Government Final

Flashcard maker : Carmen Dawson
1. How did the political attitudes of young people change following 9/11?
Young people’s trust in and support for the government increased.
Which of the following is not necessarily a function of government in a democracy?
to regulate the economy
3. What type of government is a democracy?
a constitutional form of government
4. The authors of the Declaration of Independence viewed life, liberty, and property as
natural rights.
5. Over the past twenty years, what shift has taken place in the U.S. population?
More people are living in the West and the South.
6. How did 9/11 change young people’s view of government and society?
Voter turnout increased, Volunteerism increased., Trust in government increased. ALL ARE CORRECT
7. Why does the entire nation benefit from a politically active populace?
The government can more effectively represent the views of all people.
8. A social contract is an agreement between
a people and their leaders.
9. Who formulated the idea that individuals have inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property
Locke
Why do changes in the ethnic and racial composition of a population impact who governs?
Population changes cause people to question their political beliefs.
11. What is one key issue over which modern liberals and conservatives differ?
the role of the government
Advocates of which of the following political ideologies would support increasing the economic \”safety net?\”
libertarians and socialists
13. The first constitution of the United States was called
the Articles of Confederation.
Which of the following elements is not central to the government created by the U.S. Constitution?
unicameral legislature
15. The U.S. president has the power to
enforce the law.
Which of the following can be said about amendments to the U.S. Constitution?
They are difficult to ratify.
17. What type of government(s) carries out U.S. government policies?
local, state, and federal governments
Most people in the United States live under the jurisdiction of
three or more governments.
Based on Article IV of the U.S. Constitution, a same-sex marriage contract issued by one state
is legally binding in all other states.
Between 1789 and 1932, when the federal government enacted laws that states claimed infringed on their powers,
courts typically found in favor of the states.
Which of the following has had the greatest impact on the relationship between the federal and state governments?
amendments to the U.S. Constitution
In response to what event does the U.S. government most often curtail civil liberties?
war
Which of the following presidents suspended the writ of habeas corpus, the right protecting an individual in custody from being held without trial?
George W. Bush
Freedom of speech can be silenced
when it is highly likely that immediate harm will result from the speech.
Which of the following acts is not protected by the First Amendment?
throwing a rotten tomato at a performer
If police officers gather evidence illegally
it cannot be used in any court or in any state.
The right to a fair trial prevents people from
being tried for the same crime twice.
In 2007, the Supreme Court found that stringent gun control laws in Washington, D.C. violated
the right to bear arms.
A person who attends church regularly is more likely to be
conservative.
Which of the following would be most likely to influence an individual’s political views?
the president of the U.S.
Which social agents tend to reinforce political values individuals already hold?
friends
Which of the following groups is most likely to vote?
young African Americans
Which of the following groups is most likely to participate in political protests?
young Latinos
Which of the following events was followed by a general increase in the public’s trust of government?
the 9/11 terror attack
The percentage of Americans who belong to a voluntary group or organization is ________ percent.
80
People who criticize interest groups often argue that interest groups
corrupt or appear to corrupt the government.
The United Auto Workers is an example of a(n)
economic interest group.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest is an example of a(n)
public interest group.
When an interest group pays for a television advertisement that supports a political candidate, it is called
electioneering.
Inducements to join an interest group, such as hotel or retail discounts, are considered
economic incentives.
The United Auto Workers is an example of a(n)
economic interest group.
Campaign contributions by interest groups often
provide access to the policymaker by the group’s lobbyists.
According to the text, two key strategic doctrines that guided United States military power during the Cold War period were
containment and mutually assured destruction (MAD).
The constellation of military, economic, and ideological concerns about security constitute what policymakers refer to as a country’s
national interests.
National security policy must link ________ and military operations into a coherent framework for achieving our goals in the world.
Diplomatic, Intelligence, economic, ALL ANSWERS CORRECT
The State Department is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
managing United States military forces on foreign soil.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
both collects intelligence through human and electronic means and provides assessments of risk to the nation’s security.
Member agencies of the United States intelligence community include all of the following EXCEPT
Air Force Intelligence.
