Global Middle Ages

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Early Middles Ages
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500- 1000
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Effects of the fall of Rome on Western Europe?
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became susceptible to invasions plunged europe into the dark ages
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Franks?
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the strongest germanic tribe kingdom to emerge, clovis was king of the franks
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Charlemagne?
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has been called the Father of Europe because we weaved together Christianity, Roman government, and Frankish traditions. Charlemagne’s empire was important because he reunited most of the roman Empire, copied and preserved classical manuscripts, and created a learning system based on classical learning. He also fought battles, spread christianity, and promoted learning.
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Feudalism
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in the early middle ages it evolved from a need for protection from the vikings. muslims, and magars. the social classes were
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Chivalry
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required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word.
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Roles of the Church
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spiritual:
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roles of monks and nuns
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provided basic social services
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relationship between christians and jews
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the Jews were persecuted by christians
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3 long term political effects of the crusades
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the eastern roman empire later became the byzantine empire. increased taxes they increased trade between europe and the middle east they encouraged the growth of a money economy
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purpose and organization of castles
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purpose was to withstand attacks
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Reconquista
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the expulsion of Muslims and Jews from the Iberian Peninsula. Ferdinand and Isabella completed this in 1492.
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estates general
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set up by Philip in 1302, had representatives from all three classes/estates: clergy, nobles, townspeople,
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Development of early jury system
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developed by King Henry II, when traveling justices visited and area local officials collected a jury
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Need for Church reform
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as wealth and power grew discipline weakened, pious christians left their wealth and land to monasteries and convents, leading some monks and nuns to ignore their vows of poverty. priests were able to marry and spent more time with family than church matters.
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Medieval cathedrals-Romanesque
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had a basilica shape like churches built during the late Roman empire. they are rectangular with flat wood roofs, had barrel vaults , had massive pillars and walls, were very dark because of limited space for windows.
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Medieval cathedrals-Gothic
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appeared in the twelfth century, replaced the barrel vault with a combination of ribbed vaults and pointed arches this made them higher with the impression of going up to God. they also had flying buttresses, a heavy arched support built into the outside of the walls.they had a bunch of stained glass windows that depicted religious scenes and scenes from daily life.
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developments in commerce/business/trade/rise of middle class
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increased demand for luxury products from the east bc of crusades. population of western Europe doubled->increased demand for agricultural products marco polo travels 3 field system merchants, traders, and artisans formed a new middle class.
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magna carta
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Magna Carta means great charter, in this document this king affirmed a long list of feudal rights. 2 very important ideas it contained: asserted the nobles had rights made it clear the that the monarch must obey the law signed 1215
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parliament
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in keeping with the magna carta english rulers called on the great council for advice. in the 1200s this body developed into parliament, and helped unify england
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holy roman empire
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north west europe, attempt to revive the western roman empire
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developments in education
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academic guilds, first universities in salerno and bologna , philosophy, muslims translated the works of aristotle and other greek thinks into arabic then others into latin and so on.
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medieval achievements
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religious themed art- paintings, stained glass windows, tapestries, illuminated manuscripts architecture- romanesque, gothic= bible in stone literature- written in vernacular, epics-song of roland, el sid (muslim) divine comedy, canterbury tales universities(muslims first)- oxford, paris, and bologna-kings needed better educated government officials, arose-> cathedral school-> first universities Learning- classical texts<- (greco-roman), reason vs. faith, thomas aquinas and scholasticism (avacina)
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concordant of worms
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agreement that ended the conflict between the pope and the holy Roman Emperor regarding the appointment of bishops
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5 economic or social changes that resulted in the growth of trade in the Middle Ages
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new trade routes trade fairs new towns growth of a middle class new business practices
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5 reasons why the late middle ages was a time of decline
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the loss of knowledge the black death feudalism the crusades church corruption
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womans role in medieval society
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women were not allowed to attend universities woman could work in guilds, often the same ads her husband or father with the hope that she will inherit it the church viewed women as a temptation some were nuns there were noble woman who played active roles in warrior society
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describe three ways the church shaped medieval life
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used spiritual authority tithing(offering) excommunication bible in latin for the clergy
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explain how the black death undermined people’s faith in the church
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they believed it was God’s punishment, the church couldn’t fix what had happened
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late middle ages
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1000-1250
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high middle ages
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1300-1500
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manorilaism
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economic system where peasants (serfs bound to the land) would work the lands of manors that the lords owned. Shared their crops and other things with the lord, and the lord gave them protection and land to live on.
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early middle ages
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clergy nobility (kings) serfs
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high middle ages
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clergy nobility (kings crusade leaders) merchants, craftsmen tenant farmers
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late middle ages
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clergy king,nobles merchants, artisans(middle class) tenant farmers
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holy roman empire conflict
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german emperors claimed authority over much of central and eastern Europe as well a parts of France and Italy emperor conflict with the popes over the appointment of the Church officials.

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