Feldman 1-6

Cognitive developmentalists study
Memory, learning and language ability

In child development, continuous change is ___ whereas discontinuous change is ___
Quantitative, Qualitative

Puberty and menopause are examples of ___influences on a particular cohort
age-graded

There is a general consensus among theorists that human development
is an ongoing process

From the perspective of developmentalists, maturation is a ___ process
genetic

What is the generally accepted age range for middle childhood?
6 to 12

What portion of the genetic makeup of all humans is identical?
99.9%

Child development researchers study the interaction of ___ and ___how it impacts behavior
biology;environment

Theo’s parents were a respected neurosurgeon and a famous sculptor. Both had substance abuse problems that led to chaos and conflict in the home. Theo had a high IQ and attended top schools, but never was more than an average student. Which statement best describes this scenario?
Both nature and nurture impact a child’s development

What is another adjective to describe a sensitive period of development?
optimal

Alan is conducting a study of children who have recently immigrated to America. He is particularly interested in their ability to form friendships at school. Alan’s work is focused on
Social development

Justine and her three friends on the street are all starting first grade today. This little cohort of giggling girls is experiencing ___ that will affect their development
age-graded influences

Which of the following questions would NOT be used by a cognitive developmental researcher?
What portion of the brain governs mood?

___ development is focused on the ways in which enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over a lifetime
personality

Continuous developmental changes are
quantitative

Shyness in a child can be troubling, but it can often be overcome with focus, practice, or a change in environment. This ability to modify behavioral characteristics is called
Plasticity

Jack remembers when his daughter Dina loved to play outside with the boys and didn’t mind having grass stains on her clothes. But in the year since she started middle school, Dina prefers nice clothes and the mall to the old neighborhood fort. Dina’s behavior is an example of
INCORRECT ANSWER= normative age-related change

Developmentalists generally believe that
all development falls on a continuum between absolutes

Marta has noticed that her three year old son Kurt has recently shifted from playing with toys by himself or alongside another child to engaging in fully interactive play with other children. Kurt’s behavior is an example of
discontinuous change

Wei-Lin’s friends in fourth grade can’t understand why she is always inside studying and has to go to Chinese school on Saturdays. Wei-Lin likes to play with her friends, but she and her brother have been taught to honor their parents’ wishes. This is an example of the impact of ___ on child development
ethnic culture

Which of the following questions would NOT be asked by a researcher focusing on cognitive development?
What are the consequences of premature birth?

The ___ to development emphasizes growth and change from conception through old age
life span approach

From a developmental perspective, maturation is guided by
genetic information

The process of child development
is quite similar for everyone

Which of the following is an environmental impact on the timeframe for reaching a developmental milestone?
a girl’s religion forbidding dating until age 18

Which of the following questions would be used by a researcher studying social development?
How is a child affected by peer group rejection?

__ is a term that reflects a group’s cultural background, religion and language
Ethnicity

Which of the following is a biological component of an environmental influence on development?
Maternal drug use during pregnancy

__ involves the scientific study of patterns of growth, change and stability from conception through adolescence
Child development

Because development missed in a sensitive period can be “made up” later, another adjective for this timeframe could be
optimal

Which of the following is NOT considered a cohort?
an adult ESL class for recent immigrants to chicago

A child’s ability to “make up” for missed development during a sensitive period is partly due to
plasticity

Which area of child development could most easily be observed visually?
physical development

What distinguishes Locke’s view of children as a tabula rasa from Rousseau’s view of children as noble savages?
Locke believed children had no inherent characteristics

Plasticity is the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is
modifiable

___ believed children were born tabula rasa, or blank slate
Locke

Yuri’s third grade class is sitting for a series of exams to determine each child’s IQ. The children are benefitting from the pioneering work of
Binet

The first person to suggest that children develop in stages was
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Ukrainian children who had to be relocated from their homes due to the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster experienced a ___ on their development
history-graded influence

Which of the following is an example of a self-created non-normative life event?
a high school junior being invited to read her essay at the 9/11 memorial

Which of the following statements accurately describes Piaget’s developmental perspective?
Children revise their perspectives during four life stages.

Peter is interested in learning what causes children’s self-esteem to decline in middle school. What is the best approach for him to use?
INNCORRECT ANSWER
naturalistic observation

Children are often able to gain information about appropriate behaviors by merely watching those around them. This is known as
modeling.

Tolani’s school is implementing a program to fight obesity. Tolani knows his being overweight isn’t healthy, but at the same time it is appreciated in his Samoan culture. Which theorist would consider this factor’s influence on Tolani’s weight problem?
Bronfenbrenner

A cross-sectional study
conducts one research activity with several cohorts.

