FSN 334 Food Packaging Midterm 1

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Protection
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The Package must protect the food throughout its shelf
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Four Package Functions of Packaging
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Containment Convenience Communication Protection
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Containment
Containment
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Basic function of the package – helps portioning, sanitary handling, storage, movement, transportation, merchandising and purchasing.
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Convenience
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The aspect of the package that makes it user-friendly, ergonomic, or a better fit into ones modern lifestyle.
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Communication
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The package communicated as a silent salesaman with marketing information through design, graphics, brand identity, etc. Also communicates nutritional information, ingredients, serving suggestions, preparation instructions and manufacture/distributor info
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Food Scientists and technologists on this function
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Protection
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Protection
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Package must protect the food throughout its shelf life. Also can be stored at room temperature, frozen or refrigerated temperature. Must protect the food from ambient, physical and human environment.
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In order to study the food pack it is helpful to organize it this way:
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Divide it into Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary packages
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Primary Package
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In direct contact with the contain product. Provides the initial and (usually) most protective barrier. Prevents contamination, and acts as a moisture barrier (Think of plastic cereal bag)
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Secondary Package
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Provides rigidity, protects product, communicates and contains a number of primary packages (Think of cereal box)
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Tertiary Package
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Is the shipping container – groups packages for handling, protects during shipping. Contains a number of secondary packages (pallets, corrugated cases)
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Quaternary Package
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Holds the tertiary package. Normally metal container which can hold many pallets and can be transferred to or from ships, etc.
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Why is it important to consider packaging environment when creating the package?
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Package must be able to perform its function in all three environments. Failure to do so will result in poorly designed packages, increased costs, consumer complaints and rejection of the product by the consumer.
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3 Types of Packaging Environments: Physical, Ambient and Human.
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Physical, Ambient and Human.
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Packaging Environment: Physical
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Environment that physical damages can occur to the product. Ie. shocks from drops, falls and bumps, damage during transportation mode, etc.
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Packaging Environment: Ambient
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Environment that surrounds the package. Damage to the product can be caused as light (UV radiation), gases (oxygen), temperature, microorganisms, microorganisms, etc
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Packaging Environment: Human
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Packages interact with people and designing packages for this environment requires knowledge of the variability of consumers capability. Messages need to be clearly communicated to consumers and packages must contain information required by law.
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The function/environments grid
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The functions of packages and the environments where the package has to perform can be laid out in a two way matrix or grid. Anything done in packaging can be classified and located in 1 or more of the 12 cells.
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Pulp
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Fibrous raw material used to make paper based packaging. Obtained from plant fiber so is a renewable resource
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Three main constituents of pulp
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Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
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Fiber sources:
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Spruce fiber, birch fiber, pine fiber and a mix of all 3
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Main sources of fiber are:
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Hardwood (poplar, aspen and maple) and Softwood (pine, spruce, Hemlock)
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Most important fiber characteristic is:
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Length
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Importance of fiber length in paper
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Long fiber – higher tensil, tear fold and puncture strength Short fibers – smooth surface texture
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Purpose of Pulping
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To seperate fibers without damaging them so that they can be formed into a sheet of paper
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Problem with Pulping
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Presence of lignin which must be softened or dissolved to free individual fibers. (Pulps that retain most of the wood lignin consists of stiff fibers that don’t produce sttrong paper)
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Removal of lignin is done with:
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Chemicals, mechanical mean, combined methods
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Paper manufacturing steps
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Beating – improve of pulp strength paper making – depositing a very dilute suspension to reduce moisture content to4-10% by draining, pressing and drying Converting: helps to further smoothen and make uniform thickness. Determines finish
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Bleached Paper
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Good for appearance and printing quality. Ie sugar
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Parchment Paper
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Treated with sulfuric acid which makes it plastic like/high strength ie bucher shop
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Grease Proof Paper
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Made from densely packed chemical pulp. Ie cookies, back goods, candy, snacks, bar, etc.
