Forensics-Exam 1 chapters 1-4

both criminal and civil laws
Forensic science is the application of science to
All of these
Which area of science is involved in criminalistics?
Doyle
The fictional character of Sherlock Holmes was created by
Orfilia
Who is known as the “father of forensic toxicology”?
Bertillon
Who developed the system known as anthropometry?
Galton
Who undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification?
Lattes
Who devised a technique for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain, which he applied to criminal investigations?
Goddard
Who established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner?
Gross
Who wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation?
Locard
Who established the first workable crime laboratory?
Locard
The exchange of evidence principle was?
Los Angeles Police Department
The oldest forensic laboratory in the United States is that of the
300+
Approximately how many operating crime labs are there in the United States (federal, state and country)?
All of these
Which of the following can be rightfully cited as an explanation for the rapid growth of crime labs during the last 25 years?
FBI
Which entity maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world?
fingerprint analysis
Which would not be included in the work of the biology unit of a crime lab?
toxicology unit
Which unit has the responsibility for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons?
Frye standard
The concept of “general acceptance” of scientific evidence relates to the
trial judge
In the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court advocated that a “gatekeeper” determine the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence. This gatekeeper is the
formal degree in forensic science
Which of the following is NOT true? An expert witness must be able to demonstrate:
jury
The final evaluator of forensic evidence is the
guilt of the suspect(s)
What is the LEAST important consideration in the gathering of evidence at a crime scene?
stand trial for burglary
Which matter is NOT the province of civil litigation? The determination of competency to
arson
Bite marks would be LEAST likely to be found in cases involving
teeth
Forensic odontology refers to the study of
criminalistics
Which of the following services are typically provided to law enforcement crime laboratories?
Alphonse Bertillon
Which of the following individuals was not an earlier contributor to the field of forensic toxicology?
the acceptability of new scientific tests
The case of Coppolino v. State highlights issues dealing with
All of these
The scientific method requires that scientific evidence be validated by
Arson/Explosives
The ten sections of The American Academy of Forensic Science include all of the following EXCEPT
the CSI Effect
The tendency of the public to believe that every crime scene will yield forensic evidence and their unrealistic expectations that a prosecutor’s case should always be bolstered and supported by forensic evidence is known as
backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples
What is the major problem facing the forensic DNA community?
variations in local laws and budgetary and staffing limitations only
The wide variation in which services are offered in different crime laboratories is due to
physical science
The ________ unit applies principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence.
forensic psychiatry
Which specialized area of forensic science examines the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings?
forensic engineering
A crime scene which involved the collapse of a structure would be analyzed by specialists in the area of
All of these
What factor(s) do(es) the court usually take into consideration as sufficient grounds for qualification as an expert witness?
evidence technicians
Specially trained personnel called ________ are employed by some crime laboratories on 24-hour call to retrieve evidence and have all the proper tools and supplies for proper collection and packaging of evidence at their disposal.
secure the scene
The first officer arriving at a crime scene, after providing or obtaining medical assistance for the injured and effecting an arrest of suspects (if possible), should immediately
both witnesses and suspects
The first responding officer must make attempts at the crime scene to detain and question:
all unauthorized personnel
Police barricades, and the strategic positioning of guards, will prohibit access to the crime scene for
taking photographs at the crime scene
The conditions at a crime scene can be compromised by all of the following actions EXCEPT
the kind of search pattern that is used to locate evidence
The size and location of the crime scene as well as the events that occurred there will determine
zone
Which search pattern would be best suited for a crime scene where many investigators are available to search a large area?
all physical evidence
The purpose of the crime scene search is to locate
infrared analysis
The most basic methods of crime scene recording do NOT include
depict injuries and weapons at scene
If the crime scene includes a dead body, the photographer should
sketch of the suspect(s)
A rough sketch need NOT include a
produce a finished crime scene sketch
CAD programs enhance the ability to
Note taking is done after all crime scene processing has been completed.
Which statement about note taking is NOT true?
zone
Which crime scene search pattern would absolutely require more than one investigator?