Sixth graders Yazmin and Carlton wonder if plants grow larger when fed with caffeine. They state that a plant will grow twice as big when fed cola instead of water. They set two plants by the window, give water to one and cola to the other every day, and get ready to take measurements. Yazmin and Carlton are employing
the scientific method.

What is a key principle of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory?
reciprocity

________________ research compares characteristics of people of different ages at the same point in time.
Cross-sectional

Which of the following is a drawback to conducting a longitudinal study?
participants becoming “test wise”
high chance of participant withdrawal
extended period of observation and testing
*all of the above

_______________ is a critical difference between social learning theory and classical and operant conditioning theories.
INNCORRECT ANSWER
The type of stimulus

What type of research uses high-tech devices to obtain data?
psychophysiological

_____________ studies the effects of heredity on behavior and is one of the fastest growing areas of human development research.
INNCORRECT ANSWER
Ethology

Who is not a proponent of the behavioral perspective of development?
Erikson

Skinner, Bandura and Watson ARE

In a correlational study of snack food consumption and weight gain or loss, what other variable will likely need to be kept constant to obtain accurate results?
the participants’ activity level

DeShawn is working on his dissertation about the effectiveness of teen suicide prevention programs. There are many different types of programs, including peer groups, teacher-led groups, and community-based efforts. Since he cannot conduct research on each type, DeShawn will prepare a ____________ for his dissertation.
meta-analysis

Which theory emphasizes the impact of an “endless loop” of interaction between a child and her environment?
WRONG
bioecological theory

Posing and answering questions using systematic techniques to observe and collect data is known as
the scientific method.

What is a key component of the behavioral perspective?
WRONG
information processing

Corinne and Marcus are researching how different rewards affect children’s motivation for completing homework. Corinne’s study results yield a correlation coefficient of +0.70. Marcus’s research provides a correlation coefficient of +0.30. Based on these outcomes, which of the following statements is true?
The rewards in Corinne’s research are more strongly correlated to the children’s motivation

What is the most difficult theory of development to verify through research?
psychodynamic

In the 1960s, most women stayed home to focus on raising their children. Today, most women work outside the home. This shift has altered the development of children over the past 50 years and is an example of Bronfenbrenner’s ____________.
WRONG
mesosystem

Laurent was excited to participate in a research experiment on the link between violent video games and heart rate. He couldn’t wait to play some games, especially if he could shoot down aliens. But Laurent was disappointed; he spent two hours playing Ms. Pac-Man. What is the likely reason for Laurent’s research experience?
He was in the control group.

According to Freud, which aspect of personality does not develop until age 5 or 6?
the superego

Predictions that developmental psychology researchers can test are called
hypotheses.

The ______________ perspective of development examines the relationship between people and the various spheres in which they operate
WRONG
cognitive

Which of the following is an example of multifactorial transmission?
a boy inherits a shy temperament and is raised by an overprotective mom
63

How do genotype and phenotype differ?
genotype characteristics are not visible; phenotype characteristics are visible
55

Which of the following will produce the highest correlation coefficient for IQ scores?
identical twins raised apart
66

Janelle is just beginning to feel some weird flutterings inside that lets her know she’s pregnant. How far along is she in the prenatal period?
4 months
73

Jason and Malika have been trying to conceive for two years. Their doctor has suggested Malika begin taking fertility treatments. The couple is concerned, as this can increase the likelihood of
multiple births
53

Lee’s mother has curly hair and his father has straight hair. Lee carries genes for both hair types, but if his hair is curly, then straight hair is ____________ in Lee.
a phenotype
a recessive trait
54

Carmen and Ellie met in the maternity ward. Their new sons were loud and cranky. They knew about temperament and worried about rough times ahead. When they met for coffee months later, Carmen said her son was calm and happy. Ellie was surprised, because her baby was as fussy as ever. What is the likely reason for the difference in behavior?
differing home environments
64

Brenda’s baby suffered from low birth weight. This condition was likely caused by _______ during prenatal development.
teratogens
75

The ____________ serves as a filter and conduit between the mother and fetus
placenta
71

What disorder is caused by a woman drinking substantial amounts of alcohol while pregnant?
fetal alcohol syndrome
79

What is an important method used to compare the influence of nature vs. nurture in human development?
twin studies
64

What is the shortest prenatal stage?
germinal
71

Which of the following is not an example of prenatal testing
in vitro fertilization
60

Which chromosomal combination indicates a male?
XY
53

_______ are born at the same time from separate ovum-sperm combinations
Dizygotic twins
53

During human conception, the male and female reproductive cells fuse to become one cell called
a zygote
52

Two months after conception, the head accounts for _________ of the total body size.
50%
72

