GED Language Arts Writing

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Active verb
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verb that shows an action performed by the subject of the sentence
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Adjective
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Part of speech that helps describe a noun or pronoun
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Adverb
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modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb by giving it more meaning
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Agreement
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Parts of sentence that are alike in gender, number and person
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Antecedent
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Noun that is replaced with a pronoun
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Antonym
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two words that express opposing concepts
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Apposition
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a grammatical relation between a word and a noun phrase that follows EX. My dog, Scout
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Auxiliary verb
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combines with another verb to help form tense (to have, to be, to do, will, shall, would, should, can, may, might, could)
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Case
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Form of noun or pronoun that shows it’s relation to the other words in the sentence
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Nominative case
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a pronoun used in the subject or predicate noun of a sentence
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Possessive case
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a noun or pronoun used to show ownership
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Objective case
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When a noun or pronoun is used as the direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition
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Clause
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an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
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Independent clause
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a clause in a complex sentence that can stand alone as a complete sentence
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Dependent clause
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a clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone
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Comparison
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Change of form in adjective and adverbs to shoe in amount quantity, such as good, better, best
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Superlative
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Refers to the greater degree in the quality or quantity of one item or person with respect to two or more others, largest of the three
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Complex sentence
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a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
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Compound-complex sentence
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two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses
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Compound predicate
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Two or more predicates usually joined by and or or
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Compound sentence
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two or more independent clauses
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Compound subject
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two or more subjects joined together usually by \”and\” or \”or\” that share a common verb
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Conjunction
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Part of speech that connects words, phrases,or clauses
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Consonant
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A letter of the alphabet that is not a vowel
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Dash
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Punctuation mark that shows a pause or break in a sentence
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Direct object
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the object that receives the direct action of the verb
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Direct quotation
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Use of the exact words of the speaker
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First person
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pronouns and verbs that refer to the person or persons speaking
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Future tense
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a verb tense that expresses actions or states in the future
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Gender
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Classification of nouns and pronouns into three groups: masculine, feminine, and neuter
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Glossary
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a list of difficult words and their meanings that are in a book
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Homonym
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word that sounds alike another but are different in meaning and spelling
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Hyphen
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Mark (-) used to form a compound adjective, to join certain prefixes to words or to separate words into syllables
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Idiom
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Group of words that, taken together, differ in meaning from the individual words used separately
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Indirect object
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the object that is the recipient or beneficiary of the action of the verb
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Indirect quotation
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a paraphrased or reworded summary of someone’s words
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Infinitive
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a form of a verb that generally appears with the word ‘to’ and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb
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Interjection
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An independent word that expresses strong feeling
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Pronoun
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a word that takes the place of a noun
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Demonstrative pronoun
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this, that, these, those
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Personal pronoun
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I, me, we, you, he, they, she, it,
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Possessive pronoun
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a pronoun that shows ownership, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs
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Relative pronoun
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That, which, what, who
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Proper pronoun
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takes the place of a noun and begins with a capitol letter, refers to a person, place or thing
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Interrogative sentence
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a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply
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Intransitive verb
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An action verb that does not have a direct object
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Modifier
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a content word that qualifies the meaning of a noun or verb
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Nominative case
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the category of nouns serving as the grammatical subject of a verb
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Noun
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a word that can serve as the subject or object of a verb
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Number
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Change in the form of a noun, adjective,or verb to show if the word is a singular or plural
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Object
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A noun or a person place or thing
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Objective case
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a pronoun used as a direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition
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Object of a preposition
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The pronoun follows a preposition such as to, form, for, against, by, between, or about.
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Parallelism
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the use of a series of words, phrases, or sentences that have similar grammatical form
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Participle
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A verb that helps describes when the action took place
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Part of speech
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one of the traditional categories of words intended to reflect their functions in a grammatical context
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Passive
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the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb
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Past tense
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a verb tense that expresses actions or states in the past
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Person
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a grammatical category of pronouns and verb forms
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Phrase
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an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up
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Plural
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grammatical number category referring to two or more items or units
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Possessive
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serving to express or indicate possession
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Predicate
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one of the two main constituents of a sentence
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Prefix
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a syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning
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Preposition
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a function word that combines with a noun or pronoun or noun phrase to form a prepositional phrase that can have an adverbial or adjectival relation to some other word
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Present perfect tense
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when the action begins in the past but concludes in the present (It has taken a long time to write this book.)