Congress is not powerless in opposing presidential powers related to defense and security; Congress can
Cut off funding for war, reject presidential request for authority to commence hostile activities, expand or reject presidential requests of foreign aid. ALL OF THE ABOVE
According to the text, the country that has the highest military spending (by a large margin) is
the United States.
The United States currently has ________ active military personnel.
1.5 million
The world today (in terms of power and domination) is best described as a(n)
unipolar world.
The roots of terrorism include
both extreme ideology and the lack of economic opportunity.
Current members of the \”nuclear club\” include all of the following EXCEPT
Iran.
The central tenet of the Monroe Doctrine was that
the United States would regard new European imperial activities in the Americas as a threat to American security.
John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy to guarantee American access to trade with
China.
The Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify American intervention in
Cuba
President George W. Bush’s faith-based initiative
was criticized on the campaign trail by Barack Obama, who then established a similar program once he became president.
Which of the following statements about international instances of carbon dioxide emissions is most accurate?
Although the United States produces the most carbon dioxide globally, its per capita rate of carbon dioxide emission
is in the midrange.
To qualify as an entitlement, a program must
be available to any qualified person for an unlimited time.
The International Monetary Fund
makes loans to help promote economic growth in developing nations.
Most cases that begin in a state court system are resolved in
that system (the state’s system).
In which case did the Supreme Court establish the principle of judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison
How many of the nine justices must vote to grant a writ of certiorari in order for a case to be heard by the Supreme Court?
four
Petitions for writs of certiorari are an important part of the process by which
the Supreme Court decides which cases to hear.
Which federal agency was accused of creating a \”culture of coziness\” between senior agency officials and those they were
charged with regulating?
FAA
Which of the following statements about the federal bureaucracy today is LEAST accurate?
Citizens are still attracted to party politics primarily in hopes of receiving a lucrative position in return.
Which of the following statements about political appointees is LEAST accurate?
Although women and minorities are regularly appointed to head less visible departments like HUD, prestigious
positions such as Secretary of State or Secretary of Labor remain the exclusive preserve of white men.
The mortgage finance companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which are set up by and associated with the government
but which act like private corporations that are primarily responsible to their shareholders, are examples of
government-sponsored enterprises.
Which of the following statements about presidents and the federal bureaucracy is LEAST accurate?
The president has the sole power to fire political appointees.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit to incumbency?
more federal campaign financing
Joseph \”Uncle Joe\” Cannon was an example of an exceptionally powerful turn-of-the-century
Speaker of the House.
Most of the actual drafting and review of legislation in Congress takes place
in committees.
The traditional media
Interpret the motives of political officials, are facing g more competition declaring consumption, determine what stories are newsworthy, often influence what issues should be placed on national agenda AOTB
Which of the following terms best describes yellow journalism?
sensational
Who was the first president to hold regular press conferences?
Woodrow Wilson
Journalists frequently use sports metaphors to describe politics and are particularly apt to compare elections to
horseracing.
What radical principle lay behind the Declaration of Independence’s premise that the people have a right to abolish a government?
the consent of the governed
Which event best showcased the inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation?
Shays’s Rebellion
Which of the following stipulations within the U.S. Constitution originally created an indirect democracy?
the Connecticut Compromise, the Three-Fifths Compromise, The electoral College, All the answers are correct.
Which of the following procedure(s) establish checks and balances within the federal government?
All the answers are correct. advice and consent, judicial review, Presidential vote
The case that established the Supreme Court’s power to interpret the U.S. Constitution was
Marbury v. Madison
The inclusion of the Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution is a result of
a victory of the Anti-Federalists.
Amendments to the U.S. Constitution can only be ratified if approved by
three-fourths of state legislatures or three-fourths of special state conventions.
The United States today is an example of a(n)
federal system.
What type of government system do most countries have today?
unitary system
Which of the following is not an example of a type of government in the United States?
an independent district
What part of the U.S. Constitution reserves all powers not delegated to the federal government to the state governments?
the 10th Amendment
Policies that advanced during cooperative federalism included programs known collectively as the
New Deal.