Six-month-old Ethan startles easily and is difficult to soothe when he gets upset. He has been this way since birth; these are characteristics of Ethan’s
temperament.
63

A person who inherits genes for blue eyes from both parents is considered ___________ for that physical trait.
homozygous
55

An egg always contains an X chromosome, but a sperm contains either an X or a Y, which determines
the sex of the organism.
53

Which of the following genotypes is more easily affected by environment?
weight
63

How are a person’s chromosomes organized?
in pairs of 23
23

The nature and characteristic of every bodily cell is determined by
the position of genes on the chromosomes
52

Some people have a few freckles sprinkled across their nose, some have a moderate number, and some have freckles everywhere. This is an example of the ___________ for the gene controlling this trait.
reaction range
55

As a woman gets older the correlation with having a miscarriage
approaches +1.0.
74

Significant growth of major organs and body systems occurs during
the embryonic stage.
71

In addition to prenatal testing for potential diseases, recent technology can now predict the occurrence of more than ______ genetic disorders in adults.
WRONG
50
PG 62

___ are born at the same time from separate ovum-sperm combinations.
Dizygotic twins
53

A(n) _____ is a chart that shows enlarged photos of each chromosome to enable doctors to inspect them for damage.
karyotype
59

What are ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm?
layers of the human embryo
71

When Joan sees her pregnant daughter Kim craving a beer on a hot day, she says to relax and have one. When she had Kim in the 1960s, all the pregnant women drank and smoked and their kids turned out fine. Kim rolls her eyes, knowing doctors weren’t aware of the effects of ___________________ back then.
cigarette smoke
fetal alcohol syndrome
teratogens

Correct answer all of the above
75

Martin is from the Czech Republic and has Jewish ancestry. Before he and his wife try to have a baby, he wants to take a genetic test to see if he carries the gene for _________, which is common given his background.
WRONG
sickle-cell disease
58

A very short time after Charlene got pregnant, a small cluster of cells split off from the fertilized ovum in her womb. This means Charlene will have
WRONG
dizygotic twins.
53

Gina has always been a thoughtful, sensitive child who seemed to take special joy in beautiful things. Instead of a playroom filled with toys, her parents created an arts and crafts room for her—where Gina is content to create for hours. This an example of
WRONG
child-centered parenting.
ALSO WRONG
the environment influencing genetics.
70

Which of the following correctly lists the pairs in ascending degree of genetic similarity?
non-twin siblings, dizygotic different-sex twins, dizygotic same-sex twins, monozygotic twins
66

Identical twins will exhibit the least similarity for which of the following?
WRONG
age at initial signs of gray hair
ALSO WRONG
life span weight gain
65

Despite growing concern over genetic disorders due to the availability of new scientific knowledge and tests, over ______ of children born in the United States are healthy and normal.
95%

Which of the following is not true of fraternal twins?
They are always the same gender.
66

On a graph comparing the following four issues to the increase in a woman’s age, which line will show a downward trend?
WRONG
potential for fetal chromosomal abnormality
74

As many as 100,000 neurons are produced every minute during the second month of prenatal development. This is evidenced by
the head accounting for 50% of the fetus’s size.
72

Few biological traits are caused by a single gene; most are a result of
polygenic inheritance.

The rise in maternal age over the past twenty years has resulted in an increase in
WRONG
the number of boys born.

Monozygotic twins
have identical genetic sequences.

develop from the same ovum.

differ only in response to their environment.

all of the above

Carolyn is 35 weeks pregnant. With only a few more weeks to go, she is not worried about harming the fetus so she is having a glass of wine. However there is still cause for concern, as development is still taking place in the
central nervous system.

external genitalia.

eyes.

all of the above

Most formation and fine tuning of the brain occur during the _____ stage.
fetal

The incidence of three or more children per birth has ___________ over the past 30 years
increased dramatically

In which infertility treatment does fertilization take place inside the woman’s body?
artificial insemination

What process accounts for the replication of most types of human cells?
mitosis

A couple is diagnosed as having problems with infertility after ______ of unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant.
12 to 18 months

Martin is from the Czech Republic and has Jewish ancestry. Before he and his wife try to have a baby, he wants to take a genetic test to see if he carries the gene for _________, which is common given his background
Tay-Sachs disease

The _______________ supports the transfer of oxygen and nourishment from the mother to the developing fetus.
placenta

An XY in the 23rd pair of chromosomes will produce
boy

The development of behavioral similarities among two unrelated, adopted children is likely a result of
environmental influences.

Jason and Joseph are fraternal twins. Which statement about the boys is true?
They are no more genetically alike than non-twin siblings.