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Present tense
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When an action is taking place in the present
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Root
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Basic part of a word without prefixes or suffixes that gives the main meaning of the word
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Run-on sentences
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A run-on sentence consists of two or more main clauses that are run together without proper punctuation
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Sentence
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Group of words containing a subject and a predicate and expressing an indecently complete thought
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Declarative sentence
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a sentence that makes a statement
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Interrogative sentence
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A sentence that asks a question
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Imperative sentence
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A sentence that gives a command
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Sentence fragment
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a group of words that is punctuated as if it was a complete sentence but that does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought.
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Singular
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Form of noun, pronoun, adjective, or verb that refers to one person, place or thing in a sentence
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Subject
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Part of the sentence that does the action or is spoken about
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Suffix
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Addition to the end of the word that adds to or changes it’s meaning
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Syllable
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Smallest group of sounds, consisting of a vowel and one or more consonants that are pronounced as a unit
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Synonym
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Words that are similar in meaning
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Tense
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Time of an action, indicated by the verb, such as present, past, future, etc
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Usage
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Actual use of language by most of a population
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Verb
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Part of speech that indicates the action carried out by the subject or that tells something about the subject
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vowels
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letters representing the sounds, a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y
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ode
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a long, lyrical poem, usually serious or meditative in nature
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onomatopoeia
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using words that imitate the sound they denote – like hiss
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paradox
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a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
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parody
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writing that pokes fun at a serious work by using exaggeration or broad humor in imitation of the serious work
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personification
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the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.
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poem
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a composition written in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines
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refrain
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a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
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repetition
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repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis
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Rhyme
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In poetry, agreement in the final sounds of two or more words at the ends of lines
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Rhythm
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In poetry and certain kinds of prose, patterns of stress or accent in the units that make up the verse or sentence
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Sarcasm
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Figure of speech that is harsh in tone expresses meaning by use of the opposite
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Satire
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Work that makes fun of a person, an idea, or a social custom or institution by stressing it’s foolishness or lack of reasonableness
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Short story
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Brief work of fiction usually in a single setting, often relating a single incident
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Simile
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a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds, usually formed with ‘like’ or ‘as’
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Soliloquy
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in drama, a character speaks alone on stage to allow his/her thoughts and ideas to be conveyed to the audience
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Sonnet
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a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme
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Stanza
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a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
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Symbol
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Object that represents an idea, either psychological, philosophical, social, oe religious
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Tragedy
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Form of drama that has any or all of the following qualities, conflict of character that ends unhappily; a person of great and notable character who meets with a sudden fall because of his/her own weakness; a theme that appeals to our emotions of pity and fear
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Verse
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Single line of portrt
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Accent
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a diacritical mark used to indicate stress or placed above a vowel to indicate a special pronunciation
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Alliteration
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use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
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Allusion
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Offhand reference to a famous figure or event in literature or history
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Autobiography
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a biography of yourself
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Ballad
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a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature
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Biography
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an account of the series of events making up a person’s life
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Climax
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the highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding
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Comedy
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a humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick and satire
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Dialogue
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a literary composition in the form of a conversation between two people
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Elegy
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a sad or mournful poem
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Epic
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constituting or having to do with or suggestive of a literary epic
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Epithet
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any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality
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Essay
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an analytic or interpretive literary composition
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Figure of speech
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an expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying a literal meaning
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Foot
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add a column of numbers
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Image
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a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface
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Inversion
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(counterpoint) a variation of a melody or part in which ll ascending intervals are replaced by descending intervals and vice versa
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Irony
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incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
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Limerick
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a humorous verse form of 5 anapestic lines with a rhyme scheme aabba
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Lyric
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the text of a popular song or musical-comedy number
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Metaphore
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compares 2 things as if they were the same without the words \”like\” or \”as\”
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Meter
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(prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse
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Myrh
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A legend, fable, tale, fantasy, fairytale.
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Narrative
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a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events
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Novel
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a printed and bound book that is an extended work of fiction

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