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Glassline paper
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grease proof for butter and margarine’s use
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Waxed Paper `
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Provides a barrier againt penetration of liquuis and barrier
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Paperboard
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Termed board when it grammage exceeds 224 g/m2 weight or .012 inches
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Food Board
Food Board
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A typeof baberboard made from pleached sulfate paper board which has a nice appearance and strength. ie for scored cartrons like ceral boxes, beverage baskets (ie 6-pack) etc.
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Liner board Versus medium board
Liner board Versus medium board
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Liner board is used for the face of the corrugated board where as medium board is used for the fluted core of the corrugated board
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Chipboard
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A type of paper board made from recycled paper. Gray in color (blemishes) poor quality, used for partitions between glass containers or molded pulp such as for egg cartons, etc.
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TPS or ETP
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Tin Plated Steel or electrolyte tinplate steel strip is cleaned and coated with tin layer
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TFS/ECCS
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Tin Free Steel (TFS) is Electrolytic Chrome Coated Steel (ECCS) (less expensive than ETP)
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3 common metals in Food Packaging
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Tin Plated Steel, Tin Free Steel, Aluminum
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In general steel based material is used for (name 3):
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Cans to be retorted, Closure for glass packages, bulk drum
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Steel – Advantages in Packaging:
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Excellent Barrier Thermal Conductivity Thermal Stability Physical strength Good surface for printing Physical Strength Recyclable
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Steel – Disadvantages in Packaging
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Weight (heavy) High Cost (Dependent on metal) The need for enamels because of corrosion (rust)
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Metal corrosion Issue Factors inherent with Foods
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Acidity pH Sulfur Components Nitrates Phosphates Plant Pigments Synthetic colorings Copper
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Metal corrosion Issue factors: Effects of processing and storage
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Oxygen Thermal Processing Storage temperature
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Cans’s coated/enameled/lacquered both internally or externally to:
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Prevent corrosion, prevent interaction of the can with food product and aid in handling/decorating.
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Acrylics Applications
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Steel can coating for exteriors where a clean, white look is desired. Expensive, takes heat processing well. Ie Single serve pudding
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Vinyl Applications
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Steel can coating for beer, soft drinks and tomatoes juices. Good because it’s resistant to acid and alkaline product. Not suitable for retorted food.
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CMI
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The Can Manufacturers Institute – trade association of metal and composite can manufacturing industry and its suppliers in the US
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Aluminum
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Versatility material Impart strength, improve formality characteristics and influence corrosion characteristics
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Aluminum Advantages
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Provide excellent barrier properties Good mechanical strength Low toxicity Cheap to produce in large quantities Can be heat treated, suitable for sterile porduct Can be hermetically sealed Can be easily recycled Ideal for surface decorating and lacquering
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Aluminum Application and Advantages
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Soft, very light weight, inexpensive Used for Beverage containers, lamination of paperboard or plastics, foil for candy wrapping.
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Aluminum – disadvantages
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Shipping an empty can takes up a lot of space Can’t maximize shelf space Corrosion issues during storage if it’s not lacquered or coated. Limited sizes and shapes of cans Not suitable for microwave oven use
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Plastic definition
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Group of synthetic resins or other substances that be folded into any form
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Americans use _________ every hour. Most are thrown away __ Percent of plastic packaging is used for food products every year
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2,500,000 66%
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Thermo Plasticity:
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Melts and solidifies repeatedly without altering property or performance. Advantage of plastics
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Advantages of plastic:
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Low cost/weight, thermo plasticity, almost ultd. properties and performance, design freedom, no corrosion, easy coloring, good barrier
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Plastic Disadvantages
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Low heat resistance (melts), poor gas barrier, potential for cracking, environmental concerns (ie BPA chemical)
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Properties of Polythylene:
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Stiffness, strength/tough, low cost, easy to form, resistant to chemicals, permeable to gas, easy to process, versatile
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Polyethylene (PE) is used extensively because it’s (Note:Surpasses all plastics in quantity produced)
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Economical and versatile.
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HDPE: Acronym for _______ Recycle Number _
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High Density Polyethylene (PE Family) Recycle number 2 Good moisture barrier, moderate grease barrier, poor gas and flavor barrier, density of more than 0.94 g/cc Used for grocery bags, yogurt, sour cream, margarin tubs, foo bottles (milk jugs) bottle caps, etc.
