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Freud – Flashcard

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Who did Freud complete his medical research with?
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Ernst Brucke
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When did Freud become interested in Psychology
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He had a close friendship with Joseph Breur, a notable psychologist that would often share information regarding his cases with patients with hysteria
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Where did Freud receive psychological training?
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Freud received training in hypnosis from Jean Martin Charcot at Brucke Neurological Institute. He was the discoverer of hysteria and a talented hynotherapist
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What did Charcot believe was the source for hysteria
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Charcot believed that hysteria was the result of a hereditary weak neurological system, that may have been triggered by a traumatic event and was irreversible
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What did Charcot believe the treatment for hysteria was
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Charcot believed the treatment for hysteria was electrotherapy, which was a prevalently used method at the time, and the use of hypnosis with suggestion
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What initial treatment did Freud use for his patients with hysteria
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He initially used Charcot’s method of treatment for hysteria which included electrotherapy, and suggestion/assurance to his patient that the treatment would rid them of their symptoms. Eventually he decided to use more direct hypnotic suggestion instead of electrotherapy
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What was Breuer’s method of hysteria treatment
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Breuer would lightly hypnotize his patients and get the patient to try and recall the moment a symptom appeared then it would disappear
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What were Freuds problems with his treatments for hypnosis
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He noticed that although the patients did often have relief from their symptoms, it was often temporary
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What was Freud & Breuer’s hypothesis for the etiology of hysteria
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They believed that hysteria was the result of emotionally painful experiences that have been excluded from the consciousness. When the memories are forgotten the emotion associated with the memory is bottled up and converted to physical energy, which is hysteria
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What did Freud believe was the treatment for hysteria
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Freud believed that once the emotion connected with the memory was recovered through hypnosis the emotion can be felt and expressed and the symptom would disappear
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What was revolutionary about freud’s theory for hysteria
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Freud was the first person to develop a purely psychological theory for a physiological problem such as hysteria, he was also one of the first people to acknowledge the damage that stress, such as trauma can do to the body such as somatic symptoms
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How did Freud “create” Psychoanalysis
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Freud was working with a patient and asked her to state where her symptoms came from, she told him bruskly that she felt rushed and that he should allow her to say what she wanted. When he allowed her to speak freely it provided him with more information about her and her other symptoms
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Why did freud’s method of psychoanalysis appeal to him so much
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It allowed him another treatment approach for his patients that were unable to be hypnotized
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What is free association
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Free association is a method that was developed by freud to use during psychoanalysis and it involves letting the patient lie down on a couch facing the other direction and allowing them to speak freely about whatever comes to their mind
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What were some of the difficulties that Freud encountered during free association
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Freud stated that often times his patients minds would go blank or what came to mind was irrelevant and forgotten memories, specifically those having to do with pain, guilt, or shame were difficult to retrieve. He believed that patients that could not remember traumatic memories were protecting themselves from the pain
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What is resistance
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Resistance is the inability to retrieve painful memories
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What was Freud’s method to breaking through resistance
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He would place his hand on the patient’s head and ensure them that while their hand was present they would be able to recall difficult memories and it worked. He eventually abandoned the part of placing his hand on the patient’s forehead because he believed it made his presence too vivid when the patient should be focusing on memories
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What was the result of freud breaking through the patients resistance
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a link in a chain of associations, that when pursued led to a pathological idea and its hidden meaning, Freud referred to this as psycho analysis.