All of these
Physical evidence at a hit-and-run scene could include
the tasks assigned each investigator, personnel arrivals and departures from the scene, and descriptions of evidence present at the crime scene
The crime scene notes must accurately record:
the notes can be recorded at the crime laboratory instead of at the crime scene
The advantages of tape-recording crime scene notes on an audio tape include all of the following EXCEPT
pixels
In digital photography, light is recorded as a specific charge on millions of tiny
the ability to manipulate the images
Digital crime scene photographs require special measures to assure their admissibility in court due to
must be complemented by a hard copy of notes and separate still photographs
Videotapes of the crime scene:
collected and removed from the crime scene
Crime scene sketches serve a unique purpose in permanently documenting the location of evidence
Bloodstained garments should be packaged separately in paper bags.
From the choices below, select the one correct physical evidence collection procedure.
All of these
Investigators should collect possible carriers of trace evidence which may include
latex gloves and disposable forceps
Changes to evidence, such as contamination, can be prevented by handling evidence with
packaged in air tight glass jar
Charred debris from an arson scene should be
a druggist fold
A victim’s fingernail scrapings would be correctly packaged in
the manner in which the evidence is collected and preserved
The successful outcome of a criminal investigation is almost always directly related to
trial judge
A properly maintained chain of custody is NOT the responsibility of the
skill of personnel processing the crime scene
Success in the recognition and collection of physical evidence is determined primarily by the
permit comparisons to be made with the evidence
The collection of standard reference samples at the crime scene is important because they
both hepatitis B and AIDS
The presence of blood and semen at crime scenes exposes investigators to
Fourth
The removal of any evidence from a person or from the scene of a crime must be done in conformity with the privileges of which amendment to the Constitution?
in the process of a legal arrest
The police are not required to obtain a search warrant if they are
Mincey v. Arizona
A U.S. Supreme Court decision which dealt with the impropriety of the warrantless collection of physical evidence at a homicide scene?
All of these
Which type of evidence must be packaged separately from other evidence?
a bedsheet
Which of the following items is likely to contain DNA evidence?
wearing a face mask
The evidence collector must take extraordinary care to avoid potential contamination by transferring DNA onto objects of evidential value by
trial judge
A properly maintained chain of custody is NOT the responsibility of the
All of these
The best way to guarantee that the evidence will withstand inquiries about what happened to it from the time of its finding to its presentation in court is to
should assume pathogens are present and treat the sample as such
When biological samples of unknown origin are discovered at a crime scene, investigators:
All of these may be required
Special circumstances at a crime scene may require the use of all of the following for evidence collection EXCEPT:
Fourth Amendment
“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizure” is a provided for in the United States by the
the injury or death of a police officer or law enforcement employee
Warrantless searches are permitted under law in all of the following situations EXCEPT:
the nature of the evidence
The manner of collecting and preserving physical evidence at a crime scene is determined by
All of these
Physical evidence may be obtained from
bloodstained clothing
All of the following items may be placed in an airtight container EXCEPT
determining the natural variations that exist in physical evidence
The evidence collector is not concerned with
single-layer paints
Evidence with individual characteristics can lead to a determination of common origin (single source).Which type of evidence CANNOT yield such results?
greater than
The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics.
greater value
Physical evidence is considered to have ________ as that of eyewitness (testimonial) evidence.
support other investigative findings
The corroborative use of physical evidence means that it can be used to
the standard reference sample (control) does not share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene
Physical evidence can be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion if
livor mortis
Evidence of tampering with the position of a body after death can be obtained by evaluating the
dental impressions
Forensic databases are maintained for all of the following EXCEPT:
1998
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) became fully operational in what year?
IBIS
A component of the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network is called
identification
When a forensic analyst determines the chemical composition of preparations that may contain illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or barbiturates, this is an example of
comparison
The examination of a paint chip found on a hit-and-run victim’s garment side-by-side with paint removed from a vehicle suspected of being involved in the incident is an example of
stiffness of death
Rigor mortis refers to the
7 hours
A corpse was discovered in an apartment last November. It was that of a 50-year-old male who died of a heart attack. At the time of discovery, the body temperature was determined to be 89°F. What is the most probable post mortem interval?
gender of victim
The rate of cooling of a dead body can be influenced by all BUT the
increases
As the post mortem interval increases, the concentration of potassium in the vitreous humor of the eye
drowning
Which is NOT a manner of death?
blow fly
According to forensic entomologists, which “witness” is the first to arrive at the crime scene?
All of these
Which of the following techniques can be used to estimate the time of death?
bones
What part of a decedent’s body resists rapid decomposition and is used by forensic anthropologists to provide information about the decedent?
facial reconstruction
A forensic anthropologist may help to create a(n) ________ to help with the identification of the victim.