Which genetic disorder results from an XXY chromosomal pairing?
Klinefelter’s syndrome

The more genetically similar two people are, the more likely they will share physical characteristics. Which of the following will have the lowest degree of shared characteristics?
two siblings born from different sperm donors

_____________ provide an opportunity for researchers to compare genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
twin studies

Megan’s child was conceived about five weeks ago. Her baby is in the _____ stage of prenatal development.
embryonic

_____________ is an emerging field that explores the link between biology and psychological characteristics.
Behavioral genetics

is the combination of multiple genes producing a specific trait.
Polygenic inheritance

Alexandra is observing a small group of students’ interactions in a playtime setting at the school laboratory. Previously, she collected biological information about each child’s parents and asked them to complete a detailed survey about their lifestyles. What field does Alexandra work in
behavioral genetics

As a woman ages, which of the following decreases?
chance of becoming pregnant

Caleb was born with a bright and boisterous temperament. He was always laughing and quick to engage with people. His parents belong to a very strict religious sect that forbids any overt expression of emotion in adults. How will multifactorial transmission affect Caleb?
WRONG
His expressive demeanor will be eliminated by the parental environment.

What determines the characteristics of every cell in the body?
WRONG
DNA

Without access to scientific testing, what could be used to determine recessive and dominant traits in a person?
the phenotype

Expression of a particular range of genotype traits determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors is called
multifactorial transmission.

Brain activity is accelerated by ____________, a coating on the neurons.
myelin

The combination of multiple gene pairs producing a particular trait is called
polygenic inheritance.

A fertilized egg has _______ chromosomes.
WRONG
23

What types of drugs are considered safe for use during pregnancy?
none

The belief that human behavior is a product of both genetics and environment
WRONG
is still difficult to prove conclusively.

Approximately how many genes does a human have?
25,000

What can decrease the chance of developing schizophrenia for someone genetically disposed to the disorder?
a stress-free environment

The _______ stage is the first in the prenatal development process.
germinal

____________________ is the determination of traits by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, expressed across a range in the phenotype.
Multifactorial transmission

Annette and Kyle’s son Josh had poor motor control and lower physiological response the first few days after he was born. He also had difficulty initiating breastfeeding. What is a likely cause?
Annette received anesthesia during delivery
92

When Glen and David first showed an Elmo doll to their new baby Claire, she was enthralled, grinning happily. But a few weeks later the dads are disappointed; Claire barely notices the doll anymore. What is the likely reason?
Claire has become habituated to Elmo.
105

Ted and Rosa rushed to the hospital, ready to welcome their new baby soon. But within a few hours they were driving home again. It turns out they were fooled by Rosa’s
Braxton-Hicks contractions.
86

George and Dolly were surprised when she went into labor at 34 weeks. Dolly is just happy to have a healthy daughter, but George wants answers. Their doctor couldn’t pinpoint a cause, and said that roughly _______ of preterm and low-birthweight births cannot be explained
50%
96-97

Ken and Fiona’s infant son Bryce loves a stuffed carrot toy that a friend brought over. Fiona thinks it’s garish and Ken says it’s a little creepy. But when Bryce looks around with concern, they know he wants “the carrot” and give it to him. This dynamic helps enhance Bryce’s
social capabilities.
106

Which of the following is a reason for the United States’ high rate of infant mortality compared to similar industrialized countries?
lower rates of prenatal care

higher rates of poverty

higher rates of preterm and low-birthweight deliveries

CORRECT all of the above
100

What physical reflex is the most important to a neonate’s health and development?
swallowing
103

Infants’ ability to discern basic adult facial expressions showing emotions such as happiness and sadness demonstrates
social capability
106

Developmental research has shown that babies are born
with physical, social, and sensory capabilities.
104

What Apgar score might be cause for some concern?
5 to 7
88

What type of neonate faces the greatest health risk?
very-low-birthweight
96

What marks the beginning of the process of birth?
release of corticotropin-releasing hormone
86

What happens during the first stage of labor?
The cervix enlarges to 10 centimeters.
87

A pre-term infant is born before _____________weeks after conception.
38
94

At how many weeks of gestation does the survival rate of a fetus reach 90 percent?
week 30
96

________ is the scientific term for a newborn.
Neonate
86

Which of the following is not an alternative birthing procedure?
doula birthing
90

When did the infant mortality rate in the United States begin declining?
the 1960s
99

Developmentalists use the term ____________ to refer to close physical and emotional contact between parent and child immediately following birth.
bonding
89

A fetus takes in ________________ through the placenta.
oxygen
88

The brain of a newborn baby is _________ the size of an adult’s brain.
25%
103

Which of the following is not classified as a behavioral or environmental risk for delivering a low-birthweight baby?
low education level
97

