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General Psychology Final: Chapter 11,12,13,14 Fickle Study guide.

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Example on the test is a guy who changes his view based on the speakers being negative so he changes his view to the negative view what is this known as?
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Conformity
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Conformity
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changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people’s. -usually due to pressure to do so.
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Social psychology
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branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel and behave in social situations. – looks at behavior and mental processes and the social world in which we exist. – looks at how we are influenced by others and how we are connected.
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Informational social influence
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assume that the information is correct.
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Normative social influence
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to be liked, accepted, or avoid looking foolish.
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Solomon Asch (1951)
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conducted the first of his classic studies on conformity by having seven participants gather in a room. They were told they were experimenting in an experiment on visual judgment. They were then shown a white card with only one line on it followed by another white card with three lines of varying lengths. The task was to determine which line on the second card was most similar to the line on the first card. As group were told to pick the same incorrect line and the experiment was to see if the real participant would conform to their answers.
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Obedience
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changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure; compliance of a person due to perceived authority of asker.
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Milgram (1963) study
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“teacher” administered what he or she thought were real shocks to a “learner” -participants consistently follow orders to administer apparently painful shocks.
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1) What percent of the participants were willing to give shocks?
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Over 60%. about 65% of the subjects were willing to administer the highest levels of shocks to the learners.
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2) Prejudice is? Discrimination is?
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Prejudice is attitude. Discrimination is behavior.
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3) What is the most affective way to decrease prejudice?
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groups must rely on each other to solve a problem.
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Group Think
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occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.
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Prejudice
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negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group.
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Discrimination
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treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong.
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Cognitive dissonance
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sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s impression -lessened by changing the conflicting behavior, changing the conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior.
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In-groups
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social groups with whom a person identifies; “us”.
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one of the questions on test 4) Decrease the sensation of cognitive dissonance the individual must?
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change his behavior.
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5) What type A Characteristic is linked to heart disease?
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Hostility
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Type A personality (6)
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People are workaholics-they are very competitive, ambitious, hate to waste time, and they are easily annoyed. – They feel a constant sense of pressure and have strong tendency to try to do several things at once. -Finds it difficult to relax and do nothing. -People take work with them on vacation, a laptop on the beach.
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Type A personality
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– Ambitious -time conscious -extremely hardworking -tends to have high levels of hostility and anger. -easily annoyed
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Type B personality
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people are not that competitive or driven, tend to be easygoing and slow to anger, and seemed relax and at peace. -Relaxed and laid back -less driven and competitive than type A -slow to anger
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Type C personality
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People have a higher chance of having cancer.
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Type C personality
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-Pleasant but repressed person -tends to internalize anger and anxiety -finds expressing emotions difficult -higher cancer rates
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Hardy personality
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Seem to thrive on stress instead of letting stress wear them down. – seems to thrive on stress but lacks anger and hostility of the Type A personality -deep sense of commitment to values -sense of control over their lives -view problems as challenges to be met and answered
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General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) consist of three stages
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1) Alarm 2) Resistance 3) Exhaustion
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7) During what stage of (GAS) does a person have high blood pressure and a weekend immune system?
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Exhaustion
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Alarm
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When the body reacts to a stressor, the sympathetic nervous system is activated. The adrenal glands release hormones that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and the supply of blood sugar , resulting in a burst of energy. Reactions such as fever, nausea, and headache are common.
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Resistance
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When a person can experience insensitivity to pain.
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8) Burning toast or running late to work/school is an example of a?
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Hassel
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9) What is the most common disorder in the United States?
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Major depression disorder
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Stereotypes
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Five making steps in making a decision to help?
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noticing defining an emergency taking responsibility planning a course of action taking action
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Psychopathology
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the study of abnormal behavior.
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Psychological disorders
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any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life -statistically rare -deviant from social norms
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Cognitive theorist (cognitive perspective)
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abnormal behavior comes from irrational beliefs and illogical patterns of thought.
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10) Logical thinking patterns result in?
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Cognitive perpective
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11) Behavioral perspective
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abnormal behavior is learned. example is on the test about a young boy learning to be afraid of an animal at a young age.
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When you learn a fear?
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Behavioral perspective
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12) What is a Phobia?
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an irrational, persistent fear of something.
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13) When tom goes to college because that is what his father wants him to do what is this called?
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Pressure
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What is pressure?
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the psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person’s behavior that comes from an outside source.
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14) When one is dialing 911, what step is this in the decision making process?
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taking action
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15) Number 58 on the test is
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B
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Biological perspective
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_____________ explanations of anxiety disorders chemical imbalances in the nervous system genetics more activity in amygdala and limbic system
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16) When there is a chemical imbalance what kind of perspective is this?
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Biological
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17) When one goes to job interview not put together she does not know about?
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Impression formation
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Impression formation
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the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person.