All of these
The collection of evidence from a “tomb” site by a forensic anthropologist must include
All of these
Estimations of the postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological evidence must take into account:
at the scene by a forensic entomologist or trained investigator
Insect evidence should be collected
exonerate an innocent suspect
Evidence having class characteristics can
individual
If the laboratory can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together, then the evidence has ________ characteristics.
whether or not they have a common origin
A comparison analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examinations for the ultimate purpose of determining:
identification
Determining that an explosive mixture contains dynamite is an example of the process of
CODIS
The computerized database used to store DNA information is
livor mortis
Evidence of tampering with the position of a body after death can be obtained by evaluating the
autopsy
If a cause of death cannot be found through simple observation of the victim, a(n) ________ is typically carried out.
1-1 1/2 °F per hour
Typically, about an hour after death, the a deceased body loses heat at a rate of approximately ________ until the body reaches the environmental temperature.
vertebrae
To determine the gender of skeletal remains, a forensic anthropologist can examine all of the following area of the skeleton EXCEPT:
age
The stage of fusion of various bones within a skeleton can be used to estimate the ________ of the decedent.
product rule
To calculate the overall frequency of occurrence of a blood type in a population,
the ________ can be applied by using a series of blood factors that occur independently of each other.
corroborate events with data in a manner nearly without bias
The value of class physical evidence lies in its ability to
IAFIS
________ is a national fingerprint and criminal history system maintained by the FBI and launched in 1999.
liter
The basic metric unit for volume is the
.26445 kilograms
The weight 264.45 grams can be correctly expressed as
the same as
One milliliter of a liquid is ________ 1 cc of the same liquid.
20
Eight inches is approximately ________ centimeters.
the same as
The heat intensity (hotness) of water at 100°C is ________ the heat intensity of water at 212°F.
less than
The use of the Celsius temperature scale by scientists is ________ their use of the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
greater than
The freezing point of water in Fahrenheit is ________ the freezing point of water Celsius.
the same as
The effect of gravity on the weight of an object is ________ the effect of gravity on the mass of the same object.
greater than
The density of liquids is ________ the density of gases.
float
If an object is immersed in a liquid of greater density, it will
less than
The density of water at 60°F is ________ the density of water at 28°F.
weight
Which is NOT an intensive property of matter?
All of these
The refractive index of a substance varies with
cubic; double refraction
Crystalline solids, with the exception of ________ crystals, exhibit ________, or the property of refracting a beam of light into two different ray components.
dispersion
The process of a glass prism separating sunlight into component colors is called
sand
What is the main ingredient in ordinary glass?
is made with the addition of boron oxide
Pyrex glass
the side and rear windows of autos manufactured in the United States
Tempered glass is used in
density
Floatation is a method used by scientists to determine the ________ of a particle of glass.
refractive index
A hot-stage microscope or the GRIM 3 is used to determine the ________ of glass fragments.
greater than
The change in refractive index upon annealing tempered glass is ________ the change in refractive index upon annealing untempered glass.
is wider on the exit side
When a bullet penetrates a panel of glass, it leaves a crater-shaped hole that
Radial cracks appear first, starting on the side opposite the destructive force.
Which is a true statement about the fracturing of glass?
A first
In reference to the diagram below, what is the correct sequence of impacts?
comparison of dried soil sample for color and texture
What is the logical first step in soil analysis?
size
Which would be LEAST useful in identifying a mineral crystal?
less than
A piece of glass is immersed in a liquid. It proceeds to float on the liquid’s surface. This shows that the density of the glass is ________ the density of the liquid.
refractive index and density
The two most important physical properties of glass for forensic comparisons are
radial and concentric lines
The fracture pattern of glass usually has
refractive index and density
If glass cannot be physically pieced together then the control and question glass are best compared as to their
parallel to the side on which the force was applied
Stress marks on the edge of a radial crack near the point of impact are
atom
The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still retain its identity as that element is the
Color
________ is the visual effect caused by an object’s absorption of certain portions of the visible light spectrum and transmission or reflection others.
a stream of discrete particles
To explain the events that occur after radiation is absorbed by a substance, light must be characterized as
velocity of light in a vacuum to velocity of light in a medium
The refractive index of a medium is determined by the ratio of
optical
The ________ properties of crystals, such as refractive index and birefringence, provide points of identification that help characterize them.
physical; chemical
A(n) ________ property describes the behavior of a substance without reference to any other substance while a(n) ________ property describes the behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another substance.