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LDPE: Acronym for _______ Recycle Number _
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Low Density Polyethylene (PE family) Recycle number 4 Similar properties to HDPE but more clear, more flexible at low temperatures, and has a good heat property at 110 degrees celsius Used for bread bags, squeeze bottles, stretch/shrink wrap, trash bags, snap on closure for tubs, etc.
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LLDPE: Acronym for _______ Used for:
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Linear Low Density Polyethylene Used more for squeeze bottles and stretch/shrink wrap
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(PS): 1.Acronym for _______ 2.Recycle Number _ 3.Also known as
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Polystyrene or Expanded PS (EPS) Recycle Number 6 AKA Sytrofoam
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Good Properties of PS Disadvantages
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Versatile (rigid or foamed), Insulation, ease of process, low cost, clarity PS is brittle (poor impact strength) Note- Can improve by blending with polybutadiene
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Is Polystyrene suitable for protecting most foods? Why or why not?
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No, it’s a poor gas and water barrier. However, the permeability makes it suitable for breathable wrap for fresh produce
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PS applications in it’s clear form: PS as a white material: EPS (Expanded PS):
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Beverage cups and windowed cartons Single serve portions of jams and coffee creamers Expanded by pentane gas as a blowing agent, has excellent thermal insulating properties which make it great for hot beverage cups, food stock trays, meat and poultry trays
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PP Acronym for Recycled Number___ High or low density? Excellent for _____ resistance
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Polypropylene 5 Low density (.9-.915 and lighter than water… floats) Chemical
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Advantages of Polypropylene
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Strength/toughness, resistant to chemical, heat, oil and grease. Barrier to moisture, low cost, versatile, and easy to process. Excellent moisture barrier, good optical quality, fair gas barrier, brittle at low temps, has a good heat seal
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PP is similar to PE except for the fact that
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PP is stiffer and contains a higher softening temperature (reduced deformation at elevated temperatures)
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Polypropylene Application
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Threaded closures, laminate layer in form fill seal snack food applications, candy bar wraps, microwaveable containers, butter and yogurt tubs (PE closures)
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PET Acronym for Recycle Number___ Excellent for: Heat Seal Property?
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Poly Ethylene Terephthalate (PET) Recycle Number 1 PET has a very high melting point Excellent grease and oil barrier, low gas and moisture permeability, good printing characteristics. No heat seal property
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PET applications:
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Replaced glass in many water, oil alcohol and carbonated soft drink bottle (ie smart water) As a film, is used for cheese and meat packaging CPET (crystalline PET) is used for dual ovenable trays
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PCV Acronym for Recycle Number___ Disadvantages: Advantages:
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Polyvinyle Chloride Recycle number 3 Unstable and decomposes easily – limited use in food packaging because of potential migration Use as a tamper evident band or heat shrink label stock Low permeability to water vapor, gases, flavors. Good grease and oil resistance properties
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EVOH
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Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Highest oxygen barrier Not stable when in contact with water Used as a middle laminate to improve oxygen and flavor barrier properties
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PA
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Acronym for Polyamid AKA Nylon Good oil and grease resistance, high temperature stability, good gas oxygen and flavor barrier, resistant to abrasion impact and puncturing, Not heat sealable, not water vapor barrier Used for meat and cheese vacuum packaging, cook in the bag applications, etc.
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Filler machines
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Measure out a specific quantity of food product and place that metered quantity of a food in a package. Versatile in applications
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2 categories of fillers
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Volumetric fillers and weight fillers
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4 categories of volumetric fillers:
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Piston filler, diaphragm filler, time flow filler, auger filler,
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Weight filler
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Net weight filler Gross weight filler
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Piston Filler: Action of a single piston steps:
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1. Intake stoke – piston draws product out of supply tank and into measuring chamber 2. Following stroke – valve leading to the container is opened, valve leading to supply chamber is closed, causing product flows out of chamber into container. 3. Container is conveyed away and replaced by an empty container
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How does a Volumetric/Piston Filler control volume?
