Final Exam Study Guide -6th Grade Science – Flashcards

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Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.
What is energy?
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Energy is measured in joules.
How is energy measured?
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Potential Energy is energy that results from the position or shape of an object.
What is Potential Energy?
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The energy of a object that is due to its motion.
What is Kinetic Energy?
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distance / time Example: A biker is moving at 10 miles per hour and he rides for 40 meters - how long?
Write the formula for speed and create an example.
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Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes.
What is acceleration?
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A force is a push or a pull.
What is a force and how is it described?
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The force that two surfaces exert on each other when the rub against each other.
What is friction?
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when the 2 surfaces are VERY ROUGH (scratchy)
When is friction GREATEST?
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all objects in the universe attract each other (how strong the force is depends on the MASS and the DISTANCE an object is)
What does the law of gravity state?
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Distance (between them ) Mass.
What two factors affect gravity?
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Mass is the amount of matter in an object while weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object.
What is the difference between mass and weight?
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If the forces acting on an object are balanced, the object's motion will not change.
What are balanced forces?
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When the sum of all forces acting on an object is balanced, the object's motion will change.
What are unbalanced forces?
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When the sum of all forces are acting on an object.
When do you add balanced forces?
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When the forces of an object act in opposite directions.
When do you subtract balanced forces?
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Unbalances
When will an object move? (Balances or unbalanced?)
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An object at rest will remain at rest. Object moving at constant velocity will continue moving at constant velocity, unless active upon by unbalanced force.
What does Newtons's 1st Law of Motion state?
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Acceleration depends on the objects mass and the net force acting on the object. Acceleration= Net force/mass
What does Newtons's 2nd Law of Motion state?
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For every action their is an opposite reaction on the first object.
What does Newtons's 3rd Law of Motion state?
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The condition of earth's atmosphere at a certain time and place.
What is weather?
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The average annual conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds and clouds in an area.
What is climate?
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By temperature and precipitation.
How are climates classified?
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The transfer of thermal energy by direct contact. It works well in solids.
What is conduction and give an example?
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The movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temp. variations can result in transfer of energy as heat. (Heat is mostly transferred by convection within the troposphere).
What is convection and give an example?
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The area near the Equator between 23.5 degrees north and 23.5 degrees South latitude. Warm area.
What is a tropical zone? Give an example.
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The extend from 66.5 to 90 degrees North and 66.5 degrees to 90 degrees South latitude. The suns rays strike at a lower angle near the north and south poles.
What is a polar zone? Give an example.
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Between the tropical and polar zones is the temperate zone. The sun rays strike at these zones most directly.
What is a temperate zone? Give an example.
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The pressure caused by the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area.
What is air pressure?
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Because air has mass and it also has other properties including density and pressure.
How does the density of air affect air pressure?
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By a barometer and a mercury barometer.
How is air pressure measured?
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Air pressure decrease as altitude increases.
How does altitude affect air pressure?
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Differences in air pressure causes the wind to move.
What causes wind?
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Sea breeze is a local wind that blows from an ocean or lake and a land breeze is the flow of air from land to a body of water.
What is the difference between a land breeze and a sea breeze?
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Local wind: blow over short distances Global wind: the winds that blow across the entire planet.
What is the difference between a local wind and a global wind?
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Biosphere (living stuff) Geosphere (rocky) Cryosphere (ice) Atmosphere (air) hydrosphere (water)
List and describe the 5 spheres that make up the Earth's system.
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Nitrogen and Oxygen
What gases make up Earth's atmosphere?
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Nitrogen- gas that makes up 78 percent of the air we breathe.
What gas is most abundant?
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It measures air pressure.
What is a barometer?
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Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere
List the layers of the atmosphere in order from Earth's surface to space.
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It's when the sun's heat is trapped in the atmosphere, causing a rise in temperature.
What is the greenhouse effect?
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Causes: Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation (cutting down of trees), CFCs in aerosol sprays Effects: Melting glaciers, rising sea levels and drought
What are some of the causes and effects of global warming?
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Troposphere
Which layer does all weather occur in?
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They form when water vapor in the air condenses to form a liquid water or ice crystals.
How are clouds formed?
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Tiny particles must be present in the atmosphere so that the water has a surface on which to condense.
What factor must be present for a cloud to form?
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Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
What is precipitation?
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Freezing rain: raindrops that freeze when they touch a cold surface, snow:when water vapor in a cloud is converted directly into ice crystals, hail:round pellets of ice larger than 5 millimeters in diameter and sleet:ice particles smaller than 5 millimeters in diameter
List 4 types of precipitation and describe each of them.
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It is a huge body of air in the lower atmosphere that has similar temperature, humidity and air pressure at any given height.
What is an air mass?
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dry, wet, warn and cool
What are the 4 major types of air masses?
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1. Prevailing westerlies, 2. Jet streams and 3. Prevailing Easterlies
How do air masses move?
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A small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightening. They form in large cumulonimbus clouds, also known as thunder heads.
What is a thunderstorm and where do they form?
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A tropical cyclone with winds of 119 kilometers or higher. They form over warm ocean water.
What is a hurricane and how does it form?
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A rapidly forming funnel shaped cloud that reaches down from a thunderstorm to touch Earth's surface. Develop in think in cumulonimbus clouds.
What is a tornado and how does it form?
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A scientist who studies and tries to predict the weather.
What is a meteorologist?
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An overflow of water in a normally dry area. Causes: when the volume of water in a river increases so much that it overflows its channels or storm surges Effects: water damage
What is a flood? Include causes and effects.
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They use maps, charts, computers and other technology to analyse weather data.
In what ways do meteorologists collect data?
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A drought reduces the supplies of ground water and surface water. Causes: Dry weather Effects: Crop failure, animals suffer
What is a drought?
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The mechanical or chemical breaking down of rock into sediment. The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
What is weathering?
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The movement of small rock particles by wind, water, ice or gravity.
What is erosion?
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The process of dropping, or depositing, sediment in a new location
What is deposition?
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The process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions. Example: granite is made up of feldspar and other substances, as a result of chemical weathering.
What is chemical weathering?
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The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces. Example: rocks that break because of abrasion
What is mechanical weathering?
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A landform is a plain, mountain and a plateau. Plateau: an elevated level expanse of land; a tableland. Mountain:a high, steep elevation of the earth's surface, higher than a hill. Plain: extensive tract of level open land
What is a land form? List 3 and describe.
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Gullies joined together to form a larger channel.