Why is the use of fetal monitors considered a factor in the increase of cesarean sections performed in the United States?
Fetal monitors have high rates of false readings for fetal distress.
99

A baby that is born at 35 weeks and weighs less than 90% of the average weight for babies born at 35 weeks is considered
preterm and low birthweight.
94

Which of the following demonstrates different cultural and societal perspectives on childbirth?
differing views on the pain and effort of giving birth

differing preferences for doctors or midwives guiding the birth process

higher rates of hospital births in the United States compared to other countries

CORRECT all of the above
89-91

Why does postpartum depression pose a risk for the infant as well as the mother?
Infants respond poorly to mothers in a depressed, withdrawn state.
102

Sam and Raoul’s newborn daughter received an Apgar score of 8 on her first exam. The score on her second exam was 5. What will likely occur?
WRONG
She will need to be resuscitated.
88

Newborn geese will become attached to the first animated being they see in a process called imprinting. What provides a similar experience for neonates?
close physical contact with the parents at birth
89

Some people believe that a c-section is less traumatizing for the baby. But others believe that it puts the baby at a disadvantage. How?
A c-section baby doesn’t release stress hormones useful for life outside the womb.
99

What physical reflex is the most important to a neonate’s health and development?
swallowing
103

Why is it important to screen newborns for diseases and genetic disorders?
to identify immediate treatment strategies
92

A baby turns its head and begins a sucking motion when stroked on the cheek. This is a demonstration of
the rooting reflex.
103

What scent will increase an infant’s activity level?
peppermint

104

What is the benefit of regularly massaging preterm infants?
It releases growth hormones.
96

Involuntary responses to certain stimuli are called
Reflexes
103

Which of the following is not a component of the Apgar scale?
anoxia
88

What is the most critical task facing preterm babies who are substantially underweight
WRONG
developing sucking and swallowing reflexes
95

What does a fetal monitor do?
It measures the baby’s heartbeat during labor.
99

Light sleep, deep sleep, alertness, and fussiness are all ______________ for an infant.
states of arousal
106

Sixteen-year-old Brenda couldn’t wait to hold her baby for the first time. She had seen so many delivery room scenes in the movies, and the baby was rosy and glowing and perfect. When her son was born, Brenda was horrified to see him
covered in vernix.

with slightly blue extremities.

covered in lanugo.

CORRECT all of the above

Esther has had a very difficult pregnancy with several bouts of false labor. She is nervous that the baby wants to come out and see the world too soon. Her doctor explained that the baby has about a 50% chance of survival right now. How far along is Esther’s pregnancy?
about 25 weeks
96

Jason, Ted, and Emily looked at their new baby asleep in the hospital nursery. It wasn’t the idyllic picture they had imagined, seeing the tiny boy under the glare of fluorescent lights. But they understand the room is a nonmedical treatment for
neonatal jaundice.
104

Pedro and Marisol are amazed to see how quickly their baby Josefina is developing. She even seems to be communicating! When Josefina wants to eat, she uses a different cry than when she is fussy or needs changing. The baby is displaying the results of
operant conditioning
105

he Bradley Method is sometimes called _____________ childbirth.
WRONG
breath-centered
90

In some areas of the world, up to ______ of the babies are delivered by midwife.
80%
91

Carter and Viola’s son Leo weighed 2470 grams when he was born at 38 weeks. Leo is considered a ________ infant.
WRONG
very-low-birthweight
94

When Tara was an infant, Yuri would be feeding her in the family room when Max came home from school. Max would grab a snack and turn on Sponge Bob. Now every time that cartoon is on TV, Tara Looks around for a bottle. What is the cause of Tara’s reaction?
classical conditioning

Why is birthweight a critical health factor for neonates?
Fat makes up for their inability to regulate body temperature

Immediately following birth, the medical team conducts a health screen of five key factors using the
Apgar scale.

Why do developmentalists believe that humans are born “too soon?”
The neonate brain is one-fourth the size of an adult brain.

Postpartum depression affects ________ of all new mothers.
10%

Why is public funding of prenatal care for low-income mothers a worthwhile investment?
Babies lacking prenatal care can have later deficits, resulting in long-term social costs.

Medical care for healthy infants costs less than for infants lacking prenatal care.

Good prenatal care results in more healthy infants at birth.

all of the above

Which of the following is known as “husband-coached childbirth?”
WRONG
Lamaze technique

What is the frequency of breech position births?
1 in 25

Rosa and Hector are getting ready to enter the delivery room. They are excited but also very concerned. Rosa is in her 25th week of gestation, and they know the lowest age of viability is ____ weeks
22

The infant mortality rate for African Americans is _______ the rate for white Americans.
more than double

What is the cause of neonatal jaundice?
WRONG
low-birthweight

Around the world, about 50% of births are attended by health care professionals. In the United States, the number is
99%

What happens during the second stage of labor?
The baby passes through the birth canal.