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By length of stroke and diameter of chamber
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Advantages of a Piston Filler:
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Versatile – can handle thick and thin products, even products with particulates or chunks
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Diaphragm Filler
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Similar in principle with piston filler but instead of a rigid piston, diaphragm flexible
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Steps for pumping
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1. Cycle Starts – valve at bottom of supply tank. Valve to empty container closed 2. Air pressure into tank forces the out into the measuring chamber (Top of the chamber is formed by the diaphragm with the plunger above) 3. Product flows into chamber. Diaphragm lifted 4. Valves and air pressure applied to plunger – forces product out and into container
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Timed Flow Filler
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Designed for free flowing liquids like milk, pancake syrup, cooking oil, alcoholic beverage, Quantity depends on the time that the product flows Includes a supply tank and a pump, timer and pipes
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Auger Filler
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Used for dry products and thick pastes. The product is held in a cone shaped bin and conveyed out through an opening at the bottom by an auger
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Auger Filler: Volume of product is directly related to
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Number of degrees the auger rotates Control can be based on time or degrees of rotation
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Weight Filler
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For products with no uniform density that require more accurate metering than can be possible with volume filling
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2 main categories of weight fillers
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Gross weight filler and net weight filler
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Net weight filler
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Measures out the desired weight of product before it enters the containers. Scale measures weight of product, when the weight in the hopper reached, the feeder stops and hopper discharges product into a funnel.
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Gross weight filling
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Measure the weight of the product and the package Before filling, samples of packages are weighed and average is calculated. Scale is preset with the sum of the desired product weight and the averaged weight of the container. Product metered directly into container
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2 Types of set up of the fillers in production line:
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In line Rotary
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Arrangement of the Fillers: In-Line
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Mostly used for liquids and paste into metal cans and glass bottles Must have at least one filling head, but often has 4 Empty containers conveyed in single file by in feed conveyer. Containers held in position by rear block until all are filled. Filled containers move forward, rear block moves and then new containers move forward and the rear block is placed back.
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Arrangement of the fillers: Rotary Fillers
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Remove empty containers from the in feed conveyer and place them on the rotating turret of the filler, filled as they travel around the outside of the filler. Once filled, placed onto the out feed conveyor. Fast system
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Capping Equipment – 2 types:
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In line and rotary Induction sealing
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In Line Capper
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Set of spinning disks that tighten the cap to the desired application torque FSN pilot plant – series of belt that tightens the cap in a steam chamber. Steam sanitizers and better seals the cap.
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Rotary capper
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Higher speed than inline capper, similar arrangement to rotary filler, as capper rotates the caps are applied and tightened
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Induction Cap Sealing
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Process in which the aluminum foil disc is sealed to the mouth of a bottle in order to ensure the safety of the product inside. Foil Disc inside the cap, Bottle passes under the induction sealer after the filling and capping process. Used for Plastic Bottles
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Indiction sealing is good because:
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Leak proof sealing (eliminates product recall costs due to leakages i container), increase shelf life, it’s tamper evident, enhanced customer care
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Form Fill Seal Machines
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Machines that form, fill and seal package on the same machine – used for wide range of products including dry powders and liquids
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Form Fill Seal (FFS) Machines perform 3 operations:
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Form the package, fill the package, seal the package
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3 types of form-fill-seal machines:
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Vertical FFS Horizontal FFS Thermo FFS
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Vertical FFS
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Product flows directly down the machine as the forming filling and sealing operations are performed. Dry Cereal, granular sugar, cake mixes.
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Horizontal FFS
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Flat web of material is unwound from a roll. Filling is down in rapid flow filler followed by slower one.
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Thermo FFS
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Used for meat, pasta products. 2 films to make packages. One plastic web is thermoformed into a tray and the other is heat sealed onto the tray to form the cover One plastic web is thermoformed into a tray and the other is heat sealed onto the tray to form the cover Bottom material unrolls and passes through heaters to soften the plastic web Then the soften web goes through the forming section where combination of pressure and vacuum pulls the plastic into the shape of a tray
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2 general categories for package testing and evaluation
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Physical strength nd protection
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Who’s in charge of what in terms of Packaging Evaluation?