Which president is most closely associated with centralized federalism?
Lyndon Johnson
All the following amendments EXCEPT the ________ had a significant impact on the power connection between
the state and national governments.
Fifteenth
In the Near case, the Supreme Court ruled that
government officials could exercise prior restraint only when there was a threat to public safety or in cases involving obscenity.
Which of the following landmark cases established the right to privacy?
Griswold v. Connecticut
In which year did the Supreme Court establish the right of an individual to engage in consensual sexual activities with a same-sex partner?
2002
Under what circumstance could evidence collected by law enforcement officers be used in court?
if the evidence was found in a public park, If a search warrant issued had a typo, if the evidence could be seen through a car window. AOTA
What legal argument was used by the city of Washington, D.C. to support its stringent gun control laws?
The right to bear arms only applies to militias.
Political socialization impacts all of the following except
how well a person gets along with others.
Maya and Miguel portrays a Mexican-American girl making a new friend in an ethnically diverse neighborhood, the media
imparting political norms and values to individuals.
Which of the following Latino Americans is most likely to vote for a Democrat?
a Puerto Rican American
The gender gap has been a significant factor in every American presidential election since
1980
A poll on an Internet site where any visitor can vote for or against a president’s policy is an example of a(n)
straw poll.
What is the most likely reason a candidate for the office of Texas governor would receive half a percent fewer votes than an exit poll predicts?
The exit poll had a one-percent margin of error.
The belief that groups representing wealthy corporations have a large influence on political decisions arises from
elite theory.
Pluralist theory ignores the social classifications of
umbrella interest groups, the policymakers to be influenced, interest group members, All these answers are correct.
Voters can rely on interest groups for
directions for supporting a specific candidate; candidate ratings; education on specific issues. AOTA
Which of the following occupations tend to organize into interest groups?
professionals, such as doctors and lawyers, veterans, blue-collar workers, AOTA
College students are _______ as likely to participate in an interest group as 19-23 year olds who do not attend college
Twice
The individual in a group who does not contribute to the group but enjoys the benefits of it is providing evidence to
support what theoretical perspective?
rational choice
Which of the following is an indirect method of influencing public policy used by interest groups?
public outreach
Grassroots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to
pressure from constituents.
Which of the following is an indirect method of influencing public policy used by interest groups?
public outreach
The singular issue that defines American national security policy today is
terrorism.
The official military policy adopted by the Bush administration that permits the use of force to prevent hostile acts by our enemies
even if we are uncertain about the time and place of the enemy attack is called
preemption.
Foreign policy is generally guided by the assumption that nation-states act in a world that is somewhat
anarchic.
According to the authors, ________ is one of the most venerable and persistent models used by foreign policy professionals.
realism
Game theory is built on the assumption that
states act rationally in their self-interest.
Neoconservatism\” contends that in the wake of the September 11th attacks, America would
work to democratize the greater Middle East as a long-term solution to terrorist problems. act alone, if necessary have to launch periodic preventive wars to defend itself against rogue states and terrorists AOTA
Congress has all the following powers EXCEPT
the authority to conduct war.
The National Security Council serves to
both advise the president on defense and foreign policy matters and coordinate the implementation of policy among
various government agencies.
Tools of foreign policy include
military power.
Though the roots of tensions in the Middle East are numerous, complex, and not easily resolved, ________ might go a long way
toward diffusing tension in the region.
a solution to the continuing dispute over the establishment of a permanent Palestinian state
The chief distinction between defense policy specifically and foreign policy generally is that the former emphasizes
the strategic use of military force.
The Roosevelt Corollary was used primarily to justify American military interventions in
the Caribbean.
Which of the following statements about American involvement in World War I is most accurate?
The United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles that Wilson had helped to negotiate to end World War I.
Which theoretical perspective has the Obama administration used to define its national security and foreign policies?
The Obama administration does not seem tied to any one theoretical perspective.
The establishment of the United Nations and the Marshall Plan are both most fully aligned with the principles of which school of foreign policy?
liberalism
Although the Clinton administration seems to have been aware of the threat posed by terrorists and made the neutralization
of Al Qaeda a priority, the administration could not agree on how best to respond to the threat, indicating a failure of
policy formation.