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What are the two techniques of Freud’s analysis
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analysis of transference and dream interpretation
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What was the role of dream interpretation
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believed that dreams were a way to get at subconscious material and hypothesized that dreams fulfill wishes that would otherwise wake us
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What were critiques for Freud’s psychoanalytic techniques
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It was stated that his methods were methodolgically unsound because there is no way to prove that the interpretation made by the clinician is correct. His work with hysteria patients was from a homegenous group of upper class women but he generalized the results to all women
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What were the notable theories developed by freud
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Psychosexual stages, stages of the conscious (pre, un, conscious, id, ego, superego, defense mechanisms, transference)
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What are the psychosexual stages of development
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Freud believed that children had sexual instincts from birth. By sexual instincts Freud meant a child’s desire for pleasure of any kind. For example, stimulation of any part of the child’s body will yield pleasure
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What are the specifics of the psychosexual stages of development
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oral – birth to 1 anal – 1 to 3 phallic – 3 – 6 latency 6 – puberty genital – adolescence
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What are the pleasures of the psychosexual stages of development
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Oral – sucking, chewing, eating, biting Anal – defacation, bowel and bladder use Phallic- Genital Area Latency – sexual drive is repressed, calm period, turn attention to school activities and the development of interpersonal relationships with members of thesame sex Genital- Genitals
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What are the the frustrations/goals of the psychosexual stages of development
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Oral – Feeding needs to be available immediately Anal – Potty training/ self control Phallic – Oedipal, Electra complex Latency – none Genital – maturation of sexual interests, development of intimate relationships
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What are the possible outcomes of the psychosexual stages of development
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Oral – Over eating, finger sucking, smoking, attachment is formed with their mother that will affect their level of attachment with others for the rest of their life Anal – Tidy/messy Phallic – deviancy, sexual dysfunction Latency – none Genital – unsatisfactory relationships, impotence, forming strong relational bonds with members of the opposite sex
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What did Freud believe were the 3 levels of functioning for the mind
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conscious, preconscious, unconscious
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What are the stages of the psyche
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Id Ego Superego
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What is the id responsible for?
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instinctual demands for the satisfaction of primitive desires such as hunger, thirst. All newborn processes are id
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What is the ego responsible for
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also known as the self, becomes differentiated from the id as the child grows. It is the organized and realistic part of the individual. The ego absorbs the lessons that children learned through reward and punishment and allows a person to be capable of self-criticism and self-control
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What is the superego responsible for?
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commonly known as the conscience. Monitors and sensors the ego, it is important for the governing of social behavior and moralizing. It aims for perfection and it forms the organized part of the personality structure
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What is a defense mechanism
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Unconscious coping technique that presents itself when an individual feels anxiety or threatened. It is the body’s way of protecting itself
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What are notable defense mechanisms
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Repression Denial Sublimation
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What is repression
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The fundamental defense against anxiety producing wishes, a feelings or memory is hidden from the conscious and placed into the subconscious, often traumatic
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What is denial
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refusal to accept reality or a fact
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What is sublimation
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Most prosocial defense mechanism, channeling of unacceptable impulses into a socially valuable activity, such as using sports as an enjoyable and acceptable form of aggression
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What are the critiques of Freud’s theories
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The theories were conducted to explain behavior, but not prove behavior, so it makes it impossible to conduct research on his work The inability to conduct research on his theories makes it un-falsifiable and therefore can’t be deemed as science The majority of his research was done on himself during his self psychoanlysis and can’t be generalized to the population
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What are Freud’s contributions to contemporary psychology
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Importance of the subconscious and its role in human behavior, psychodynamic theory, method for treating a mental illness that wasn’t purely physiological, trauma was often the trigger for mental disorders (somatization and the effects of stress), importance of relaxation techniques,
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What is psychodynamic therapy
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Form of therapy based on psychoanalytic principles that unconscious content of a client must be revealed to alleviate psychological tension. This theory focuses on the subconscious processes that are manifested in a person’s present behavior
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What are the differences between PDT and psychoanalysis
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Freud’s psychoanalysis placed an emphasis on the distance between the therapist and the client during sessions, they didn’t face each other. PDT places a strong emphasis of the importance of the therapeutic alliance and collaborative approach and bringing attention to feelings that are occurring during the session with the therapist and the patient.
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What are the similarities between PDT and psychoanalysis
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Free association to explore internal conflicts and problems, during PDT it is the patient who primarily speaks. It is a longer term therapy, although methods have been adapted for short term therapy, known as BDT, focuses on exploration of transference/countertransference, and analysis of defense mechanisms, believes that psychopathology often develops as a result of childhood experiences and places a great emphasis on interpersonal relationships/attachment style of the patient
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What is the conscious
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deals with awareness of present cognitions such as perceptions, thoughts, and memories. Responsible for secondary processes such as thinking and problem solving to carry out ways of satisfying desires in a socially acceptable manner
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What is the pre conscious
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relatively inert but accessible area of mental life
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What is the unconscious
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largest and most influential portion of the mind. highly active area containing primitive drives and forbidden wishes that generate pressure on the conscious mind, motivating, and determining much of our behavior.