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Food process is given specs on physical properties of packaging, by the packaging supplier
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What is the responsibility of the food company in terms of Packaging Evaluation
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Evaluating the ability of the primary package to protect the food within, for the the expected shelf life
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ASTM
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American Society for Testing and Materials Compiles testing protocols for many material. Focuses on physical properties pf package material
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Package Evaluation – Physical Strength
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Testing protocols available for primary, secondary, tertiary, etc. packaging They also help assess the ability of the final package to protect the food in the physical environment
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TAPPI
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Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
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Paper evaluation
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Moisture content: Paper is hygroscopic so its moisture content varies wit the ambient relative humidity International testing standard for any paper quality calls for testing conditions of 23 degrees C and 50% RH
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Caliper
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Thickness measured by a micrometer
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Basis Weight
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Weight of a given amount of paper
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Brightness
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Amount of light reflected off paper
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Moisture pick up
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Amount of water at a given temperature soaked into a given weight of paper after a given time
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Bursting Strength Test
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Mullen, tests drop resistance. Strength test
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Edge crush Test
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Tests rigidity, stacking strength. Strength test
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Flat Crush
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Tests compression resistance. Strength test
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Puncture
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Tests resistance to puncturing and shocks. Strength test
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Adhesion Test
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Adhesion of paper plies and of liners to fluting
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Moisture Resistance
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Cobb; water absorption test
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Two factors involved in empty glass containers evaluations are:
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1. Potential for breakage and 2. Container and finish dimensions
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Most critical Evaluation of metal cans relevant to food protection is the double seam inspections:
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Visual: Pull cans from the seamer and look for deforms (more frequent test) Tear-down: Pull cans and tear them apart to measure certain parameters – less frequent
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Seam thickness
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Thickness of finished seam. Can will have a particular range of seam thickness which will be an indicator of the overall pressure applied during the seaming operation
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Plastic Evaluation Tests – Tensile strength and stretch/elongation test
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Tests behavior under stress.
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Tensile Strength
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The tensile strength is the stress needed to break the sample expressed in pascals or psi Elongation
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Elongation:
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Elongation to break is the strain on a sample when in break. Normally expressed in %
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The 3 Factors controlling shelf life:
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Intrinsic Extrinsic Packaging properties *Packaging is at the center of all shelf-life studies and its role is of paramount importance
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Intrinsic
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Food product characteristics. Ie pH, water activity, enzymes, microorganisms, concentration of reactive compounds
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Extrinsic
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The environment during distribution and storage Packaging properties.
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Factors controlling shelf life Environment during distribution and storage
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Climatic – mass (exchange of moisture and gases) and heat transfer (temperature fluctuation) Physical – pallet stacking pattern
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Gas of Major importance in terms of shelf life and packaging? Why?
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Oxygen Because it has a crucial role in many reactions which affects the shelf life of foods such as microbial growth, color change, etc.
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Packaging can control variables with respect to oxygen and these can have different effects on the rates of oxidation in food:
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1. Total amount of Oxygen present 2. Concentration of Oxygen in the foods
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OTR
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Oxygen Transmission Rate – steady state at which oxygenase can permeate through a film. Expressed as a volume of oxygen that penetrate a given area in one day period at 73 degrees F and 0% RH. The higher the cc/m2/24hrs, higher transmitter of O2. The lower cc/m2/24 hrs, the higher barrier of O2
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Shelf Life study:
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Objective means for determining how long a product can reasonably be expected to keep without an appreciable change in quality, safety and characteristics. Shelf life eval and management is essential part of food quality management and overall Quality Management System through the entire chain value.
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What defines shelf life?
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Sensory, nutritional and toxicological characteristics
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Shelf Life Direct Method:
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Storing Product Under selected conditions for a period of time longer than the expected shelf life and checking it at regular intervals to see when it begins to spoil
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Indirect Method
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Predict the shelf life without running a full length storage trial Are useful for products with longer shelf life Accelerated shelf life testing or predictive models
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Accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT)
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The trial period is shortened by deliberately increasing the rate of deterioration. This is usually done by increasing storage temperature. Chemicals kinetics can be applied o quantify the effects of extrinsic factors on the rate of deterioration reactions in foods.
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Predictive Models
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Using information available from a database to predict bacterial growth under defined conditions, which is then used to calculate the shelf life of a food.

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