# Final Exam Study Guide -6th Grade Science

What is energy?
Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.

How is energy measured?
Energy is measured in joules.

What is Potential Energy?
Potential Energy is energy that results from the position or shape of an object.

What is Kinetic Energy?
The energy of a object that is due to its motion.

Write the formula for speed and create an example.
distance / time Example: A biker is moving at 10 miles per hour and he rides for 40 meters – how long?

What is acceleration?
Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes.

What is a force and how is it described?
A force is a push or a pull.

What is friction?
The force that two surfaces exert on each other when the rub against each other.

When is friction GREATEST?
when the 2 surfaces are VERY ROUGH (scratchy)

What does the law of gravity state?
all objects in the universe attract each other (how strong the force is depends on the MASS and the DISTANCE an object is)

What two factors affect gravity?
Distance (between them )
Mass.

What is the difference between mass and weight?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object while weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object.

What are balanced forces?
If the forces acting on an object are balanced, the object’s motion will not change.

What are unbalanced forces?
When the sum of all forces acting on an object is balanced, the object’s motion will change.

When do you add balanced forces?
When the sum of all forces are acting on an object.

When do you subtract balanced forces?
When the forces of an object act in opposite directions.

When will an object move? (Balances or unbalanced?)
Unbalances

What does Newtons’s 1st Law of Motion state?
An object at rest will remain at rest.
Object moving at constant velocity will continue moving at constant velocity, unless active upon by unbalanced force.

What does Newtons’s 2nd Law of Motion state?
Acceleration depends on the objects mass and the net force acting on the object.
Acceleration= Net force/mass

What does Newtons’s 3rd Law of Motion state?
For every action their is an opposite reaction on the first object.

What is weather?
The condition of earth’s atmosphere at a certain time and place.

What is climate?
The average annual conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds and clouds in an area.

How are climates classified?
By temperature and precipitation.

What is conduction and give an example?
The transfer of thermal energy by direct contact. It works well in solids.

What is convection and give an example?
The movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temp. variations can result in transfer of energy as heat. (Heat is mostly transferred by convection within the troposphere).

What is a tropical zone? Give an example.
The area near the Equator between 23.5 degrees north and 23.5 degrees South latitude. Warm area.

What is a polar zone? Give an example.
The extend from 66.5 to 90 degrees North and 66.5 degrees to 90 degrees South latitude. The suns rays strike at a lower angle near the north and south poles.

What is a temperate zone? Give an example.
Between the tropical and polar zones is the temperate zone. The sun rays strike at these zones most directly.

What is air pressure?
The pressure caused by the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area.

How does the density of air affect air pressure?
Because air has mass and it also has other properties including density and pressure.

How is air pressure measured?
By a barometer and a mercury barometer.

How does altitude affect air pressure?
Air pressure decrease as altitude increases.

What causes wind?
Differences in air pressure causes the wind to move.

What is the difference between a land breeze and a sea breeze?
Sea breeze is a local wind that blows from an ocean or lake and a land breeze is the flow of air from land to a body of water.

What is the difference between a local wind and a global wind?
Local wind: blow over short distances
Global wind: the winds that blow across the entire planet.

List and describe the 5 spheres that make up the Earth’s system.
Biosphere (living stuff)
Geosphere (rocky)
Cryosphere (ice)
Atmosphere (air)
hydrosphere (water)

What gases make up Earth’s atmosphere?
Nitrogen and Oxygen

What gas is most abundant?
Nitrogen- gas that makes up 78 percent of the air we breathe.

What is a barometer?
It measures air pressure.

List the layers of the atmosphere in order from Earth’s surface to space.
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere

What is the greenhouse effect?
It’s when the sun’s heat is trapped in the atmosphere, causing a rise in temperature.

What are some of the causes and effects of global warming?
Causes: Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation (cutting down of trees), CFCs in aerosol sprays
Effects: Melting glaciers, rising sea levels and drought

Which layer does all weather occur in?
Troposphere

How are clouds formed?
They form when water vapor in the air condenses to form a liquid water or ice crystals.

What factor must be present for a cloud to form?
Tiny particles must be present in the atmosphere so that the water has a surface on which to condense.

What is precipitation?
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth’s surface.

List 4 types of precipitation and describe each of them.
Freezing rain: raindrops that freeze when they touch a cold surface,
snow:when water vapor in a cloud is converted directly into ice crystals,
hail:round pellets of ice larger than 5 millimeters in diameter and
sleet:ice particles smaller than 5 millimeters in diameter

What is an air mass?
It is a huge body of air in the lower atmosphere that has similar temperature, humidity and air pressure at any given height.

What are the 4 major types of air masses?
dry, wet, warn and cool

How do air masses move?
1. Prevailing westerlies, 2. Jet streams and 3. Prevailing Easterlies

What is a thunderstorm and where do they form?
A small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightening. They form in large cumulonimbus clouds, also known as thunder heads.

What is a hurricane and how does it form?
A tropical cyclone with winds of 119 kilometers or higher. They form over warm ocean water.

What is a tornado and how does it form?
A rapidly forming funnel shaped cloud that reaches down from a thunderstorm to touch Earth’s surface. Develop in think in cumulonimbus clouds.

What is a meteorologist?
A scientist who studies and tries to predict the weather.

What is a flood? Include causes and effects.
An overflow of water in a normally dry area.
Causes: when the volume of water in a river increases so much that it overflows its channels or storm surges
Effects: water damage

In what ways do meteorologists collect data?
They use maps, charts, computers and other technology to analyse weather data.

What is a drought?
A drought reduces the supplies of ground water and surface water.
Causes: Dry weather
Effects: Crop failure, animals suffer

What is weathering?
The mechanical or chemical breaking down of rock into sediment. The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth’s surface.

What is erosion?
The movement of small rock particles by wind, water, ice or gravity.

What is deposition?
The process of dropping, or depositing, sediment in a new location

What is chemical weathering?
The process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions. Example: granite is made up of feldspar and other substances, as a result of chemical weathering.

What is mechanical weathering?
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces. Example: rocks that break because of abrasion

What is a land form? List 3 and describe.
A landform is a plain, mountain and a plateau.
Plateau: an elevated level expanse of land; a tableland.
Mountain:a high, steep elevation of the earth’s surface, higher than a hill.
Plain: extensive tract of level open land

How are streams formed?
Gullies joined together to form a larger channel.

What is a delta? How is it formed?
Sediment deposited where a river flows into a ocean or lake builds up a land form.

What is an alluvial fan? How is it formed?
Is a wide sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range.