GLY 1102 Topic 4

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Marine vertebrate fossils are Mesozoic sedimentary rocks include __. They were nektonic (free swimming) and had a global distribution
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All of these (turtles, fish, plesioaurs, mosasaurs)
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Correlation of ancient or fossil tracks, trails, and burrows with those in modern environments have allowed scientists to use these trace fossils to interpret such ancient environmental factors as diverse as water and sediment oxygen levels
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True
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__ are essentially little waves of sand that develop on a depositional surface
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Ripple marks
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__ is a clay formed by the alteration of volcanic ash
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Bentonite
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Iron can cause green, purple, and black color in rocks
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True
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Sediments accumulating in an aquatic environment, low in oxygen content, are usually this color
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Dark gray or black
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__ are finely-bedded sedimentary rocks (usually claystone to siltstones) often alternating between carbon-rich and carbon-poor beds
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Varves
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Eolian sediments are usually composed of
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Sand
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__ refers to the accumulation of deposits that exhibits specific characteristics, reflecting a specific environment, and grading into other sedimentary accumulations formed at the same time but with different characteristics
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A Sedimentary facies
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__ beds are usually mixed or contorted in some manner. They indicate proximity to unstable sediment sources or disturbances by earthquakes and volcanoes
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Disturbed
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Dinosaur remains are generally found in __ rocks
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Sedimentary
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__ are sub-polygonal shrinkage cracks produced by the dying of clay-rich sediment
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Mud cracks
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When particles in a sedimentary bed change from coarse at the bottom to fine at the top, bedding is defined as __
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Graded
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__ sediments are usually fine-grained and converted into shales and siltstones, sandstones, and coal
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Deltac
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Hematite can produce sediment shades of yellow and brown
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False
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__ occur where there is an even back-and-forth motion of water or air, as offshore just outside the surf zone
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Oscillation ripples
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Invertebrate fossils are less common from the marine realm than from the terrestrial environments
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False
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Sedimentary rocks formed in __ environments have produced the greatest number of dinosaur remains
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fluvial or river
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Leaf characteristics of fossilized plants are very indicative of
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All of these (temperature range, rainfall amounts, climate zones)
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__ occur on the base (usually a siltstone or sandstone) and represent a filling of groove, track, or depression of the underlying bed
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Sole marks
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The colors of sedimentary rocks are reflections of the climate and environments they form in and the composition of the sediments within them
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True
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Tracks and trails of organisms can be preserved in sediment and are considered a type of __
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Trace fossil
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Dinosaur remains are rarely found in __ sedimentary rocks
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Eolian
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__ are large bodies of sediment deposited where streams or rivers empty into lakes or the sea
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Deltas
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Current ripples are symmetrical with gentle slopes in the upwind or upstream direction and steeper downwind or downstream slopes
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False
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Spores and pollen can be found in the fossil excrement of dinosaurs (called coprolites)
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True
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Sedimentary rocks rich in volcanic ash tend to have light greenish to blueish-green hues
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True
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Which of the following can provide information about the environment sediments were deposited in
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All of these (sedimentary structures, fossils within the sediment, grain size and characteristics , sediment lithology or type)
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__ describes beds at an inclination to the horizon
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Cross-bedding
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Microscopic fossils of algal plants and protozoans can be used to estimate parameter(s) such as
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All of these (water clarity, water depth, ocean salinity, sea surface temperatures)

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