of their constituents
c. the government that governs least governs best
d. the government that governs most governs best
Which of the following statements concerning the representation of women and minorities in the U.S. Congress is true?
a. Representation of women and minorities has decreased by one-third since the 1970s
b. representation of women and minorities has increased over the past two decades but is not comparable to their proportions in the general population
c. women are underrepresented in Congress, but there is a disproportionate representation of minorities in Congress
d. since the mid- 1990s, the number of women and minorities in Congress roughly relfects their proportions in the general population
What is the speaker of the house?
a. the vice president of the United States is also the speaker of the house
b. the representative with the longest term in the house is the speaker of the house
c. the elected leader of the majority party is the speaker
d. an employee of congress who formally brings the house into session each day is the speaker
Who has the most real power in the Senate?
a. the president of the senate
b. the majority and minority leaders
c. the senate president pro tempore
d. the chair of the Rules committee
The jurisdiction of standing committees:
a. is related to a specific geographic region
b. is defined by the subject matter of legislation, which often parallels the major cabinet departments or agencies
c. is determined by the different political parties
d. is determined by the U.S. Supreme Court
Congressional leaders form ______________ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem:
a. conference
b. joint
c. select
d. standing
The terms of the floor debate on a bill in the U.S. House of Representatives are dictated by the ___________________:
a. sponsors of the bill
b. rules committee
c. ways and means committee
d. majority leader
A filibuster allows a member of the Senate to:
a. refer a bill to multiple committees
b. avoid a conference committee
c. prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor
d. call into question any action of the executive branch

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