Gen Chem Chapter 10: Acids and Bases

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litmus paper
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turns red in acid and blue in base
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BL acid
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proton donor (ADH) acid donates hydrogen
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BL base
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proton acceptor
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lewis acid
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electron acceptor
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lewis base
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electron donor
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arrhenius acid
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produces H+
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arrhenius base
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produces OH-
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arrhenius acids and bases only in
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aqueous solutions
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lewis definition is the most ____ and arrhenius is the most _____
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general, specific
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hypochlorite
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ClO-
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chlorite
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CLO2-
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chlorate
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ClO3-
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nitrite
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NO2-
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nitrate
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NO3-
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hypochlorous acid
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HClO
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chlorous acid
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HClO2
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chloric acid
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HClO3
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perchloric acid
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HClO4
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nitrous acid
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HNO2
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nitric acid
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HNO3
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weak acid or base has ___ of an effect on pH than a strong acid or base of the same concentration
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less
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Ka is a measure of
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the degree to which an acid dissociates
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the weaker the acid the ___ the Ka
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smaller
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NaOH
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strong base
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HCl
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strong acid
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NH3
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weak base
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HClO
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weak acid
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salt ions + water –> acid or base
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hydrolysis
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amphoteric
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can act either as an acid or a base
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another name for amphoteric
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amphiprotic
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examples of amphoteric species:
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1. partially dissociated conj base of a polyprotic acid
2. hydroxides of certain metals
3. species that either oxidize or reduce
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titration:
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procedure used to determine the molarity of an acid or base
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number of acid eq = number of base eq at the
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equivalence point
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indicators are ___ acids or bases
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weak… have different colors in undissociated and dissociated states
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buffer solution:
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mixture of a weak acid and its salt or weak base and its salt
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H2SO4
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strong acid
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lewis bases are also called
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ligands
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lewis acid-base reaction are also called
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complexation reactions
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Kw=
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Ka*Kb
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HNO3
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strong acid
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HCl
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strong acid
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HBr
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strong acid
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HI
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strong acid
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HClO4
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strong acid
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HClO3
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strong acid
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H3PO4
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strong acid
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CH3COOH
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weak acid
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H2O
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weak acid and weak base
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HF
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weak acid
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HCN
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weak acid
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HSO4-
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weak acid
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NH4+
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weak acid
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KOH
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strong base
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CaO
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strong base
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Na2O
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strong base
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H-
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strong base
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NH2-
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strong base
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NH3
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weak base
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CH3COO-
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weak base
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CN-
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weak base
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SO42-
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weak base
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____ Ka means strong acid
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high
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____ pKa means strong acid
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low
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chose an indicator with a pKa close to
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the pH equilibrium point of the titration
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LEO
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loss of electrons oxidize
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GER
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gain electrons, reduce
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galvanic
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spontaneous
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voltaic
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spontaneous
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electrolytic
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non-spontaneous–requires energy
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electrons flow
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anode to cathode a–>c
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acid anhydride
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2 acyl groups to same oxygen
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metals for ___ anhydrides
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basic
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nonmetals form ___ anhydrides
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acid
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salts of nitrous acids are
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nitrites

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