Fitness/Wellness CH. 11

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cardiovascular disease (CVD)
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disease of the heart and blood vessels
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cardiovascular system
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the network of organs and vessels through which blood flows as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body
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atria
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upper chambers, receive blood from the rest of the body
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ventricles
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lower chambers, pump blood out again
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arteries
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carry blood away from the heart; carry oxygenated blood except for the pulmonary arteries
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arterioles
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branches of the arteries
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capillaries
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blood vessels that are branched from the arterioles; then walls for exchange of oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and waste products
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veins and venules (small veins)
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carbon dioxide and other waste products are transported to the lungs and kidneys through veins
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sinoatrial node (SA node)
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small bundle of highly specialized cells in the right atrium; serves as a natural pacemaker
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sudden cardiac deaths
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an abrupt, profound loss of heart function (cardiac arrest) that causes death either instantly or shortly after symptoms occur
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Atherosclerosis
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in this condition, fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin (a clotting material) build up in the inner lining of an artery
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plaque
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the resulting build up caused by atherosclerosis
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coronary artery disease (CAD)
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another name for atherosclerosis because of the damage to the body’s main coronary arteries on the outer surface of the heart.
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ischemia
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a condition where atherosclerosis and other circulatory impairments also often reduce blood flow and limit the hearts blood and oxygen supply
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peripheral artery disease (PAD)
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when atherosclerosis occurs in the lower extremities, such as in the feet, calves, or legs, or in the arms
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What factors are responsible for damage to vessels and health from CAD or PAD?
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inflammation, elevated levels of cholersterol and triglycerides in the blood, high blood pressure, heredity, and tobacco smoke
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coronary heart disease (CHD)
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a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood to the heart
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myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack
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an area of the heart that suffers permanent damage because it normal blood supply had been blocked
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coronary thrombosis (clot)
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an atherosclerotic narrowing that blocks a coronary artery; causes a myocardial infarction
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thrombus
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clot
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embolus
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when a thrombus becomes dislodges and moves through the circulatory system
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collateral circulation
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a form of self-preservation that allows an affected heart muscle to cope with damage
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warning signs of a heart attack
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discomfort in the chest; pain in arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach; shortness of breath; cold sweat; nausea or indigestion; dizziness
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stroke
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occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted, killing brain cells, which have little capacity to heal or regenerate
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ischemic
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strokes caused by plaque or a clot that reduces blood flow
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hemorrhagic
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stroke due to bulging or rupture of a weakened blood vessel
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aneurysm
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a weakened blood vessel that may bulge under pressure and in severe cases burst
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transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
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brief interruptions of the brain’s blood supply that cause temporary impairment
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hypertension
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refers to sustained high blood pressure; higher blood pressure the greater risk of CVD
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systolic pressure
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the pressure applied to the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts, pumping blood to the rest of the body; the first number
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diastolic pressure
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the pressure applied to the walss of the arteries during the heart’s relaxation phase, when the blood reenters the chambers of the heart in preparation of the next heartbeat; the second number
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isolated systolic pressure (ISH)
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when only systolic pressure is high
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angina pectoris
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a condition caused by reduced oxygen flow to the heart
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nitroglycerin
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a drug used to relax (dilate) veins, reducing the amount of blood returning to the heart and so lessening its work load
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calcium channel blockers
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prevent calcium atoms form passing through the arteries and causing the contractions
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beta blockers
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control potential over activity of the heart muscle
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arrhythmia
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an irregularity in heart rhythm that may result in dizziness; fainting; or heart fluttering, palpitations, or racing
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tachycardia
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abnormally fast heartbeat in the absence of exercise or anxiety
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fibrillation
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a heart that beats in sporadic pattern that causes extreme inefficiency in moving blood through the cardiovascular system
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congestive heart failure (CHF)
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when the heart muscle is damages or overworked and lacks the strength to keep blood circulating normally through the body
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diuretics (water pills)
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relive fluid accumulation