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Schizophrenia
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severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations, and is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality
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What are the big five personality traits?
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Represent the core description of human personality. 1) openness 2)conscientiousness 3) extraversion 4) agreeableness 5) Neuroticism
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openness
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willingness to try new things and be open to new experience.
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conscientiousness
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the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
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extraversion
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one’s need to be with other people
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agreeableness
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the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.
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Neuroticism
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degree of emotional instability or stability.
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18) Erikson said social relationships were key to?
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personality
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19) These two were the trait theorist? (personality traits)
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Cattell and Allport
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20) The job of the _______ is to find practical ways for the ____ to get its pleasure need without defending the morality of the ___________.
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1) The job of the ego is to find practical ways for the Id to get its pleasure need without defending the morality of superego.
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Id
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part of the personality present at birth; completely unconscious.
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Ego
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part of the personality trait that develops out of a need to deal with reality; mostly conscious, rational, logical.
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Superego
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part of the personality that acts as a moral center.
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Neo-Freudians
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followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis.
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Jung
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theory included both a personal and collective unconscious
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Adler
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feelings of inferiority driving force behind personality (birth order theory).
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Social cognitive theory
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views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences
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Stress
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physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging.
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Stressors
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events that cause a stress reaction.
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Social readjustment rating scale
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measures the amount of stress resulting from major life events in a person’s life over a one year period.
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Frustration
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the psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment or a perceived need.
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Catastrophe
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an unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat.
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Hassels
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the daily annoyance of everyday life.
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Stereotype
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a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category; a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on superficial, irrelevant characteristics.
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Coping mechanisms
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actions that people can master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors.
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problem-focused coping
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one tries to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions.
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emotion-focused coping
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one changes the impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reaction to the stressor.
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21) During this coping mechanism one must changed the way they feel?
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emotion-focused
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Psychoneuroimmunology
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the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts, and behaviors on the immune system.
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22) What part of the mind would you see above the water?
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Ego
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23) Normal Social Influence
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to be liked by others.
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Meditation
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mental exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness and relaxation. -live longer
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Concentrative meditation
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a person focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation.
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Altruism
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prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself.
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Compliance
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changing ones behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change.
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The in-goups
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all the people with whom a particular person identifies.
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When one has a social anxiety disorder that person will be?
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Avoidant
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Social cognitive theory
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(using cognitive processes in relation to understanding that social world), prejudice is seen as an attitude that is formed as other attitudes are formed, though direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences on learning.
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Bystander Effect
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referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystander increases. -help becomes less likely as the number of bystanders increases. ( apathy, is a social psychological phenomenon that refers to cases in which individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present. )
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Diffusion of Responsibility
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occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inactions because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
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Major depressive disorder
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severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause, or is too severe for current circumstances.
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Rationalization
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psychological defense mechanism in which a person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior.
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24) There is an example on the test where like a woman orders a diet coke with her unhealthy meal this would be known as?
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Rationalization
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25) psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind. – memory not coming to the surface
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Repression
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Psychological defense mechanisms
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unconscious distortions of a person’s perception of reality that reduces stress and anxiety.
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Five steps in making a decision to help.
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1) noticing 2) defining an emergency 3) taking responsibility 4) planning a course of action 5) taking action
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Bonus on the test: social support system page 443
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Bandura’s influence on personality
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Bandura had an early study in which small children viewed a video of an aggressive model was one of the first attempts to investigate the effect of violence in the media on children’s aggressive behavior.
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social anxiety disorder
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fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation.
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Narcissistic Personality Disorder
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in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance, a deep need for admiration and a lack of empathy for others.
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Dissociative Identity Disorder
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Formally known as multiple personality disorder. In this disorder, a person seems to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one body.
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Personality Disorder
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a disorder in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions
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Antisocial personality disorder
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: a person has no morals or conscience and often behaves in an impulsive manner without regard for the consequences of that behavior
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Borderline Personality Disorder
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maladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody and unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others
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Jung
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disagreed with Freud about the nature of the unconscious mind. he believed that the unconscious held much more than personal fear, urges, and memories. He believed that there not only personal unconscious but also a collective unconscious as well. collective unconscious contains a kind of “species” memory , memories of ancient fears and themes that seem to occur in many folktales and cultures.
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Archetypes
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collective, universal human memories.
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Adler
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developed the theory that as young, helpless children, people all develop feelings of inferiority when comparing themselves to the more powerful, superior adults in the world.
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Bandera
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believes that three factors influence one another in determining the patterns of behavior that make up personality: the environment, the behavior itself, and personal or cognitive factors that the person brings into the situation from earlier experiences.
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Allport
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scanned the traits of the dictionary for words that could be traits, finding about 18,000 then paring that down to 200 traits .
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Cattell
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defined two types of traits surface traits and source traits.