Which of the following statements about American budgetary deficits is most accurate?
The 2009 deficit was just under 11 percent of GDP, the largest since WWII.
Which of the following statements about welfare in the United States is LEAST accurate?
Despite the name, not everyone who qualifies for an entitlement program is entitled to receive benefits; the
determination is made by the availability of funding during the time period in which benefits are applied for.
Which of the following statements about American health care is LEAST accurate?
Governors and state legislators unanimously supported the 2010 health-care legislation, especially the requirement that all
individuals obtain health coverage.
The Troubled Asset Relief Program was designed to
infuse money to help stabilize the banking system.
Ronald Reagan’s policy of supply-side economics focused on
decreasing industrial regulation so that companies could sell goods more cheaply.
A case can NOT proceed directly to the Supreme Court from which of the following types of courts?
local trials court
Which of the following statements about the U.S. court system is LEAST accurate?
American citizens who are found guilty in a federal court may appeal the decision in their state court system.
Which of the following statements about the U.S. district court system is LEAST accurate?
District courts require trials by jury.
Which of the following statements about the early history of the Supreme Court is most accurate?
Appointments to the Supreme Court initially carried such little prestige that many appointees declined to accept their seats.
Which of the following statements about Franklin Roosevelt’s \”court-packing\” proposal is most accurate?
It succeeded in increasing judicial support for Roosevelt’s New Deal programs.
In which of the following instances is the Supreme Court most likely to agree to hear a case?
if the case involves an issue that has been hotly debated in the lower courts
A governmental unit, like the Social Security Administration, that has special responsibilities but is not part of any cabinet
department is known as a(n)
independent executive agency.
Which president is most associated with a defense of patronage and the ability of the common citizen to perform any
government function?
Andrew Jackson
The U.S. Postal Service, which was created by Congress and which reinvests its profits into itself rather than distributing
them among shareholders, is an example of
a government corporation.
Which of the following statements about external support for federal bureaucracies is LEAST accurate?
As elements of the executive branch, federal agencies have no need to maintain a good relationship with Congress.
The Executive Office of the President allows the president to
submit a proposal for bureaucratic realignment to Congress.
Which of the following descriptions best captures popular attitudes toward the Senate in the late nineteenth century?
a millionaire’s club representing the interests of party bosses and big business
Which of the following is NOT generally one of the advantages incumbents wield over challengers?
Incumbents are more likely to be able to hide their political leanings to attract a broader base.
The most powerful figure in the House of Representatives is the
Speaker of the House.
Committees that are convened to reconcile differences between Senate and House versions of the same bill before sending
the bill to the president are known as
conference committees.
The term logrolling refers to the congressional practice of
exchanging votes among congressional members for mutual benefit.
The lawmaking procedure that prevails today may involve all of the following steps EXCEPT
a two-thirds vote on the floor of both chambers before any piece of legislation can be sent to the president to sign.
When presented with a bill, the president can respond in all of the following ways EXCEPT
exercising a line-item veto, whereby the president agrees to certain provisions of the bill, but crosses out others.
Young people get most of their political information from
the Internet, and especially from social network sites like Myspace and Facebook.
Visible trends in the mass media today include all of the following EXCEPT
a lack of interest in using new communication technologies to engage in politics.
As president during the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln
censored war-related news and imprisoned editors.
The tools by which modern presidential administrations control their image include all of the following EXCEPT:
giving low-level members of the administration wide latitude to interact with the press and offer various, even competing, explanations of the president’s policies
Which of the following statements about ownership of the media is LEAST accurate?
In the United States, the government does not own or control any major news outlets.
Which of the following statements about government regulation of broadcast media is LEAST accurate?
The FCC regulates only the content of broadcast media, not the ownership of broadcast media outlets.
