GEOG100_Chapter07_KeyTerms_CulturalGeography

Flashcard maker : Matthew Carle
acculturation
(n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend
amalgamation theory
formal term for the \”melting pot\” concept of the merging of many immigrant ethnic heritages into a composite American mainstream
assimilation
Convergence of newcomers and host groups, with affecting each other, not unidirectional movement towards the native group
creole
American born descendants of Europeans
cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
cultural integration
The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
culture
Lanuage, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn.
culture complex
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
culture hearth
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward
culture realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
culture region
An area in which people have many shared culture traits
culture system
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group’s collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
culture trait
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.
dialiect
A version of a language that reflects speech changes related to class, region, or other cultural changes
ethnicity
Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture.
ethnic religion
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
gender
Culturally constructed distinctions between masculinity and femininity.
gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
genetic drift
A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
ideological subsystem
The complex of ideas, beliefs, knowledge, and means of their communication that characterize a culture.
language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
material culture
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
natural selection
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
nonmaterial culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people’s behavior
race
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
sociological subsystem
expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations in economic, political, military, religious and other associations
spatial diffusion
The spread of ideas, diseases, products, and people between lands. An example of this was the trade of silk and the spread of the Bubonic Plague, and the Islamic religion along the Silk Road..
standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
syncretism
A blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith.
technological subsystem
The complex of material objects together with the techniques of their use by means of which people carry out purposeful and productive tasks.
toponymy
The study of the origins and meaning of place-names.
tribal religion
An ethnic religion specific to a small, localized, pre-industrial culture group.
universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
innovation
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
pidgin
A simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages

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