What is the cutoff point for a neonate to be considered very-low-birthweight?
1250 grams

What is the term for a baby’s attention to a new stimulus?
WRONG
habituation

What was the rationale for the expanded variety of birthing methods that began in the 1970s?
to encourage fathers to be present

to give parents more control

to enhance the emotional experience

CORRECT all of the above

The sequence of strongest contractions is
a period called transition.

Infants born prior to 38 weeks after conception are considered
Preterm

Four-month-old Nanette is staring dreamily at the mobile above her rocker seat. Chris wants to show her brother Jack how cute it is, so they quietly stand to the side and watch. When Jack sneezes, Nanette turns her head toward them and the spell is broken. The baby is demonstrating
sound localization.
133

Brooke and James have high-powered jobs. They hate to cook, so breakfast and dinner for them and four-year-old Nate come from some fast food spot. Nate never complains, but Brooke was horrified when the pediatrician said the boy is at risk for
undernutrition.
128

Jason is a wide receiver for a pro football team. When he stood his two-month old son LeRay on the floor and the boy began stomping, Jason cheered. He knew LeRay was going to be a champion. His wife told him to relax: it is only
the stepping reflex
122

Rachel spent several weeks in the hospital when she was first born. She learned to recognize and respond to the voices of several nurses who cared for her. When Rachel went home, her brain’s ability to recognize these voices faded with time through a process known as
synaptic pruning.
116

Don and Betty were overwhelmed for the first several weeks after they brought little Sally home from the hospital. But in time Sally seemed to be asleep and fussy and hungry at fairly predictable intervals, and they fell into step with her behavioral
rhythms.
118

By six months of age, most infants can move themselves in a direction of their choosing. What are they using to achieve this milestone?
gross motor skills
124

At what age are 90% of children capable of steady walking?
15 months
124

Which taste do infants prefer?
sweet
135

Children develop standard 20/20 vision by the time they are ___________ old.
6 months
132

Which of the following is not measured by the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale?
psychological control
126

The possible actions provided by a particular situation or stimulus are called
affordances.
136

Which principle states that growth occurs from the center of the body outward?
proximodistal
115

When does the greatest increase in height and weight occur?
between birth and 12 months of age
114

The receiving end of a neuron is the
dendrite
115

The nervous system is a complex web of communication. In fact, a single adult neuron will have a minimum of ___________ connections to other neurons and body parts
5,000
116

Which of the following shows ascending order for the average size of infants from each ethnic group?
Asian, Caucasian, African American
114

Robbie’s son Zack weighs 13 pounds. To get proper nutrition, about how many calories should Zack consume each day?
650
127

What is the benefit of reflexes emerging and disappearing on a regular timetable?
Deviations from the timetable offer cues about developmental problems
124

Which of the following does not have a protective function?
rooting reflex
123

The extensive growth and selective pruning of the brain in response to environmental experience is a result of its high degree of
plasticity.
117

Children develop at different rates. Some can perform a particular skill well at an early age, others show mastery of the skill late. The bulk of children fit the _________, with the level of performance and age fitting within an average range
norm
126

Although they don’t seem to do very much, infants have _____ primary behavioral states.
10
119

Sensation is _________________; perception is _________________.
a passive process; an active process
131

Navigating stairs requires learning to walk, learning to balance, and having visual depth perception. This milestone likely won’t be achieved until all three skills are present. This is an example of
dynamic systems theory.
125

The brain and related nerves develop at a different rate than the skeleton. This demonstrates the
principle of independence of systems.
115

What is one sensory-based approach to helping preterm infants gain weight?
regular massage
136

When does the entire body become sensitive to touch?
32 weeks after conception
136

The multimodal approach to perception focuses on how sensory input is
WRONG
assimilated.
136

Which principle would examine growth from the perspective of the trunk and extremities?
proximodistal principle
115

How long do neural connections in the body continue to be created?
throughout the course of life
116

Which reflex is the first to disappear?
WRONG
the Babinski reflex
ALSO WRONG
the stepping reflex
123

Megan’s pediatrician says that her son Troy is a bit underweight. She recommends that Troy consume 50 calories per day for each pound he weighs. Megan is shocked! This figure is _____ the recommended calorie intake for adults.
two times
127

Josie’s son Ian loves playing with his Busy Box, making the color wheel spin and pressing the buttons to make sounds and feeling the strange new textures. What is happening in Ian’s brain as he plays with the toy?
Synapses are pruned.

Individual neurons increase in size.

New connections are made between neurons.