________ is a strong party organization that maintains control by exchanging votes for favors.
A political machine
Realignment elections are the result of
major events that trigger a prolonged change in party control of the institutions of government. a shift in the ideological orientation of the party. a shift in the agenda and constellation of issues that win voters’ support. long-term changes in the parties’ demographic composition. AOTA
Which of the following factors is LEAST responsible for the predominance of just two parties in the American political system?
popular satisfaction with limited electoral choices
What is earned media?
media attention a candidate receives because of a recent action or announcement
What was the outcome of the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision?
It denied African-American slaves the rights of citizens.
What was the first successful challenge to the separate but equal doctrine established by the Supreme Court?
Brown v. Board of Education
The primary goal of the first wave of the women’s rights movement was to secure
the right to vote for women.
Native Americans were granted the rights of United States citizens in
1924.
Unlike European immigrants, Asian immigrants were for many years denied the right to
become citizens.
Which of the following groups lacks legal protection of equal access to employment, housing, and public accommodation?
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered citizens
Which of the following is not a presidential responsibility?
head of the judiciary
The president’s role as chief executive is to
determine how the bureaucracy will implement laws.
A bill can only become law over the president’s veto by an act of
Congress.
What is the vice president’s most important function?
to serve as first in the line of succession
The heads of the departments of the executive branch
serve as an advisory board.
The ________ describes a winning candidate at the top of the ticket who brings success to those lower on the ballot.
coattail effect
Which of the following tests would be used to determine whether a law discriminates against Americans of Italian Origin?
strict scrutiny
In Plessy v. Ferguson, the U.S. Supreme Court claimed that separate but equal facilities did not disregard
the equal protection clause.
Which of the following established a standard of equality in employment opportunity on the basis of race, national origin, religion, and gender?
the Civil Rights Act of 1964
In the case of ________, the Supreme Court first used the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to find a law discriminating against women unconstitutional.
Reed v. Reed
Which of the following statements is true regarding the status of Asian Americans’ civil rights?
They are not well represented in top positions despite high education levels.
Which of the following tactics were used to press the government to pass civil rights legislation in the second half of the twentieth century?
civil disobedience, the formation of interest groups, AOTA
The president provides economic leadership
through appointment of the Federal Reserve Board and its chair. by regulating banking. by setting goals.
Presidents can designate other advisors to cabinet rank. Typically, these would include
both the national security advisor and the director of the Office of Management and Budget.
The White House Office is primarily focused on
seeing that the president’s policies are enacted into law.
The president’s power as leader of his political party
was significantly expanded by populist Andrew Jackson.
What influence do first-generation political activists identify as significant in motivating them to become involved in civic activity?
e-school, the media, friends, and public policies
All of the following are considered social networks EXCEPT
study groups.
Which of the following is NOT a direct form of political participation?
blogging on local politics
The condition in which voters simply grow tired of all candidates by the time Election Day arrives and may thus be less likely to vote is known as
voter fatigue
The practice of making a political or social statement with one’s buying power is known as
consumer activism
A term that expresses the notion that little is required of citizens beyond their cash is known as
checkbook democracy
income of a citizen ________ his/her likelihood of voting.
largely affects
Negative charges against a candidate
decrease civic engagement among all voters. are more effective than positive messages.
both inhibit voting and change voting outcomes.
AOTA
Voter registration is a primary activity
of the local party organization.
Recruiting and training volunteers around election time is a primary activity of the
local party organization.
Historically, what type of party system has the United States had?
The United States has had a two-party system.
Third parties have not prospered because
voters don’t readily migrate from their family’s party.
most issues are structured into having two sides.
the election laws and protocols disadvantage a third party.
AOTA
The process by which political leaders use networks of friends and acquaintances to activate political participation is known as
indirect mobilization.
The condition(s) necessary for political participation is/are:
Participants must be interested in the political process. Citizens must have resources to participate. People must be asked to participate. All the answers are correct.
Voter turnout increases directly with employment status and wealth.
TRUE
Which of the following MOST OFTEN influences whether children will become civically engaged?
parents and schools
Which of the following constitute(s) direct political participation?
volunteering on a campaign, running for office, and voting
For years before the 2008 election, which major reason did young people give for not voting?
a belief that government is not responsive to their needs

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