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digitalis
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drug that increase the heart’s pumping action
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vasodilators
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drugs that expand blood vessels and decrease resistance, making the heart’s work easier
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congenital cardiovascular defect
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cardiovascular problem that is present at birth
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murmurs
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low pitched sounds caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart causes by valve irregularities
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Rheumatic heart disease
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a heart disease caused by untreated streptococcal infection of the throat
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cardiometabolic risks
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refers to the combined risks, which indicate physical and biochemical changes that can lead to these major disease
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metabolic syndrome (MetS)
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a group of metabolic conditions occuring together that increases a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes
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low-density lipoprotien (LDL)
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bad cholesterol; build up on artery walls
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high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
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good cholesterol; removes build up in artery walls
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triglycerides
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when you consume calories, the body converts any extra to triglycerides, which are stored in fat cells to provide energy
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plant sterols
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essential components of plant membranes that, when consumed in the diet, appear to help lower cholesterol levels
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nonmodifiable risks of CVD
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ethnicity, heredity, age, gender
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electrocardiogram (ECG)
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is a record of the heart’s electrical activity
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stress test
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exercise on a stationary bike or treadmill with an electrocardiogram
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nuclear stress test
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involves injecting a radioactive dye and taking images of the heart to reveal blood flow problems
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angiography (cardia catherization)
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a thin tube called a catheter is threaded through heart arteries, dye injected, and an X ray taken to identify blocked areas
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positron emission tomography (PET) scan
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produces 3D images of the heart as blood flows through it
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coronary bypass surgery
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a surgical technique whereby a blood vessel taken from another part of the body is implanted to bypass a clogged coronary artery
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angioplasty
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a catheter is threaded through blocked heart arteries. the catheter has a balloon at the tip, which inflated to flatten fatty deposits against arterial walls, allowing blood to flow more freely
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stent
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a steel mesh tube inserted to prop open the artery
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thrombolysis
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injection of an agent to dissolve clots and restore some blood flow, thereby reducing the amount of tissuse that dies form ischemia
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cancer
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name of a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
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neoplasm
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a new growth of tissue serving no physiological function
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tumor
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neoplasmic mass forms a clump of cells
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malignant
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cancerous
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benign
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noncanerous
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biopsy
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microscopic examination of cell development
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metastasis
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process by which cancer spreads from one area to different areas of the body
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mutant cells
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differ in form, quality, and function from normal cells; caused by the disturbance of substances which control cellular metabolism and reproduction
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cancer: carcinomas
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cancers occurring in the epithelial tissue
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cancer: sarcomas
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occur in mesodermal, or middle layers of tissue- bones, muscles, and general connective tissue
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cancer: lymphomas
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develop in the lymphatic system- the infection fighting regions of the body ex. hodgkin’s disease
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cancer: leukemias
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cancer of the blood forming parts of the body, particularly the bone marrow and spleen
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risk factors for cancer
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Lifestyle Risks for cancer: tobacco use, alcohol, poor nutrition or phyical inactivity, stress and psychosocial Genetic and Physiological risks: oncognes, reproductive and hormonal factors Occupational and Environmental risks: carcinogens, radiation, chemicals in food Infectious Disease Risks: chronic hepatitis B,C- liver cancer; HPV-cervical cancer; helicobacter pylori-stomach cancer Medical Factors
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oncogenes
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suspected cancer-causing genes present on chromosomes
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carcinogens
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cancer causing agents
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Malignant melanoma
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a virulent cancer of the melanocytes (pigment producing cells) of the skin
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Asymmetry
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one half of the mole or lesion does not match the other half
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border irregularity
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the edges are uneven, notched, or scalloped
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color
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pigmentation is not uniform. Melanomas vary in color from tan to deeper brown, reddish black, black, or deep bluish black
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diameter
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diameter is greater than 6 millimeters
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prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
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an antigen found in prostate cancer patients
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pap test
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a procedure in which cells taken form the cervical region are examined for abnormal cellular activity

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