Correct answer All of the above.
116

Johnetta and Alice recently celebrated their son Zack’s first birthday. He’s curious, active, and fun, and now that he’s one, from a sleep cycle perspective, they feel like they’re on vacation. Why?
.Zack sleeps through the night and needs 15 hours of sleep a day.
120

Charles and Rita love to watch their six-month-old son Paul get all “Einstein.” He will stare intently at an object, hold it, turn it over, taste it, toss it — all with a profound look of concentration. What is likely occurring?
WRONG
sensation
ALSO WRONG
autostimulation
131

Which of the following lists is in correct temporal order of development?
reflexes, gross motor skills, fine motor skills
124

A good rule of thumb for helping to support development of an infant’s nervous system is to
do activities that engage multiple senses.
118

Reflexes are
organized but involuntary responses to stimuli.

precursors to more advanced motor skills.

inborn physical skills.

Correct answer all of the above
122

What is generally associated with the introduction of solid food for an infant
weaning
130

How can researchers assess various infant states in response to stimuli?
by measuring brain wave patterns
118

What sensory process is a complement to binocular vision?
sound localization
133

What is the leading cause of death in children under 1 year old?
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
121

Which of the following is not considered an awake state for infants?
WRONG
fuss
119

Piaget examined infant cognitive development from a macro perspective; the information-processing approach
looks at cognitive development from a micro perspective.
149

According to Piaget, which of the following occurs when a child’s thinking changes based on her experiences?
accommodation
143

“Motherese” is an out-of-date term for
infant-directed speech.
162

According to information-processing theory, the act of placing information into memory is called
storage.
150

Restricting the use of a common word to one specific object is known as
underextension.
160

Substage 4 of the sensorimotor stage is marked by the emergence of __________, which is the ability to combine and coordinate schemes to generate a problem-solving act.
goal-directed behavior
145

Cognitive neuroscientists believe the brain’s memory capacity is divided into two systems:
explicit and implicit.
152

What is the term for one word used by an infant as substitution for an entire thought?
holophrase
159

On average, how much television does a two-year-old in the United States watch each day?
2 hours
141

Which of Piaget’s stages is focused on cognitive development in infants?
sensorimotor
143

When Ben tells his ten-month-old son George to “get your rain boots from the cubby,” George does just as he is told. The infant is demonstrating
linguistic comprehension.
157

Since she learned to string words together, baby Jessica has an opinion about everything and everyone. She’s always saying “I’m cold. Mommy pretty. Jess sleepy. That boy big.” Jessica has a preference for the ____________ style of language
expressive
161

April is in her highchair, not enjoying lunch. She drops some noodles on the floor, watches them splat, and laughs. Then she does it again and again, building a scheme about falling noodles through a process known as
circular reaction.
145

Five-year-old Brent loves to trick his baby sister Zoe by showing her a toy, then hiding it under a box. She thinks it disappears, and he laughs. But one day Zoe knocks over the box and grabs the toy. Game over, Brent! Zoe has discovered
object permanence.
145

When Magda brings her son Pavel to Nana’s house, she sets him near the birdcage. He watches them flap their wings and hears them sing. He loves the colors and is spooked by their claws. From an information-processing perspective, Pavel is beginning to understand the ______________ of birds.
concept
150

Which of the following would Piaget not consider a scheme in the sensorimotor period?
babbling a vowel sound repeatedly
144

Which of the following is not a morpheme?
the letter m
157

What strategy can you use to ensure a happy memory is never forgotten?
Recall the memory over and over again.
152

Robert Siegler’s “wave” theory of infant cognitive development is a response to criticism of Piaget’s emphasis on
formal stages of development.
148

A child who scores 110 on the Bayley Scales would be considered __________ in terms of development.
slightly above average
154

Which of the following lists the components of human information processing in correct order?
encoding, storage, retrieval
150

Which substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage is centered on unlearned, involuntary physical responses?
substage 1
144

When an infant says “Doggy out” meaning “I see the dog outside,” he is using
telegraphic speech.
160

If Jean Piaget designed a t-shirt for his theory on infant cognitive development, what would the slogan be?
Action = Knowledge.
142

The concept of “universal grammar” reflects a ____________ perspective on language development.
nativist
162

Which of the following is a factor in cognitive development according to Piaget’s theory?
motor skills

social interactions

physical maturation

Correct answer all of the above

A good way to describe Siegler’s “wave” theory of infant development would be
WRONG
“marching ever forward.”
ALSO WRONG
“stroll about randomly.”
148

Using a computer system analogy, Piaget’s cognitive schemes are like
WRONG
the CPU.
143

Robert Siegler’s “wave” theory of infant cognitive development is a response to criticism of Piaget’s emphasis on
formal stages of development.

