Fundamentals of Nursing Ch. 24 Communication

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Active Listening
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Being attentive to what the client is saying both verbally and non-verbally. Facilitates pt communication by enhancing trust as you communciate acceptance and respect for the pt. refer to acronym SOLER
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Assertiveness
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conveying a sense of self-assurance while also communicating respect for the other person.
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Autonomy
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the ability to be self-directed and independent in accomplishing goals and advocating for others.
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Channels
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means of conveying and receiving messages through visual audio and tactical senses.
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Communication
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a lifelong learning process for a nurse, collect meaningful assessment date, provide education, interact using therapeutic communication to promote growth and attainment of health-related goals
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Empathy
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the ability to understand and accept another person’s reality, accurately perceive feelings, and to communicate this understanding to the other.
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Environment
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the setting for sender-receiver interaction, must meet physical, emotional and safety needs of participants. Noise, temp extremes, distractions, and lack of privacy or space create confusion, tension and discomfort.
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Feedback
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the message the receiver returns, indicates if the message sent was understood
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Interpersonal communication
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the one-to-one interaction between the nurse and another person that often occurs face to face
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Interpersonal variables
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factors within both the sender and receiver that influence communication
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Intrapersonal communication
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a powerful form of communication that occurs within an individual, aka self-talk, self-verbalization, inner thought to improve self-esteem and health, replaces negative thoughts with positive ones
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Message
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the content of the communication, includes verbal, nonverbal and symbolic language
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Metacommunication
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a broad term that refers to all factors that influence communication
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Nonverbal communication
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includes all the five senses and everything that does not involve the spoken or written word.
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Perceptions
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information based reception thru five senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Culture and education also influence perceptions
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Perceptual biases
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Human tendencies that interfere with accurately perceiving and interpreting messages from others…critical thinking helps nurses overcome perceptual biases
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Public communication
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interaction with an audience
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Receiver
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the person who receives and decodes the message
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Referent
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motivates one person to communicate with another
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Sender
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the person who encodes and delivers the message
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Small-group communication
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interaction that occurs when a small number of persons meet together
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Symbolic communication
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the verbal and nonverbal symbolism used by others to convey meaning
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Sympathy
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concern, sorrow, or pity generated by the nurse’s personal identification with the client’s needs
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Therapeutic communication techniques
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specific responses that encourage the expression of feelings and ideas and convey acceptance and respect
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Transpersonal communication
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interaction that occurs within a person’s spiritual domain, many people use prayer, meditation, guided reflection, religious rituals or other means to communicate with their “higher power”
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Verbal communication
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communication that uses spoken or written words
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Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing
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interpret messages received analyzes content makes inferences about their meaning evaluates their effects explains rationales for communication techniques used self-examines personal communication skills
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SOLER
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Non-verbal skills utilized to facilitate active listening Sit facing pt, Observe an open posture, Lean toward the pt, Establish and maintain eye contact, Relax to communicate a sense of comfort with the pt.
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Why is communication in nursing essential?
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Lifelong learning process Essential attribute of professional nursing practice Builds relationships with pts., families, and multidisciplinary health care team members
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What happens when nurses use communication skills?
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collect meaningful assessment data provide education interact using therapeutic communication to promote growth and attainment of health related goals
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Critical Thinking Standards and Ethical Care in Nursing
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Perseverance and creativity – identify innovative solutions Self-Confident Attitude – conveys confidence and comfort Independent Attitude – share ideas about nursing interventions Attitude of Fairness – ability to listen to both sides Integrity – communicate responsibly Humility – recognize the need for more information
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Challenging communication situations involving pts
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silent, withdrawn or difficulty expressing feelings/needs sad or depressed special needs angry or confrontational uncooperative and resentful of being asked to help others talkative or lonely demanding frightened, anxious, difficulty coping seeing or hearing deficits confused or disoriented language barriers flirtatious or sexually inappropriate
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what skill can a nurse develop that will make them become effective communicators?
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Critical Thinking Skills allow them to draw on theoretical knowledge and integrate knowledge with previous experience, also helps nurse overcome perceptual biases or human tendencies that interfere with accurate perception and interpretation of messages received from others.

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