Geography 1-4

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T/F: The Earth’s circumference is close to 40,000 kilometers.
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true
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The perihelion is during the month of ________.
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January
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In angular measurement, a minute contains ________ seconds.
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60
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T/F: Our solar system is known as the Milky Way.
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false
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The shape of Earth’s orbit around the ______ is an ellipse.
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Sun
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The ________ is a basic unit of distance in the Système International (metric system).
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meter
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Earth’s \”life zone\” in the atmosphere extends from Earth’s surface to an altitude of approximately ________ kilometers.
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5
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The main component of the lower atmosphere by total volume is ________.
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nitrogen
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The source of warming in the upper stratosphere is ________.
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energy emitted from the breakdown of ozone
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A nebula is ________.
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a cloud of gas and dust
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The shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun is a(n) ________.
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ellipse
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In science, a logical, well-tested explanation is called a
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theory
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Which of the following is NOT a major topic taught in a course of introductory physical geography?
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population
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The Earth is one of ________ planets in the solar system.
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8
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The planets in our solar system formed from a cold, rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding the Sun.
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true
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_______is being added to the atmosphere by vegetation (photosynthesis).
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oxygen (O2)
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The graticule of the Earth is also known as ________.
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latitude and longitude
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The word ________comes from the Greek, meaning earth description
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geography
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Many scientists believe that higher levels of carbon dioxide will cause the lower atmosphere to warm up enough to cause global climatic changes.
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true
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The \”geosphere\” is NOT one of the four environmental spheres.
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true
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Earth is ________.
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one of the inner planets
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On June 21, the Sun’s rays are directly over the ________.
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Tropic of Cancer
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In science, the term \”theory\” is ________.
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the highest order of understanding
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A globe is a better model of Earth as a whole than any map
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true
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The characteristics of projections which portray accurate sizes but distort the shapes of land masses is called
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equivalence
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A(n) _______ is the generic term for any map line which joins points of equal value
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isoline
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At a scale of 1:10,000, the distance an inch on a map would represent more than a mile on the ground
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false
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The most important Earth resources satellite series was started int he 1970s and is known as
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Landsat
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The explanation of symbols used on a map should be contained in
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the legend
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Which of the following should contain a brief summary of the map’s content or purpose?
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the title
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A line connecting points with equal precipitation is known as an ______
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isohyet
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A(n) _______ scale remains correct even if the map is enlarged or reduced when reproduced.
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graphic
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To represent elevation on maps, cartographers use _______, which are a form of isoline
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contour lines
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A disadvantage of globes compared to maps is that globes are not
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as portable
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In the Mercator projection, which place on the Earth is portrayed ridiculously large in comparison to its actual size
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Greenland
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Conformal maps greatly distort _______ of continents in higher latitudes.
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sizes
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A geometrically corrected map consisting of aerial photographs is known as a(n) _______ map
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orthophoto
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The largest scale among the following representative fractions is _______
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1:10,000
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The relationship between the map distance and the corresponding distance on the ground is known as the ________.
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scale
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On a Mercator projection, the North Pole would be represented by a line as long as the Equator
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true
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Maps are inherently inaccurate because of their attempt to depict the curved Earth on a flat surface
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true
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The smallest scale among the following representative fractions is ________.
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1:1,000,000
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A geographic information system allows a link between data tables and a(n) ________.
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map
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A map made to show the distribution of one or more phenomenon is a(n) ________ map.
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thematic
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Most of the maps drawn on _________ projections are for an optimal portrayal of worldwide distributions
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equivalent
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The ozone layer is in that portion of the atmosphere known as the ________.
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stratosphere
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Oceans heat and cool more slowly and to a lesser degree than do land masses.
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true
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The exosphere marks the outward limit of the ________.
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atmosphere
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The approximate boundary of the atmosphere extends outward at least ________ kilometers above the surface
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10,000
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Ozone is destroyed by CFCs because the ________ in the CFCs combines with oxygen
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chlorine
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On the average, the tropopause is highest above the surface over the ________.
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equator
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Ozone is actually _______
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three-atomed oxygen
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The international treaty banning chlorofluorocarbons has been rejected by most nations of the world.
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false
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The ________ is the layer of the atmosphere where electrified atoms are plentiful
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ionosphere
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The segment of the atmosphere in which gases maintain an approximately uniform composition is the ________.
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homosphere
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The atmosphere’s general circulation is one of the key climatic controls.
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true
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It is thought that the Earth’s climate at present is being changed rapidly by ________
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human-caused releases of impurities
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Oxygen (O2)is being added to the atmosphere by ________.
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vegetation
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The vast majority of the mass of Earth’s atmosphere lies within 20 kilometers of sea level.
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true
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Some particulates absorb the water vapor around them. They are said to be ________.
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hygroscopic
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The source of heating in the thermosphere is the absorption of ________.
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ultraviolet rays from the Sun
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Water vapor is nearly absent ________.
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in the upper reaches of the atmosphere
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The influence on climate of carbon dioxide is mainly due to its ability to absorb ________.
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infrared radiation
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Which of the following climatic controls can be considered to be the \”most important\”?
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latitude
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The difference between weather and climate is that the latter is an accumulation of the former over an extended time period.
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true
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With the exception of water vapor, ________ is the most plentiful of the variable gases in the atmosphere
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carbon dioxide
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The RATE of pressure change diminishes with higher altitudes.
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true
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The order of the atmospheric layers from the surface up into the atmosphere is ________.
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troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
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Mountains act as major climatic barriers with the sheltered or ________ side receiving less moisture than the exposed side.
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Leeward
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The part of the atmosphere that contains \”weather\” and supports life ________.
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is very shallow
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The Kelvin scale is based on ________.
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absolute zero
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The general circulation of the oceans is a major mechanism for the transfer of energy from the Tropics to the Poles.
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true
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visible light makes up most parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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false
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Most of the radiation hitting the Earth from the Sun falls within the ________ part of the spectrum.
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short wave
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At which locations are solar energy most concentrated?
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at places where the angle of incidence is 90°
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Solar energy is also known as ________.
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insolation
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The reddish tint of the Sun in the late afternoon results from ________.
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scattering
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The Tropics are characterized by a wide variations between temperatures of seasons.
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false
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_______ processes cause cooling by decompression.
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adiabatic
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Although several factors are involved, the main factor controlling the distribution of annual average temperature for Earth as a whole is ________.
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latitude
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Advection is a(n) ________ wind movement.
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horizontal
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Albedo is the percentage of energy ________ from an object compared to the original amount of energy that struck the object.
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reflected
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The only major country still using the Fahrenheit scale for temperature determination is ________
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USA
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With respect to absorption of solar radiation, it is understood that ________ are the most efficient absorbers.
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dark colors
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The process of evaporation of water to gas releases stored energy called ________
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latent heat
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Conduction comes about through molecular collision.
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true
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Overall, the Southern Hemisphere has a milder winter than the Northern Hemisphere because ________.
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there is more water in the Southern Hemisphere
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The energy emitted from the Sun is a product of ________.
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fusion
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Sea level is currently rising because of global warming
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true
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The longest of all visible light waves are ________.
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red
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\”Work\” is scientifically defined as ________.
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force acting over area
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Earth’s reradiation to space consists mainly of ________.
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long rays
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On June 21, the Sun’s rays are directly over the ________.
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Tropic of Cancer

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