Piaget’s cognitive theory focuses on how a child acts. Information-processing theories of cognitive development focus on
how much data a child has.
149

For an adult, which activity has the highest degree of automatization?
brushing one’s teeth
150

Sally laughed at her twin boys Eric and Seth. When she heard the garage door signaling her husband was home from work, Eric said “Daddy” and Seth said “soup.” These _________ make it clear where each boy’s priorities lie!
holophrases
159

Forty-year-old Joan swears that after she won the third grade spelling bee, her parents took her out for apple crisp ice cream. Her mother says they went right home, but that weekend dad brought apple crisp ice cream from the farm. What likely occurred?
The weekend ice cream was incorporated into Joan’s spelling bee memory.
152

Tina and Brad set up a gate at the top of the stairs so their son Mark wouldn’t fall. But the other day Brad caught him fiddling with the latch and he almost got the gate open. They need a new strategy quickly, because Mark is in the _______ sensorimotor substage.
WRONG
third
ALSO WRONG
fourth
146-147

According to Piaget’s sensorimotor substages, when are infants capable of representational thought?
WRONG
10 months
144

Which of the following is not a beneficial use of infant development tests?
getting a sense of the infant’s potential later in life
154

The integration of separate actions into coordinated activities marks the _____ substage of the sensorimotor period.
WRONG
third
144

The Bayley Scales of Infant Development focus on ______________ abilities.
mental and motor
154

Which of the following lists elements of language in ascending order of importance?
phonemes, morphemes, semantics
157

First-grader Claire has always been a good reader and has started writing complex stories. Her mother is a newspaper reporter and her father is an attorney. Both parents have read to Claire since the day she was born. Claire’s capabilities demonstrate the ______________ perspective on language development
WRONG
learning theory
162

According to Chomsky, a language-acquisition device is a(n)
neural network.
162

The coordination of several schemes into a single act to solve a problem is called
WRONG
multimodal proactive cognition.
145

We initially make sense of our world by _____________ information.
encoding
150

Substage 4 of the sensorimotor stage is marked by the emergence of __________, which is the ability to combine and coordinate schemes to generate a problem-solving act.
WRONG
multimodal scheme application
145

What milestone of the sensorimotor stage begins the transition to the preoperational stage?
the emergence of symbolic thought

Which perspective on the development of language is in step with the views of B.F. Skinner?
learning theory approach

An infant’s telegraphic sentences generally focus on
observations.

Human language is made up of basic sounds called
phonemes.

Parents learn quickly to expect the unexpected. Which statement best describes a child’s perspective in substage 5 of the sensorimotor period?
Explore the unexpected.

When an a parent and their young infant trade the same sound back and forth, they are engaged in
prelinguistic communication.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focuses on the ______ of children’s knowledge.
quality

We initially make sense of our world by _____________ information.
encoding

Which of the following is not a marker of the sixth sensorimotor substage?
the ability to conduct little “experiments” to test knowledge

What directly precedes a child’s formation of sentences?
WRONG
referential speech

The Bayley Scales and visual-recognition memory measurement are tools to assess infant
intelligence.

Cognitive neuroscientists believe that long-term memory is divided into two systems:
implicit and explicit.

What is the correct sequence in which people process information?
encoding, storage, retrieval

Piaget’s cognitive theory focuses on how a child acts. Information-processing theories of cognitive development focus on
how much data a child has.

Luke is a 225-pound professional rugby player who normally sounds like Darth Vader. Yet when he talks to his baby daughter Rae, his voice takes on a higher pitch and a sing-song quality. Why?
Luke is using infant-directed speech.

Adults are naturally inclined to speak this way to babies.

Rae prefers this type of speech.

all of the above

A child who loves her big sister’s bike and calls all vehicles “bike” is using
overextension.

The information-processing approach to cognitive development focuses on _________ key elements of cognition.
3

When does substage 1 of the sensorimotor period end?
at 4 weeks of age

Which sentence best describes the motivation behind a secondary circular reaction?
WRONG
“I try different things to see what happens.”

One criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is that
his concept of distinct development stages is too constrictive.

We often have memories from long ago that we know are accurate, only to discover that the reality of the situation is different from what we recall. How can this occur?
WRONG
The memory was implicit, not explicit

Zeb’s uncle John blows his nose like an elephant. After one of John’s recent visits, Diana laughed to see Zeb growling loudly into a tissue, showing off his capacity for
deferred imitation.

People use _____________ to initially record, store, and retrieve information.
memory

_________________ is the term for the high-pitched, sing-song voice used by adults when talking to babies.
Infant-directed speech

What is the primary element of cognitive development in Piaget’s theory?
WRONG
stages